Severely inadequate micronutrient intake among children 9-24 months in Nepal-The MAL-ED birth cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is high among infants and children in low- and middle income countries, but knowledge about nutrient adequacy across the complementary feeding period is limited. We investigated probability of adequacy (PA) of breast milk and complementary food combined and nutrient density adequacy (NDA) of complementary food and tracking of NDA over time among 229 children from 9-24 months of age in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Monthly, 24 h dietary recalls (16 in total) were performed and subgrouped into four 4-month time periods. Ten micronutrients (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 , folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc) were assessed. Nutrient density was defined as the amount of a nutrient in a child's complementary food per 100 kcal, whereas NDA was the nutrient density as percentage of the context specific desired nutrient density. Tracking of NDA was investigated using generalized estimating equations models. PA for B vitamins (except riboflavin), vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc (low absorption group) was very low (0% to 8%) at all time slots. Median (IQR) mean PA (of all 10 micronutrients) increased from 11% (9, 15) in the second to 21% (10, 35) in the last time slot. Median value for mean nutrient density adequacy of all micronutrients varied between 42% and 52%. Finally, tracking of NDA was low (correlation <0.30) or moderate (0.30-0.60) indicating poor association between the first and subsequent measurements of NDA. These findings raise grave concerns about micronutrient adequacy among young children in Nepal. Urgent interventions are needed.
Project description:Information on micronutrient adequacy of diets of rural Indonesian lactating women is lacking, despite their high nutrient requirements. This is of concern because deficits in micronutrient intakes may compromise the health of both mothers and infants. This study aimed to assess micronutrient adequacy and dietary diversity (DD) among rural lactating women and explore relationships between micronutrient adequacy, DD, and intakes of energy and food groups consumed. We measured in-home 12-h weighed food records and 12-h recalls over three non-consecutive days from 121 exclusively breastfeeding women at 2-5 months postpartum. Next, we calculated intakes of energy and 11 micronutrients and estimated probability of adequacy (PA) for usual intakes of 11 micronutrients for each women taking into account national fortification of wheat flour with thiamin, riboflavin, folate, zinc, and iron. We assessed DD from nine food groups consumed. Energy and macronutrient balance were within recommended ranges, yet population prevalence of adequacy was less than 50% for niacin, vitamins B6 and C, and less than 60% for calcium, vitamin B12 and vitamin A, all micronutrients not targeted by the national wheat flour fortification program. In contrast, population prevalence of adequacy for the fortified micronutrients was at least 60%, with iron and zinc attaining 79% and 97%, respectively. Overall mean population prevalence of micronutrient adequacy was 57% and mean (±SD) DD score was 4.3±1.2. Mean PAs, a composite measure based on individual PAs over 11 micronutrients, were strongly correlated with energy intakes and with DD scores. In the multivariate models with maternal education and wealth index as covariates, organ meats were the most important determinant of mean PA after controlling for energy intake. In conclusion, despite wheat flour fortification, lactating mothers remained at risk of multiple micronutrient inadequacies. Increasing intakes of animal source foods including organ meats, and fruits and vegetables should be considered.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To model the potential impact and equity impact of fortifying rice on nutritional adequacy of different subpopulations in Nepal. DESIGN:Using 24-h dietary recall data and a household consumption survey, we estimated: rice intakes; probability of adequacy (PA) of eight micronutrients commonly fortified in rice (vitamin A, niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamin (B12), thiamin (B1), folate (B9), Fe and Zn) plus riboflavin (B2), vitamin C and Ca and mean probability of adequacy (MPA) of these micronutrients. We modelled: no fortification; fortification of purchased rice, averaged across all households and in rice-buying households only. We compared adequacy increases between population subgroups. SETTING:(i) Dhanusha and Mahottari districts of Nepal (24-h recall) and (ii) all agro-ecological zones of Nepal (consumption data). PARTICIPANTS:(i) Pregnant women (n 128), mothers-in-law and male household heads; (ii) households (n 4360). RESULTS:Unfortified diets were especially inadequate in vitamins B12, A, B9, Zn and Fe. Fortification of purchased rice in rice-purchasing households increased PA > 0·9 for thiamin, niacin, B6, folate and Zn, but B12 and Fe remained inadequate even after fortification (PA range 0·3-0·9). Pregnant women's increases exceeded men's for thiamin, niacin, B6, folate and MPA; men had larger gains in vitamin A, B12 and Zn. Adequacy improved more in the hills (coefficient 0·08 (95 % CI 0·05, 0·10)) and mountains (coefficient 0·07 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·14)) but less in rural areas (coefficient -0·05 (95 % CI -0·09, -0·01)). CONCLUSIONS:Consumption of purchased fortified rice improves adequacy and gender equity of nutrient intake, especially in non-rice-growing areas.
Project description:Pregnant and lactating women in rural Niger are at high risk for inadequate intakes of multiple micronutrients. Thus, 24 h dietary recalls were conducted and analyzed for dietary intakes in this population (n = 202). Using linear programming analyses, micronutrient gaps in women's diets were identified, food-based recommendations (FBR) to improve dietary micronutrient adequacy were developed, and various supplementation strategies were modelled. Energy intakes were below estimated requirements, and, for most micronutrients, >50% of women were at risk of inadequate intakes. Linear programming analyses indicated it would be difficult to select a diet that achieved recommended dietary allowances for all but three (vitamin B?, iron and zinc) of 11 modeled micronutrients. Consumption of one additional meal per day, and adherence to the selected FBR (daily consumption of dark green leafy vegetables, fermented milk, millet, pulses, and vitamin A fortified oil), would result in a low percentage of women at risk of inadequate intakes for eight modeled micronutrients (vitamin A, riboflavin, thiamin, B6, folate, iron, zinc, and calcium). Because the promotion of realistic FBRs likely will not ensure that a low percentage of women are at risk of inadequate intakes for all modeled micronutrients, multiple micronutrient supplementation or provision of nutrient-dense foods should be prioritized.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that the dietary diversity of young Filipino children to be limited and that the prevalence of nutrient inadequacies is high. This study extends the current knowledge to examine the relationship between diet diversity and the probability of adequacy of micronutrients among Filipino schoolchildren (aged 6 to 12 years), by the wealth status and dwelling location. The dietary intake data were collected using a single 24-h recall from 6460 children in the Filipino National Nutrition Survey 2013. The diet diversity score (DDS) and the probability of adequacies (PA) of 11 micronutrients were calculated, and further stratified by socio-economic status (SES) and dwelling location. The diet diversity was generally low (mean DDS = 4 out of 9). Children from the lowest SES, and living in rural areas, tended to have a lower DDS. Children with a DDS of 1 were likely to be inadequate in all 11 micronutrients. The higher DDS (?6) was associated with higher PAs for the B vitamins but not for calcium, folate, iron, vitamin A and to large extent, vitamin C. This suggests that it was difficult for this population to achieve adequacy in these 5 micronutrients. More rigorous research on the topic is needed. Better access to nutrient-rich or fortified staple foods, in tandem with increased education on the importance of dietary diversity, are potential strategies to support children in achieving adequate micronutrient intakes.
Project description:Dietary diversity, an important component of diet quality, is associated with an increased probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Women of childbearing age (WCA) are particularly vulnerable to micronutrient inadequacy. The Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) has been used widely as a proxy measurement of micronutrient adequacy. This study aimed to assess the association between MDD-W and nutrients adequacy among WCA of eight Latin American countries. Nutrient intakes from 3704 WCA were analyzed with two 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary diversity was calculated based on ten food groups with a cut-off point of intake ?5 groups. The mean dietary diversity score was 4.72 points, and 57.7% of WCA achieved MDD-W. Vitamin D and E showed a mean Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) of 0.03 and 0.38, respectively. WCA with a diverse diet (MDD-W > 5) reported a significantly higher intake of most micronutrients and healthy food groups with less consumption of red and processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages. MDD-W was significantly associated with the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) of 18 micronutrients evaluated. Nevertheless, even those women with a diverse diet fell short of meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for vitamins D and E. MDD-W is an appropriate tool to evaluate micronutrients adequacy in WCA from Latin America, showing that women who achieved the MDD-W reported higher adequacy ratios for most micronutrients and an overall healthier diet.
Project description:Limited data is available on the micronutrient intake and adequacy in preschool children enrolled in family child care homes (FCCH). The goal of this paper is to describe the micronutrient adequacy relative to age-specific recommendations of preschool-aged children (aged 2-5 years) attending FCCH in Rhode Island (RI). Dietary data among younger preschoolers (aged 2-3 years), n = 245) and older preschoolers (aged 4-5 years), n = 121) in 118 RI FCCH (N = 366 children) were analyzed. Nutrient adequacy was assessed as the amount of nutrient per 1000 kcal of the diet that would meet the Institute of Medicine nutrient requirements (critical nutrient density), and it was compared to the observed nutrient densities of the children. The sodium:potassium ratio was also calculated. For most micronutrients, the observed density met or exceeded the recommendation, meaning the children's intake was adequate. However, a high proportion of children had nutrient densities under the recommendation for vitamins D, E, K, and potassium (86.1%, 89.1%, 70.8%, and 99.2% of children, respectively). The mean vitamin B12, potassium, and zinc densities were statistically higher in younger vs. older preschoolers (p < 0.05 for all). Low densities in calcium and vitamins K and B5 were more frequent in older children vs. younger children (p < 0.05). In addition, older preschoolers had a higher sodium:potassium ratio than younger children (p < 0.05). The micronutrient intake density was adequate for most nutrients. However, intake of some nutrients was of concern. Further attention to training and compliance in FCCH may improve the diet quality of those cared for in these settings.
Project description:Malnutrition is a major public health concern in the Philippines. Milk and dairy products are important sources of energy, protein, and micronutrients for normal growth and development in children. This study aims to assess the contribution of different types of milk to nutrient intakes and nutrient adequacy among young and preschool children in the Philippines. Filipino children aged one to four years (n = 2992) were analysed while using dietary intake data from the 8th National Nutrition Survey 2013. Children were stratified by age (one to two years and three to four years) and by milk beverage consumption type: young children milk (YCM) and preschool children milk (PCM), other milks (mostly powdered milk with different degrees of fortification of micronutrients), and non-dairy consumers (no milks or dairy products). The mean nutrient intakes and the odds of meeting nutrient adequacy by consumer groups were compared, percentage of children with inadequate intakes were calculated. Half (51%) of Filipino children (all ages) did not consume any dairy on a given day, 15% consumed YCM or PCM, and 34% consumed other milks. Among children one to two years, those who consumed YCM had higher mean intakes of iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, B vitamins, folate, and vitamins C, D, and E (all p < 0.001) when compared to other milk consumers. Non-dairy consumers had mean intakes of energy, total fat, fibre, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc, folate, and vitamins D and E that were far below the recommendations. Children who consumed YCM or PCM had the highest odds in meeting adequacy of iron, zinc, thiamin, vitamin B6, folate, and vitamins C, D, and E as compared to other milks or non-dairy consumers, after adjusting for covariates. This study supports the hypothesis that dairy consumers had higher intakes of micronutrients and higher nutrient adequacy than children who consumed no milk or dairy products. Secondly, YCM or PCM have demonstrated to be good dairy options to achieve nutrient adequacy in Filipino children.
Project description:Biodiversity is key for human and environmental health. Available dietary and ecological indicators are not designed to assess the intricate relationship between food biodiversity and diet quality. We applied biodiversity indicators to dietary intake data from and assessed associations with diet quality of women and young children. Data from 24-hour diet recalls (55% in the wet season) of n = 6,226 participants (34% women) in rural areas from seven low- and middle-income countries were analyzed. Mean adequacies of vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, calcium, iron, and zinc and diet diversity score (DDS) were used to assess diet quality. Associations of biodiversity indicators with nutrient adequacy were quantified using multilevel models, receiver operating characteristic curves, and test sensitivity and specificity. A total of 234 different species were consumed, of which <30% were consumed in more than one country. Nine species were consumed in all countries and provided, on average, 61% of total energy intake and a significant contribution of micronutrients in the wet season. Compared with Simpson's index of diversity and functional diversity, species richness (SR) showed stronger associations and better diagnostic properties with micronutrient adequacy. For every additional species consumed, dietary nutrient adequacy increased by 0.03 (P < 0.001). Diets with higher nutrient adequacy were mostly obtained when both SR and DDS were maximal. Adding SR to the minimum cutoff for minimum diet diversity improved the ability to detect diets with higher micronutrient adequacy in women but not in children. Dietary SR is recommended as the most appropriate measure of food biodiversity in diets.
Project description:B-vitamin deficiency is common in ageing populations either due to altered dietary habits or altered digestive and metabolic functions. There is limited data on the acute circulating concentrations of B-vitamins and their various forms (vitamers), following ingestion of realistic meals. This study compared the acute circulating B-vitamin and vitamer responses to either an energy-dense (ED) or a nutrient-dense (ND) breakfast meal, consumed in a randomized cross-over sequence, in older and younger adults (n = 15 and 15, aged 67.3 ± 1.5 and 22.7 ± 0.5 years (mean ± SEM), respectively). Eleven differing B-vitamins and vitamers were determined in plasma samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in the fasting and postprandial state (hourly for 5 h). While postprandial thiamine concentration increased following both meals, riboflavin increased only following a ND meal in both age groups. Many vitamins including nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal-5'phosphate, and 4-pyridoxic acid remained unaltered, and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), nicotinamide and nicotinuric acid concentrations reduced following both meals. Biological age and food composition had minimal impact on postprandial B-vitamin concentrations, yet the differences between the ED and ND meals for riboflavin highlight the importance of riboflavin intake to achieve adequacy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Comprehensive assessment of dietary intakes of foods and nutrients in Filipino adults are lacking. This study evaluated energy and nutrient intakes and food sources of key nutrients consumed by Filipino adults. METHODS:The participants were from the 2013 National Nutrition Survey wherein food intake of young adults aged 19-49 years (n = 12,896) and older adults aged 50 years and above (n = 7853) were collected using 24-h recalls. Usual nutrient intakes were estimated using PC-SIDE program. The Philippines Dietary Reference Intakes were used to calculate proportions of inadequate intake using Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR). Energy adequacy was evaluated using the Institute of Medicine (IOM) equation for Estimated Energy Requirements (EER). RESULTS:The nutrient intakes with the highest prevalence of inadequacy (> 50%) were: iron (97-99%), vitamin C (96-98%), calcium (95-98%), riboflavin (86-91%), folate (89-90%), thiamine (73-89%), energy (67-70%), total fat (55-67%), and vitamin A (54-56%). Refined rice, pork and breads contributed most to daily intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrates, thiamine, riboflavin, and iron. Low intake of vegetables, fruits and dairy was common in both age groups. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated that intakes of many nutrients were markedly inadequate among adults in the Philippines, due to the rice-dominant dietary pattern with few nutrient-dense foods. These results can be used to support the development of specific interventions to improve the shortfalls in nutrient intakes.