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Severely inadequate micronutrient intake among children 9-24 months in Nepal-The MAL-ED birth cohort study.


ABSTRACT: Prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is high among infants and children in low- and middle income countries, but knowledge about nutrient adequacy across the complementary feeding period is limited. We investigated probability of adequacy (PA) of breast milk and complementary food combined and nutrient density adequacy (NDA) of complementary food and tracking of NDA over time among 229 children from 9-24 months of age in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Monthly, 24 h dietary recalls (16 in total) were performed and subgrouped into four 4-month time periods. Ten micronutrients (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 , folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc) were assessed. Nutrient density was defined as the amount of a nutrient in a child's complementary food per 100 kcal, whereas NDA was the nutrient density as percentage of the context specific desired nutrient density. Tracking of NDA was investigated using generalized estimating equations models. PA for B vitamins (except riboflavin), vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc (low absorption group) was very low (0% to 8%) at all time slots. Median (IQR) mean PA (of all 10 micronutrients) increased from 11% (9, 15) in the second to 21% (10, 35) in the last time slot. Median value for mean nutrient density adequacy of all micronutrients varied between 42% and 52%. Finally, tracking of NDA was low (correlation <0.30) or moderate (0.30-0.60) indicating poor association between the first and subsequent measurements of NDA. These findings raise grave concerns about micronutrient adequacy among young children in Nepal. Urgent interventions are needed.

SUBMITTER: Morseth MS 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6866178 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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