A recombinase polymerase amplification-lateral flow dipstick assay for rapid detection of the quarantine citrus pathogen in China, Phytophthora hibernalis.
ABSTRACT: Phytophthora hibernalis, the causal agent of brown rot of citrus fruit, is an important worldwide pathogen and a quarantine pest in China. Current diagnosis of the disease relies on disease symptoms, pathogen isolation and identification by DNA sequencing. However, symptoms caused by P. hibernalis can be confused with those by other Phytophthora and fungal species. Moreover, pathogen isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing are time-consuming. In this study, a rapid assay including 20-min recombinase polymerase amplification targeting the Ypt1 gene and 5-min visualization using lateral flow dipsticks was developed for detecting P. hibernalis. This assay was able to detect 0.2 ng of P. hibernalis genomic DNA in a 50-µL reaction system. It was specific to P. hibernalis without detection of other tested species including P. citrophthora, P. nicotianae, P. palmivora and P. syringae, four other important citrus pathogens. Using this assay, P. hibernalis was also detected from artificially inoculated orange fruits. Results in this study indicated that this assay has the potential application to detect P. hibernalis at diagnostic laboratories and plant quarantine departments of customs, especially under time- and resource-limited conditions.
Project description:The microbiome associated with crop plants has a strong impact on their health and productivity. <i>Candidatus</i> Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the bacterial pathogen responsible for Huanglongbing (HLB) disease, lives inside the phloem of citrus plants including the root system. It has been suggested that Las negatively affects citrus microbiome. On the other hand, members of citrus microbiome also influence the interaction between Las and citrus. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of multiple putative beneficial bacteria from healthy citrus rhizosphere. Firstly, six bacterial strains showing antibacterial activity against two bacteria closely related to Las: <i>Agrobacterium tumefaciens</i> and <i>Sinorhizobium meliloti</i> were selected. Among them, <i>Burkholderia metallica</i> strain A53 and <i>Burkholderia territorii</i> strain A63 are within the ?-proteobacteria class, whereas <i>Pseudomonas granadensis</i> strain 100 and <i>Pseudomonas geniculata</i> strain 95 are within the ?-proteobacteria class. Additionally, two gram-positive bacteria <i>Rhodococcus jialingiae</i> strain 108 and <i>Bacillus pumilus</i> strain 104 were also identified. Secondly, antimicrobial activity against three fungal pathogens: <i>Alternaria alternata</i>, <i>Colletotrichum acutatum</i>, <i>Phyllosticta citricarpa</i>, and two oomycetes: <i>Phytophthora nicotianae</i> and <i>Phytophthora palmivora.</i> Four bacterial strains <i>Burkholderia territorii</i> A63, <i>Burkholderia metallica</i> A53, <i>Pseudomonas geniculata</i> 95, and <i>Bacillus pumilus</i> 104 were shown to have antagonistic activity against the citrus root pathogen <i>Phytophthora nicotianae</i> based on dual culture antagonist assays and compartmentalized petri dish assays. The four selected bacteria were sequenced. Genes involved in phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and iron acquisition, volatile organic compound production, osmoprotection and osmotic tolerance, phytohormone production, antagonism, and nutrient competition were predicted and discussed related to the beneficial traits.
Project description:Early and accurate detection of the causal pathogen Phytophthora sojae is crucial for effective prevention and control of root and stem rot and seedling damping-off of soybean. In the present study, a novel isothermal amplification assay was developed for detecting P. sojae. This 25 min assay included a two-step approach. First, a pair of novel primers, PSYPT-F and PSYPT-R were used to amplify a specific fragment of the Ypt1 gene of P. sojae in a 20 min recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) step. Second, lateral flow dipsticks (LFD) were used to detect and visualize RPA amplicons of P. sojae within 5 min. This RPA-LFD assay was specific to P. sojae. It yielded negative detection results against 24 other Phytophthora, one Globisporangium, and 14 fungal species. It was also found to be sensitive, detecting as low as 10 pg of P. sojae genomic DNA in a 50-?L reaction. Furthermore, P. sojae was detected from artificially inoculated hypocotyls of soybean seedlings using this novel assay. In a comparative evaluation using 130 soybean rhizosphere samples, this novel assay consistently detected P. sojae in 55.4% of samples, higher than other three methods, including loop-mediated isothermal amplification (54.6%), conventional PCR (46.9%), and leaf-disc baiting (38.5-40.0%). Results in this study indicated that this rapid, specific, and sensitive RPA-LFD assay has potentially significant applications to diagnosing Phytophthora root and stem rot and damp-off of soybean, especially under time- and resource-limited conditions.
Project description:Thailand is one of the largest citrus producers in Southeast Asia. Pathogenic infection by Phytophthora, however, has become one of major impediments to production. This study identified a pathogenic oomycete isolated from rotted roots of pomelo (Citrus maxima) in Thailand as Phytophthora nicotianae by the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Then, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of Chaetomium globosum, Chaetomium lucknowense, Chaetomium cupreum and their crude extracts as biological control agents in controlling this P. nicotianae strain. Represent as antagonists in biculture test, the tested Chaetomium species inhibited mycelial growth by 50~56% and parasitized the hyphae, resulting in degradation of P. nicotianae mycelia after 30 days. The crude extracts of these Chaetomium species exhibited antifungal activities against mycelial growth of P. nicotianae, with effective doses of 2.6~101.4 µg/mL. Under greenhouse conditions, application of spores and methanol extracts of these Chaetomium species to pomelo seedlings inoculated with P. nicotianae reduced root rot by 66~71% and increased plant weight by 72~85% compared to that in the control. The method of application of antagonistic spores to control the disease was simple and economical, and it may thus be applicable for large-scale, highly effective biological control of this pathogen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plant-pathogenic oomycetes are responsible for economically important losses in crops worldwide. Phytophthora palmivora, a tropical relative of the potato late blight pathogen, causes rotting diseases in many tropical crops including papaya, cocoa, oil palm, black pepper, rubber, coconut, durian, mango, cassava and citrus. Transcriptomics have helped to identify repertoires of host-translocated microbial effector proteins which counteract defenses and reprogram the host in support of infection. As such, these studies have helped in understanding how pathogens cause diseases. Despite the importance of P. palmivora diseases, genetic resources to allow for disease resistance breeding and identification of microbial effectors are scarce. RESULTS:We employed the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana to study the P. palmivora root infections at the cellular and molecular levels. Time-resolved dual transcriptomics revealed different pathogen and host transcriptome dynamics. De novo assembly of P. palmivora transcriptome and semi-automated prediction and annotation of the secretome enabled robust identification of conserved infection-promoting effectors. We show that one of them, REX3, suppresses plant secretion processes. In a survey for early transcriptionally activated plant genes we identified a N. benthamiana gene specifically induced at infected root tips that encodes a peptide with danger-associated molecular features. CONCLUSIONS:These results constitute a major advance in our understanding of P. palmivora diseases and establish extensive resources for P. palmivora pathogenomics, effector-aided resistance breeding and the generation of induced resistance to Phytophthora root infections. Furthermore, our approach to find infection-relevant secreted genes is transferable to other pathogen-host interactions and not restricted to plants.
Project description:Phytophthora nicotianae and P. cactorum cause Phytophthora rot of strawberry. A duplex real-time PCR technique for simultaneous detection and quantification of the two pathogens was developed. Species-specific primers for P. nicotianae and P. cactorum were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of rDNA and the ras-related protein gene Ypt1, respectively. TaqMan probes were labeled with FAM for P. nicotianae and HEX for P. cactorum. Specificities were demonstrated using 52 isolates, including various soil-borne pathogens. Sensitivities for P. nicotianae and P. cactorum DNAs were 10 fg and 1 pg, respectively. The technique was applied to naturally infested soil and root samples; the two pathogens were detected and the target DNA concentrations were quantified. Significant correlations of DNA quantities in roots and the surrounding soils were found. The minimum soil DNA concentration predicting the development of disease symptoms was estimated as 20 pg (g soil)(-1). In three strawberry greenhouses examined, the target DNA concentrations ranged from 1 to 1,655 pg (g soil)(-1) for P. nicotianae and from 13 to 233 pg (g soil)(-1) for P. cactorum. The method proved fast and reliable, and provides a useful tool to monitor P. nicotianae and P. cactorum in plants or soils.
Project description:Purpose: Investigate genes associated with Phn7.1, a major QTL influencing partial resistance to the soil-borne pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae in tobacco. Methods: Resistant and susceptible tobacco near isogenic lines with and without Phn7.1 QTL were subjected to the inoculation with Phytophthora nicotianae suspension and suspension buffer without pathogen as control followed by sample collection at 42 hour past inoculation for RNA-seq analysis. Results: Revealed gene expression profiles associated disease resistance and susceptiblilty. Overall design: Tobacco Hicks near isogenic lines with and without Phn7.1 QTL were inoculated with Phytophthora nicotianae race 0 suspension and suspension buffer without pathogen as control. The root treated 42 hours post inoculation were used for RNA purificaton and RNAseq sequencing.
Project description:Phytophthora palmivora is a destructive oomycete plant pathogen with a wide host range. So far, little is known about the factors governing its infection structure development and pathogenicity. From the culture filtrate of a P. palmivora strain isolated from papaya, we identified a secreted glycoprotein of 15?kDa, designated as Ppal15kDa, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Two gene variants, Ppal15kDaA and Ppal15kDaB were amplified from a P. palmivora papaya isolate. Transient expression of both variants in Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfiltration enhanced P. palmivora infection. Six Ppal15kDa mutants with diverse mutations were generated via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing. All mutants were compromised in infectivity on N. benthamiana and papaya. Two mutants with all Ppal15kDa copies mutated almost completely lost pathogenicity. The pathogenicity of the other four containing at least one wild-type copy of Ppal15kDa was compromised at varying levels. The mutants were also affected in development as they produced smaller sporangia, shorter germ tubes, and fewer appressoria. The affected levels in development corresponded to the levels of reduction in pathogenicity, suggesting that Ppal15kDa plays an important role in normal development of P. palmivora infection structures. Consistent with its role in infection structure development and pathogenicity, Ppal15kDa was found to be highly induced during appressorium formation. In addition, Ppal15kDa homologs are broadly present in Phytophthora spp., but none were characterized. Altogether, this study identified a novel component involved in development and pathogenicity of P. palmivora and possibly other Phytophthora spp. known to contain a Ppal15kDa homolog.
Project description:Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora are oomycete pathogens that cause black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the most economically important disease on cacao globally. While P. palmivora is a cosmopolitan pathogen, P. megakarya, which is more aggressive on cacao than P. palmivora, has been reported only in West and Central Africa where it has been spreading and devastating cacao farms since the 1950s. In this study, we reconstructed the complete diploid genomes of multiple isolates of both species using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Thirty-one additional genotypes were sequenced to analyze inter- and intra-species genomic diversity. The P. megakarya genome is exceptionally large (222 Mbp) and nearly twice the size of P. palmivora (135 Mbp) and most known Phytophthora species (?100 Mbp on average). Previous reports pointed toward a whole-genome duplication (WGD) in P. palmivora In this study, we demonstrate that both species underwent independent and relatively recent WGD events. In P. megakarya we identified a unique combination of WGD and large-scale transposable element driven genome expansion, which places this genome in the upper range of Phytophthora genome sizes, as well as effector pools with 1,382 predicted RxLR effectors. Finally, this study provides evidence of adaptive evolution of effectors like RxLRs and Crinklers, and discusses the implications of effector expansion and diversification.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Oomycetes are pathogens of mammals, fish, insects and plants, and the potato late blight agent Phytophthora infestans and the oil palm and cocoa infecting pathogen Phytophthora palmivora cause economically impacting diseases on a wide range of crop plants. Increasing genomic and transcriptomic resources and recent advances in oomycete biology demand new strategies for genetic modification of oomycetes. Most oomycete transformation procedures rely on geneticin-based selection of transgenic strains. RESULTS:We established N-acetyltransferase AAC(3)-I as a gentamicin-based selectable marker for oomycete transformation without interference with existing geneticin resistance. Strains carrying gentamicin resistance are fully infectious in plants. We further demonstrate the usefulness of this new antibiotic selection to super-transform well-characterized, already fluorescently-labelled P. palmivora strains and provide a comprehensive protocol for maintenance and zoospore electro-transformation of Phytophthora strains to aid in plant-pathogen research. CONCLUSIONS:N-acetyltransferase AAC(3)-I is functional in Phytophthora oomycetes. In addition, the substrate specificity of the AAC(3)-I enzyme allows for re-transformation of geneticin-resistant strains. Our findings and resources widen the possibilities to study oomycete cell biology and plant-oomycete interactions.
Project description:Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan (Phytophthora parasitica Dastur) causes severe damage to citrus crops worldwide. A population of citrandarins was created from the cross between the susceptible parent Citrus sunki Hort. Ex Tan. and the resistant parent Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. cv. Rubidoux, both parents and two reference rootstocks (Rangpur lime and Swingle citrumelo) were grafted in a greenhouse on Rangpur lime. Inoculations were performed at 10 cm and 15 cm above the grafting region and the resulting lesions were evaluated by measuring the lesion length 60 days after inoculation. As control, non-inoculated plants of each genotype were used. In addition, we evaluated the expression of 19 candidate genes involved in citrus defense response 48 h after pathogen infection by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR). We mapped genomic regions of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) and Expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTLs) associated with resistance to P. parasitica in the linkage groups (LGs) of the previously constructed maps of C. sunki and P. trifoliata.We found disease severity differences among the generated hybrids, with lesion lengths varying from 1.15 to 11.13 mm. The heritability of the character was 65%. These results indicate that there is a great possibility of success in the selection of resistant hybrids within this experiment. The analysis of gene expression profile demonstrated a great variation of responses regarding the activation of plant defense pathways, indicating that citrandarins have several defense strategies to control oomycete infection. The information of the phenotypic and gene expression data made possible to detect genomic regions associated with resistance. Three QTLs and 84 eQTLs were detected in the linkage map of P. trifoliata, while one QTL and 110 eQTLs were detected in C. sunki.This is the first study to use eQTLs mapping in the Phytophthora-citrus interaction. Our results from the QTLs and eQTLs mapping allow us to conclude that the resistance of some citrandarins to the infection by P. parasitica is due to a favorable combination of QTLs and eQTLs transmitted by both parents.