RAG-Mediated DNA Breaks Attenuate PU.1 Activity in Early B Cells through Activation of a SPIC-BCLAF1 Complex.
ABSTRACT: Early B cell development is regulated by stage-specific transcription factors. PU.1, an ETS-family transcription factor, is essential for coordination of early B cell maturation and immunoglobulin gene (Ig) rearrangement. Here we show that RAG DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated during Ig light chain gene (Igl) rearrangement in pre-B cells induce global changes in PU.1 chromatin binding. RAG DSBs activate a SPIC/BCLAF1 transcription factor complex that displaces PU.1 throughout the genome and regulates broad transcriptional changes. SPIC recruits BCLAF1 to gene-regulatory elements that control expression of key B cell developmental genes. The SPIC/BCLAF1 complex suppresses expression of the SYK tyrosine kinase and enforces the transition from large to small pre-B cells. These studies reveal that RAG DSBs direct genome-wide changes in ETS transcription factor activity to promote early B cell development.
Project description:H2AX, a histone H2A variant, has a key role in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). H2AX senses DSBs through rapid serine 139 phosphorylation, concurrently leading to the formation of phospho-(?)H2AX foci with various proteins. However, in the cells with different sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs, still incomplete are those specific proteins selectively recruited by ?H2AX to decide different cell fates. Because the abundance of ?H2AX indicates the extent of DSBs, we first identified IR-induced dose-dependent H2AX-interacting partners and found that Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 (BCLAF1/Btf) showed enhanced association with ?H2AX only under high-dose radiation. In acutely irradiated cells, BCLAF1 promoted apoptosis of irreparable cells through disturbing p21-mediated inhibition of Caspase/cyclin E-dependent, mitochondrial-mediated pathways. Meanwhile, BCLAF1 co-localized with ?H2AX foci in nuclei and stabilized the Ku70/DNA-PKcs complex therein, facilitating non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-based DSB repair in surviving cells. In tumor cells, BCLAF1 was intrinsically suppressed, leading to formation of anti-apoptotic Ku70-Bax complexes and disruption of Ku70/DNA-PKcs complexes, all of which contribute to tumor-associated apoptotic resistance and cell survival with defective NHEJ DNA repair. For the first time, our studies reveal that, based on the extent of DNA damage, BCLAF1 is involved in the ?H2AX-mediated regulation of apoptosis and DNA repair, and is a ?H2AX-interacting tumor suppressor.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) activate a canonical DNA damage response, including highly conserved cell cycle checkpoint pathways that prevent cells with DSBs from progressing through the cell cycle. In developing B cells, pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signals initiate immunoglobulin light (Igl) chain gene assembly, leading to RAG-mediated DNA DSBs. The pre-BCR also promotes cell cycle entry, which could cause aberrant DSB repair and genome instability in pre-B cells. Here, we show that RAG DSBs inhibit pre-BCR signals through the ATM- and NF-?B2-dependent induction of SPIC, a hematopoietic-specific transcriptional repressor. SPIC inhibits expression of the SYK tyrosine kinase and BLNK adaptor, resulting in suppression of pre-BCR signaling. This regulatory circuit prevents the pre-BCR from inducing additional Igl chain gene rearrangements and driving pre-B cells with RAG DSBs into cycle. We propose that pre-B cells toggle between pre-BCR signals and a RAG DSB-dependent checkpoint to maintain genome stability while iteratively assembling Igl chain genes.
Project description:Mammalian cells have evolved a common DNA damage response (DDR) that sustains cellular function, maintains genomic integrity, and suppresses malignant transformation. In pre-B cells, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced at Ig? loci by the Rag1/Rag2 (RAG) endonuclease engage this DDR to modulate transcription of genes that regulate lymphocyte-specific processes. We previously reported that RAG DSBs induced at one Ig? allele signal through the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase to feedback-inhibit RAG expression and RAG cleavage of the other Ig? allele. In this article, we show that DSBs induced by ionizing radiation, etoposide, or bleomycin suppress Rag1 and Rag2 mRNA levels in primary pre-B cells, pro-B cells, and pro-T cells, indicating that inhibition of Rag1 and Rag2 expression is a prevalent DSB response among immature lymphocytes. DSBs induced in pre-B cells signal rapid transcriptional repression of Rag1 and Rag2, causing downregulation of both Rag1 and Rag2 mRNA, but only Rag1 protein. This transcriptional inhibition requires the ATM kinase and the NF-?B essential modulator protein, implicating a role for ATM-mediated activation of canonical NF-?B transcription factors. Finally, we demonstrate that DSBs induced in pre-B cells by etoposide or bleomycin inhibit recombination of Ig? loci and a chromosomally integrated substrate. Our data indicate that immature lymphocytes exploit a common DDR signaling pathway to limit DSBs at multiple genomic locations within developmental stages wherein monoallelic Ag receptor locus recombination is enforced. We discuss the implications of our findings for mechanisms that orchestrate the differentiation of monospecific lymphocytes while suppressing oncogenic Ag receptor locus translocations.
Project description:Treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains challenging due to frequent recurrence and the development of resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The mechanism underlying NSCLC chemoresistance remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells and it found that the expression of Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 (BCLAF1) was higher in the A549 cell line with cisplatin resistance (A549/DDP) by western blotting and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR, suggesting that elevated BCLAF1 expression is associated with acquired cisplatin resistance in A549 cells. BCLAF1 was found to promote DNA damage repair in A549/DDP cells by regulating ?H2A histone family member X foci formation by immunofluorescence and western blotting. BCLAF1 was also demonstrated to regulate ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 mRNA expression in A549/DDP cells, in addition to regulating G1 phase arrest by targeting p21 expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that BCLAF1 mediates cisplatin resistance by regulating the repair of DNA damage and p21-mediated G1 phase arrest.
Project description:The development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) depends on their local microenvironment and the induction of neovascularization is a decisive step in tumor progression, since the growth of solid tumors is limited by nutrient and oxygen supply. Hypoxia is the critical factor that induces transcription of the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) encoding gene HIF1A and HIF-1α protein accumulation to promote angiogenesis. However, the basis for the transcriptional regulation of HIF1A expression in HCC is still unclear. Here, we show that Bclaf1 levels are highly correlated with HIF-1α levels in HCC tissues, and that knockdown of Bclaf1 in HCC cell lines significantly reduces hypoxia-induced HIF1A expression. Furthermore, we found that Bclaf1 promotes HIF1A transcription via its bZIP domain, leading subsequently to increased transcription of the HIF-1α downstream targets VEGFA, TGFB, and EPO that in turn promote HCC-associated angiogenesis and thus survival and thriving of HCC cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that HIF-1α levels and microvessel density decrease after the shRNA-mediated Bclaf1 knockdown in xenograft tumors. Finally, we found that Bclaf1 levels increase in hypoxia in a HIF-1α dependent manner. Therefore, our study identifies Bclaf1 as a novel positive regulator of HIF-1α in the hypoxic microenvironment, providing new incentives for promoting Bcalf1 as a potential therapeutic target for an anti-HCC strategy.
Project description:Deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms, including microRNA, contributes to leukemogenesis and drug resistance by interfering with cancer-specific molecular pathways. Here, we show that the balance between miR-194-5p and its newly discovered target BCL2-associated transcription factor 1 (BCLAF1) regulates differentiation and survival of normal hematopoietic progenitors. In acute myeloid leukemias this balance is perturbed, locking cells into an immature, potentially 'immortal' state. Enhanced expression of miR-194-5p by treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA or by exogenous miR-194-5p expression re-sensitizes cells to differentiation and apoptosis by inducing BCLAF1 to shuttle between nucleus and cytosol. miR-194-5p/BCLAF1 balance was found commonly deregulated in 60 primary acute myeloid leukemia patients and was largely restored by ex vivo SAHA treatment. Our findings link treatment responsiveness to re-instatement of miR-194-5p/BCLAF1 balance.
Project description:Type I interferon response plays a prominent role against viral infection, which is frequently disrupted by viruses. Here, we report Bcl-2 associated transcription factor 1 (Bclaf1) is degraded during the alphaherpesvirus Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections through the viral protein US3. We further reveal that Bclaf1 functions critically in type I interferon signaling. Knockdown or knockout of Bclaf1 in cells significantly impairs interferon-? (IFN?) -mediated gene transcription and viral inhibition against US3 deficient PRV and HSV-1. Mechanistically, Bclaf1 maintains a mechanism allowing STAT1 and STAT2 to be efficiently phosphorylated in response to IFN?, and more importantly, facilitates IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) binding with IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) for efficient gene transcription by directly interacting with ISRE and STAT2. Our studies establish the importance of Bclaf1 in IFN?-induced antiviral immunity and in the control of viral infections.
Project description:Pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signals initiate immunoglobulin light (Igl) chain gene assembly leading to RAG-mediated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). These signals also promote cell cycle entry, which could cause aberrant DSB repair and genome instability in pre-B cells. Here we show that RAG DSBs inhibit pre-BCR signals through the ATM- and NF-κB2-dependent induction of SPIC, a hematopoietic-specific transcriptional repressor. SPIC inhibits expression of the SYK tyrosine kinase and BLNK adaptor to prevent the pre-BCR from inducing additional Igl chain gene rearrangements and driving pre-B cells with RAG DSBs into cycle. We propose that pre-B cells toggle between pre-BCR signals and this RAG DSB-dependent checkpoint to maintain genome stability while iteratively assembling Igl chain genes. Overall design: Three independent IL-7 cultures for each genotype (Rag1-/-:μIgH:Bcl2, Art-/-:μIgH:Bcl2 and Art-/-:Nfkb2-/-:μIgH:Bcl2) were withdrawn from IL-7 for 2 days. RNA was isolated using RNeasy (Qiagen). Gene expression profiling was performed using Illumina MouseRef-8 expression microarrays.
Project description:Inducing senescence in cancer cells is an effective approach to suppress cancer growth, and it contributes significantly to the efficacy of therapeutic drugs. Previous studies indicated that transcription factors NF-?B (nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-?) play a critical role in the establishment of senescence by upregulating proinflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). However, it is not clear how these two factors are activated in response to senescence-inducing stimuli and subsequently regulate gene transcription. Here, we reveal Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 (Bclaf1) as a novel player in the therapeutic drug doxorubicin-induced senescence (TIS) in multiple cancer cells. Bclaf1 is upregulated through the ATM/Nemo/NF-?B pathway during TIS and is a direct target of p65 and c-Rel. The induction of Bclaf1 by NF-?B is essential for C/EBP? upregulation and IL-6/IL-8 transcription during TIS. Bclaf1 can interact with the leucine zipper region of C/EBP? and cooperate with C/EBP? to upregulate IL-8. Furthermore, we show that Bclaf1 is required for the effectiveness of doxorubicin (Dox) treatment-induced tumor suppression in a xenograft tumor model. These finding suggest that Bclaf1 plays a crucial role in transducing the senescence-inducing signal from NF-?B to C/EBP? during TIS, thus amplifying the signals for the establishment of senescence. Given the recent revelation that Bclaf1 is involved in tumorigenesis, our data indicate that the responsiveness of Bclaf1 to NF-?B may determine the effectiveness of therapeutic drugs.
Project description:Stage-specific rearrangement of Ig H and L chain genes poses an enigma because both processes use the same recombinatorial machinery, but the H chain locus is accessible at the pro-B cell stage, whereas the L chain loci become accessible at the pre-B cell stage. Transcription factor STAT5 is a positive-acting factor for rearrangement of distal V(H) genes, but attenuation of IL-7 signaling and loss of activated STAT5 at the pre-B cell stage corresponds with Ig? locus accessibility and rearrangement, suggesting that STAT5 plays an inhibitory role at this locus. Indeed, loss of IL-7 signaling correlates with increased activity at the Ig? intron enhancer. However, the ?E3' enhancer must also be regulated as this enhancer plays a role in Ig? rearrangement. We show in this study that STAT5 can repress ?E3' enhancer activity. We find that STAT5 binds to a site that overlaps the ?E3' PU.1 binding site. We observed reciprocal binding by STAT5 and PU.1 to the ?E3' enhancer in primary bone marrow cells, STAT5 and PU.1 retrovirally transduced pro-B cell lines, or embryonic stem cells induced to differentiate into B lineage cells. Binding by STAT5 corresponded with low occupancy of other enhancer binding proteins, whereas PU.1 binding corresponded with recruitment of IRF4 and E2A to the ?E3' enhancer. We also find that IRF4 expression can override the repressive activity of STAT5. We propose a novel PU.1/STAT5 displacement model during B cell development, and this, coupled with increased IRF4 and E2A activity, regulates ?E3' enhancer function.