Influence of coherence between multiple cortical columns on alpha rhythm: a computational modeling study.
ABSTRACT: In electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals, stimulus-induced amplitude increase and decrease in the alpha rhythm, known as event-related synchronization and desynchronization (ERS/ERD), emerge after a task onset. ERS/ERD is assumed to reflect neural processes relevant to cognitive tasks. Previous studies suggest that several sources of alpha rhythm, each of which can serve as an alpha rhythm generator, exist in the cortex. Since EEG/MEG signals represent spatially summed neural activities, ERS/ERD of the alpha rhythm may reflect the consequence of the interactions between multiple alpha rhythm generators. Two candidates modulate the magnitude of ERS/ERD: (1) coherence between the activities of the alpha rhythm generators and (2) mean amplitude of the activities of the alpha rhythm generators. In this study, we use a computational model of multiple alpha rhythm generators to determine the factor that dominantly causes ERS/ERD. Each alpha rhythm generator is modeled based on local column circuits in the primary visual cortex and made to interact with the neighboring generators through excitatory connections. We observe that the model consistently reproduces spontaneous alpha rhythms, event-related potentials, phase-locked alpha rhythms, and ERS/ERD in a specific range of connectivity coefficients. Independent analyses of the coherence and amplitude of multiple alpha rhythm generators reveal that the ERS/ERD in the simulated data is dominantly caused by stimulus-induced changes in the coherence between multiple alpha rhythm generators. Nonlinear phenomena such as phase-resetting and entrainment of the alpha rhythm are related to the neural mechanism underlying ERS/ERD.
Project description:Field potential oscillations at approximately 10 Hz (alpha rhythm) are widely noted in the visual cortices, but their physiological mechanisms and significance are poorly understood. In vitro studies have implicated pyramidal neurons in both infragranular and supragranular layers as pacemakers. The generality of these observations for the intact brain in the behaving subject is unknown. We analyzed laminar profiles of spontaneous local field potentials and multiunit activity (MUA) recorded with linear array multielectrodes from visual areas V2, V4, and inferotemporal (IT) cortex of two macaque monkeys during performance of a sensory discrimination task. Current source density (CSD) analysis was combined with CSD-MUA coherence to identify intracortical alpha current generators and their potential for alpha pacemaking. The role of each alpha current generator was further delineated by Granger causality analyses. In V2 and V4, alpha current generators were found in all layers, with the infragranular generator acting as primary local pacemaking generator. In contrast, in IT, alpha current generators were found only in supragranular and infragranular layers, with the supragranular generator acting as primary local pacemaking generator. The amplitude of alpha activity in V2 and V4 was negatively correlated with behavioral performance, whereas the opposite was true in IT. The alpha rhythm in IT thus appears to differ from that in the lower-order cortices, both in terms of its underlying physiological mechanism and its behavioral correlates. This work may help to reconcile some of the diverse findings and conclusions on the functional significance of alpha band oscillations in the visual system.
Project description:Motor cortical beta activity (13-30 Hz) is a hallmark signature of healthy and pathological movement, but its behavioural relevance remains unclear. Using high-precision magnetoencephalography (MEG), we show that during the classical event-related desynchronisation (ERD) and event-related synchronisation (ERS) periods, motor cortical beta activity in individual trials (n > 12,000) is dominated by high amplitude, transient, and infrequent bursts. Beta burst probability closely matched the trial-averaged beta amplitude in both the pre- and post-movement periods, but individual bursts were spatially more focal than the classical ERS peak. Furthermore, prior to movement (ERD period), beta burst timing was related to the degree of motor preparation, with later bursts resulting in delayed response times. Following movement (ERS period), the first beta burst was delayed by approximately 100 milliseconds when an incorrect response was made. Overall, beta burst timing was a stronger predictor of single trial behaviour than beta burst rate or single trial beta amplitude. This transient nature of motor cortical beta provides new constraints for theories of its role in information processing within and across cortical circuits, and its functional relevance for behaviour in both healthy and pathological movement.
Project description:Event-related synchronisation (ERS) and event-related desynchronisation (ERD) have been observed via magnetoencephalography (MEG) in the language-dominant hemisphere. However, the relationship between ERS/ERD and clinical language indices is unclear. Therefore, the present study evaluated brain activity utilising MEG during a verb generation task in 36 subjects and determined ERS/ERD power values in ?, ?, ?, low ? and high ? frequency bands. To measure clinical language indices, we adopted Wechsler Memory Scale-revised. We observed ERD in the ? band from the bilateral occipital to the left central brain region, in the ? band from the bilateral occipital to the left frontal region and in the low ? band a high-power signal in the left frontal region. We also observed ERS in the ? band in bilateral frontal region and in the high ? band in bilateral occipital region. Furthermore, we found a significant negative correlation between ?-band ERD power at the left postcentral gyrus and medial superior frontal gyrus and verbal memory score (correlation coefficients?=??-?0.574 and -?0.597, respectively). These results suggest that individuals with lower linguistic memory have less desynchronised ?-band ERD power and ?-band ERD power in the left hemisphere may be a neurophysiological biomarker for verbal memory.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor abnormalities. Many non-demented patients with PD have cognitive impairment especially in executive functions. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recording combined with event-related desynchronisation/synchronisation (ERD/ERS) analysis, we investigated cortical executive functions during a Go/NoGo task in PD patients and matched healthy subjects. PD patients had a longer reaction time in the Go condition and had a higher error ratio in both Go and NoGo conditions. The MEG analysis showed that the PD patients had a significant reduction in beta ERD during the NoGo condition and in beta ERS during both Go and NoGo conditions compared with the healthy subjects (all p?<?0.05). Moreover, in the Go condition, the onsets of beta ERD and ERS were delayed in PD patients. Notably, NoGo ERS was negatively correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score in PD patients. The present study demonstrated abnormalities in motor programming, response inhibition, and frontal inhibitory modulation in PD. Further extensive investigations are necessary to confirm the longitudinal treatment responses in PD.
Project description:Sleep spindles are approximately 1 s bursts of 10-16 Hz activity that occur during stage 2 sleep. Spindles are highly synchronous across the cortex and thalamus in animals, and across the scalp in humans, implying correspondingly widespread and synchronized cortical generators. However, prior studies have noted occasional dissociations of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) from the EEG during spindles, although detailed studies of this phenomenon have been lacking. We systematically compared high-density MEG and EEG recordings during naturally occurring spindles in healthy humans. As expected, EEG was highly coherent across the scalp, with consistent topography across spindles. In contrast, the simultaneously recorded MEG was not synchronous, but varied strongly in amplitude and phase across locations and spindles. Overall, average coherence between pairs of EEG sensors was approximately 0.7, whereas MEG coherence was approximately 0.3 during spindles. Whereas 2 principle components explained approximately 50% of EEG spindle variance, >15 were required for MEG. Each PCA component for MEG typically involved several widely distributed locations, which were relatively coherent with each other. These results show that, in contrast to current models based on animal experiments, multiple asynchronous neural generators are active during normal human sleep spindles and are visible to MEG. It is possible that these multiple sources may overlap sufficiently in different EEG sensors to appear synchronous. Alternatively, EEG recordings may reflect diffusely distributed synchronous generators that are less visible to MEG. An intriguing possibility is that MEG preferentially records from the focal core thalamocortical system during spindles, and EEG from the distributed matrix system.
Project description:This investigation used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the neural oscillatory responses of the sensorimotor cortices during the motor planning and movement execution stages of children with typical development and children with cerebral palsy (CP).The study involved 13 children with CP (nine males, four females; mean [SD] age 14y 3mo [9mo], range 10-18y; height 1.61m [0.08m]; weight 52.65kg [13kg]), and 13 age- and sex-matched typically developing children (height 1.64m [0.06m]; weight 56.88kg [10kg]). The experiment required the children to extend their knee joint as whole-head MEG recordings were acquired. Beamformer imaging methods were employed to quantify the source activity of the beta-frequency (14-28Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) that occurs during the motor planning period, and the gamma-frequency (~50Hz) event-related synchronization (ERS) that occurs at the motor execution stage.The children with CP had a stronger mean beta ERD during the motor planning phase and reduced mean gamma ERS at the onset of movement.The uncharacteristic beta ERD in the children with CP suggests that they may have greater difficulty planning knee joint movements. We suggest that these aberrant beta ERD oscillations may have a cascading effect on the gamma ERS, which ultimately affects the execution of the motor command.
Project description:Stroke alters cortical excitability both in the lesioned and in the nonlesioned hemisphere. Stroke recovery has been studied using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Spontaneous brain oscillations and somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) are modified in stroke patients during recovery.We recorded SEFs and spontaneous MEG activity and motor threshold (MT) short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) with navigated TMS (nTMS) at one and three months after first-ever hemispheric ischemic strokes. Changes of MEG and nTMS parameters attributed to gamma-aminobutyrate and glutamate transmission were compared.ICF correlated with the strength and extent of SEF source areas depicted by MEG at three months. The nTMS MT and event-related desynchronization (ERD) of beta-band MEG activity and SICI and the beta-band MEG event-related synchronization (ERS) were correlated, but less strongly.This first report using sequential nTMS and MEG in stroke recovery found intra- and interhemispheric correlations of nTMS and MEG estimates of cortical excitability. ICF and SEF parameters, MT and the ERD of the lesioned hemisphere, and SICI and ERS of the nonlesioned hemisphere were correlated. Covarying excitability in the lesioned and nonlesioned hemispheres emphasizes the importance of the hemispheric balance of the excitability of the sensorimotor system.
Project description:Resting and task-related EEG alpha are used in studies of cognition and psychopathology. Although Laplacian methods have been applied, apprehensions about loss of global activity dissuade researchers from greater use except as a supplement to reference-dependent measures. The unfortunate result has been continued reliance on reference strategies that differ across labs, and a systemic preference for a montage-dependent average reference over true reference-free measures. We addressed these concerns by comparing resting- and task-related EEG alpha using three EEG transformations: nose- (NR) and average-referenced (AR) EEG, and the corresponding CSD. Amplitude spectra of resting and prestimulus task-related EEG (novelty oddball) and event-related spectral perturbations were scaled to equate each transformation. Alpha measures quantified for 8-12 Hz bands were: 1) net amplitude (eyes-closed minus eyes-open) and 2) overall amplitude (eyes-closed plus eyes-open); 3) task amplitude (prestimulus baseline) and 4) task event-related desynchronization (ERD). Mean topographies unambiguously represented posterior alpha for overall, net and task, as well as poststimulus alpha ERD. Topographies were similar for the three transformations, but differed in dispersion, CSD being sharpest and NR most broadly distributed. Transformations also differed in scale, AR showing less attenuation or spurious secondary maxima at anterior sites, consistent with simulations of distributed posterior generators. Posterior task alpha and alpha ERD were positively correlated with overall alpha, but not with net alpha. CSD topographies consistently and appropriately represented posterior EEG alpha for all measures.
Project description:Field potential oscillations in the ?10 Hz range are known as the alpha rhythm. The genesis and function of alpha has been the subject of intense investigation for the past 80 years. Whereas early work focused on the thalamus as the pacemaker of alpha rhythm, subsequent slice studies revealed that pyramidal neurons in the deep layers of sensory cortices are capable of oscillating in the alpha frequency range independently. How thalamic and cortical generating mechanisms in the intact brain might interact to shape the organization and function of alpha oscillations remains unclear. We addressed this problem by analyzing laminar profiles of local field potential and multiunit activity (MUA) recorded with linear array multielectrodes from the striate cortex of two macaque monkeys performing an intermodal selective attention task. Current source density (CSD) analysis was combined with CSD-MUA coherence to identify intracortical alpha current generators and assess their potential for pacemaking. Coherence and Granger causality analysis was applied to delineate the patterns of interaction among different alpha current generators. We found that (1) separable alpha current generators are located in superficial, granular, and deep layers, with both layer 4C and deep layers containing primary local pacemaking generators, suggesting the involvement of the thalamocortical network, and (2) visual attention reduces the magnitude of alpha oscillations as well as the level of alpha interactions, consistent with numerous reports of occipital alpha reduction with visual attention in human EEG. There is also indication that alpha oscillations in the lateral geniculate cohere with those in V1.
Project description:Paired-pulse depression (PPD) has been widely used to investigate the functional profiles of somatosensory cortical inhibition. However, PPD induced by somatosensory stimulation is variable, and the reasons for between- and within-subject PPD variability remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the factors influencing PPD variability induced by somatosensory stimulation. The study participants were 19 healthy volunteers. First, we investigated the relationship between the PPD ratio of each component (N20m, P35m, and P60m) of the somatosensory magnetic field, and the alpha, beta, and gamma band changes in power [event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS)] induced by median nerve stimulation. Second, because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms reportedly influence the PPD ratio, we assessed whether BDNF genotype influences PPD ratio variability. Finally, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of PPD and the alpha, beta, and gamma ERD/ERS induced by somatosensory stimulation. Significant positive correlations were observed between the P60m_PPD ratio and beta power change, and the P60m_PPD ratio was significantly smaller for the beta ERD group than for the beta ERS group. P35m_PPD was found to be robust and highly reproducible; however, P60m_PPD reproducibility was poor. In addition, the ICC values for alpha, beta, and gamma ERD/ERS were 0.680, 0.760, and 0.552 respectively. These results suggest that the variability of PPD for the P60m deflection may be influenced by the ERD/ERS magnitude, which is induced by median nerve stimulation.