Elotuzumab in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma: final phase 2 results from the randomised, open-label, phase 1b-2 dose-escalation study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Elotuzumab, an immunostimulatory monoclonal antibody targeting signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family member 7 (SLAMF7), selectively kills SLAMF7-expressing myeloma cells through direct activation and engagement of the innate immune system, and thus might have clinical benefit in the treatment of myeloma. In phase 1 of this phase 1b-2 study, 82% of patients with relapsed multiple myeloma who were given elotuzumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone achieved an overall response. Here we report the final phase 2 results. METHODS:We did this randomised, multicentre, open-label, dose-escalation study (1703) at 17 hospitals in the USA, Canada, France, and Germany. Patients aged at least 18 years with confirmed, relapsed multiple myeloma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and one to three previous therapies but no previous lenalidomide were eligible for phase 2. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) to either 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg intravenous elotuzumab plus oral lenalidomide (25 mg) and dexamethasone (40 mg). We stratified patients on the basis of the number of previous therapies (one versus two or three), and status of previous treatment with immunomodulatory drugs (yes or no), and used permuted block randomisation with a block size of four. Treatment was given in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects occurred (elotuzumab was given on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 for cycles 1 to 2 and days 1 and 15 for subsequent cycles; lenalidomide was given on days 1-21 and dexamethasone once per week). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an objective response according to International Myeloma Working Group criteria. Primary analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drugs. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00742560. FINDINGS:Between Jan 4, 2010, and Dec 21, 2010, we recruited and randomly assigned 73 patients to elotuzumab (36 to 10 mg/kg, 37 to 20 mg/kg). At data cutoff (Jan 16, 2014), 13 patients remained on treatment (six on 10 mg/kg, seven on 20 mg/kg). 61 (84%) patients achieved an objective response (33 [92%] with 10 mg/kg, 28 [76%] with 20 mg/kg); 31 (42%) a very good partial response (17 [47%] with 10 mg/kg, 14 [38%] with 20 mg/kg); and 20 (27%) a partial response (10 [28%] with 10 mg/kg, 10 [27%] with 20 mg/kg). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events of any grade were diarrhoea (48 [66%]), muscle spasms (45 [62%]), and fatigue (41 [56%]). 57 (78%) patients had grade 3-4 events, the most common of which were lymphopenia (15 [21%]) and neutropenia (14 [19%]). Three deaths occurred, none related to the study drugs. INTERPRETATION:Elotuzumab combined with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma showed acceptable safety and efficacy that seems better than that previously noted with lenalidomide and dexamethasone only. Phase 3 trials are in progress. FUNDING:Bristol-Myers Squibb, AbbVie Biotherapeutics.
Project description:Elotuzumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the SLAMF7 receptor, expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells with a lower expression on other lymphoid cells such as natural killer (NK) cells. Elotuzumab has no significant antimyeloma activity when given as a single agent to patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). However, when combined with other antimyeloma agents, it results in improved response and outcome. Owing to the results from the landmark ELOQUENT-2 phase III clinical trial, which compared lenalidomide and dexamethasone with or without elotuzumab in patients with RRMM, elotuzumab in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone was approved by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2015 for multiple myeloma (MM) patients who received one to three prior lines of therapy. This review will give a brief description of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors, the unique SLAMF7 receptor and the mechanism of action of elotuzumab. Thereafter, we will give an overview on its antimyeloma activity in preclinical and clinical trials, including its toxicity profile and management thereof.
Project description:Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the extracellular domain of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (SLAMF7) highly expressed in multiple myeloma cells. Upon binding to myeloma cells, elotuzumab exerts its cytotoxic effects through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, the antibody-induced selective lysis of tumor cells by activated natural killer (NK) cells. Furthermore, elotuzumab has been shown to directly induce NK-cell activation by binding to SLAMF7 expressed on NK cells and to indirectly modulate T-cell function by promoting the secretion of cytokines from NK cells. In combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone, elotuzumab has shown remarkable effects in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. In these patients, the risk of disease progression or death was significantly reduced by 30% on elotuzumab. Currently, elotuzumab is being evaluated in various myeloma patient populations and combination regimens. This review discusses the use of elotuzumab as an antimultiple myeloma agent and provides an update on the results of recent clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of elotuzumab for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a bone marrow plasma cell neoplasm and is the second most-common hematologic malignancy. Despite advances in therapy, MM remains largely incurable. Elotuzumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting SLAMF7, which is highly expressed on myeloma cells, and the antibody is approved for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory (RR) MM in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. Elotuzumab can stimulate robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) through engaging with Fc?RIIIA (CD16) on NK cells and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) by macrophages. Interestingly, SLAMF7 is also expressed on cytolytic NK cells, which also express the requisite adaptor protein, EAT-2, to mediate activation signaling. Accumulating evidence indicates that antibody crosslinking of SLAMF7 on human and mouse NK cells can stimulate EAT-2-dependent activation of PLC?, ERK, and intracellular calcium mobilization. The binding of SLAMF7 by elotuzumab can directly induce signal transduction in human NK cells, including co-stimulation of the calcium signaling triggered through other surface receptors, such as NKp46 and NKG2D. In RRMM patients, elotuzumab monotherapy did not produce objective responses, but did enhance the activity of approved standard of care therapies, including lenalidomide or bortezomib, which are known to enhance anti-tumor responses by NK cells. Taken together, these preclinical results and accumulating experience in the clinic provide compelling evidence that the mechanism of action of elotuzumab in MM patients involves the activation of NK cells through both CD16-mediated ADCC and direct co-stimulation via engagement with SLAMF7, as well as promoting ADCP by macrophages. We review the current understanding of how elotuzumab utilizes multiple mechanisms to facilitate immune-mediated attack of myeloma cells, as well as outline goals for future research.
Project description:Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-F7 (SLAMF7, also known as CS1, CD319, or CRACC) that enhances natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of SLAMF7-expressing myeloma cells. This study explored the mechanisms underlying enhanced myeloma cell killing with elotuzumab as a single agent and in combination with lenalidomide, to support ongoing phase III trials in patients with relapsed/refractory or newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). An in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL)/myeloma cell co-culture model was developed to evaluate the combination of elotuzumab and lenalidomide. Expression of activation markers and adhesion receptors was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine expression by Luminex and ELISPOT assays, and cytotoxicity by myeloma cell counts. Elotuzumab activated NK cells and promoted myeloma cell death in PBL/myeloma cell co-cultures. The combination of elotuzumab plus lenalidomide demonstrated superior anti-myeloma activity on established MM xenografts in vivo and in PBL/myeloma cell co-cultures in vitro than either agent alone. The combination enhanced myeloma cell killing by modulating NK cell function that coincided with the upregulation of adhesion and activation markers, including interleukin (IL)-2Rα expression, IL-2 production by CD3(+)CD56(+) lymphocytes, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. In co-culture assays, TNF-α directly increased NK cell activation and myeloma cell death with elotuzumab or elotuzumab plus lenalidomide, and neutralizing TNF-α decreased NK cell activation and myeloma cell death with elotuzumab. These results demonstrate that elotuzumab activates NK cells and induces myeloma cell death via NK cell-mediated ADCC, which is further enhanced when combined with lenalidomide.
Project description:Elotuzumab is a humanized therapeutic monoclonal antibody directed to the surface glycoprotein SLAMF7 (CS1, CRACC, CD319), which is highly expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells. Improved clinical outcomes have been observed following treatment of MM patients with elotuzumab in combination with lenalidomide or bortezomib. Previous work showed that elotuzumab stimulates NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), via Fc-domain engagement with Fc?RIIIa (CD16). SLAMF7 is also expressed on NK cells, where it can transmit stimulatory signals. We tested whether elotuzumab can directly activate NK cells via ligation with SLAMF7 on NK cells in addition to targeting ADCC through CD16. We show that elotuzumab strongly promoted degranulation and activation of NK cells in a CD16-dependent manner, and a non-fucosylated form of elotuzumab with higher affinity to CD16 exhibited enhanced potency. Using F(ab')2 or Fc-mutant forms of the antibody, the direct binding of elotuzumab to SLAMF7 alone could not stimulate measurable CD69 expression or degranulation of NK cells. However, the addition of soluble elotuzumab could costimulate calcium signaling responses triggered by multimeric engagement of NKp46 and NKG2D in a CD16-independent manner. Thus, while elotuzumab primarily stimulates NK cells through CD16, it can also transduce effective "trans"-costimulatory signals upon direct engagement with SLAMF7, since these responses did not require direct co-engagement with the activating receptors. Trans-costimulation by elotuzumab has potential to reduce activation thresholds of other NK cell receptors engaging with their ligands on myeloma target cell surfaces, thereby potentially further increasing NK cell responsiveness in patients.
Project description:Elotuzumab, targeting signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family 7 (SLAMF7), has been approved in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (ELd) for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) based on the findings of the phase III randomized trial ELOQUENT-2 (NCT01239797). Four-year follow-up analyses of ELOQUENT-2 have demonstrated that progression-free survival was 21% in ELd versus 14% in Ld. Elotuzumab binds a unique epitope on the membrane IgC2 domain of SLAMF7, exhibiting a dual mechanism of action: natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and enhancement of NK cell activity. The ADCC is mediated through engagement between Fc portion of elotuzumab and FcgRIIIa/CD16 on NK cells. Enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity results from phosphorylation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) that is induced via elotuzumab binding and recruits the SLAM-associated adaptor protein EAT-2. The coupling of EAT-2 to the phospholipase Cg enzymes SH2 domain leads to enhanced Ca2+ influx and MAPK/Erk pathway activation, resulting in granule polarization and enhanced exocytosis in NK cells. Elotuzumab does not stimulate the proliferation of MM cells due to a lack of EAT-2. The inhibitory effects of elotuzumab on MM cell growth are not induced by the lack of CD45, even though SHP-2, SHP-1, SHIP-1, and Csk may be recruited to phosphorylated ITSM of SLAMF7. ELd improves PFS in patients with high-risk cytogenetics, i.e. t(4;14), del(17p), and 1q21 gain/amplification. Since the immune state is paralytic in advanced MM, the efficacy of ELd with minimal toxicity may bring forward for consideration of its use in the early stages of the disease.
Project description:Treatment options for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have increased during the past decade. Despite the significant advances, challenges remain on which combination strategies will provide the optimal response for any given patient. Defining optimal combination strategies and corresponding companion diagnostics, that will guide clinical decisions are required to target relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) in order to improve disease progression, survival and quality of life for patients with MM. Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (SLAMF7), approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015 and the European Medicines Agency in 2016 for the treatment of MM. SLAMF7 is expressed in normal and malignant plasma cells and has lower expression on natural killer (NK) cells. Experimental evidence indicates that elotuzumab exhibits anti-myeloma activity through 1) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, 2) enhancing NK cells cytotoxicity and 3) interfering with adhesion of MM cells to bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). Although elotuzumab has no single agent activity in patients with RRMM who have received one to three prior therapies, the combination of elotuzumab with anti-myeloma agents, such as immunomodulatory drugs-lenalidomide, or proteasome inhibitors (PIs)-bortezomib, remarkably improved the overall response rates and progression-free survival in MM patients with only minimal incremental toxicity. In brief, the clinical data for elotuzumab indicate that targeting SLAMF7 in combination with the use of conventional therapies is feasible and effective with a tolerable safety profile for the treatment of RRMM.
Project description:This phase 1b, open-label, dose-escalation study assessed the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody isatuximab given in 2 schedules (3, 5, or 10 mg/kg every other week [Q2W] or 10 or 20 mg/kg weekly [QW] for 4 weeks and then Q2W thereafter [QW/Q2W]), in combination with lenalidomide 25 mg (days 1-21) and dexamethasone 40 mg (QW), in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Patients received 28-day treatment cycles; the primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of isatuximab with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. Fifty-seven patients (median 5 [range 1-12] prior regimens; 83% refractory to previous lenalidomide therapy) were treated. Median duration of dosing was 36.4 weeks; 15 patients remained on treatment at data cutoff. Isatuximab-lenalidomide-dexamethasone was generally well tolerated with only 1 dose-limiting toxicity reported (grade 3 pneumonia at 20 mg/kg QW/Q2W); the MTD was not reached. The most common isatuximab-related adverse events were infusion-associated reactions (IARs) (56%), which were grade 1/2 in 84% of patients who had an IAR and predominantly occurred during the first infusion. In the efficacy-evaluable population, the overall response rate (ORR) was 56% (29/52) and was similar between the 10 mg/kg Q2W and 10 and 20 mg/kg QW/Q2W cohorts. The ORR was 52% in 42 evaluable lenalidomide-refractory patients. Overall median progression-free survival was 8.5 months. Isatuximab exposure increased in a greater than dose-proportional manner; isatuximab and lenalidomide pharmacokinetic parameters appeared independent. These data suggest that isatuximab combined with lenalidomide and dexamethasone is active and tolerated in heavily pretreated patients with RRMM. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01749969.
Project description:To review the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of daratumumab and elotuzumab for the treatment of relapsed refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM).A literature search of MEDLINE, PubMed, the US National Institutes of Health Clinicaltrials.gov, the Food and Drug administration, and relevant meeting abstracts was conducted using the terms daratumumab, elotuzumab, multiple myeloma, anti-CD38, HuMax-CD38, HuLuc63, SLAMF7, and anti-CS1 STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: Human and animal studies describing the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of daratumumab and elotuzumab for MM were identified.Daratumumab (anti-CD38) and elotuzumab (anti-CS1) have been recently FDA approved for the treatment of RRMM after showing efficacy in clinical trials. Elotuzumab approval was based on phase III data, and daratumumab gained accelerated approval based on phase I/II trials. Daratumumab has demonstrated significant single-agent activity, with an overall response rate (ORR) of 36% in patients with a median of 4 prior lines of therapy. Elotuzumab has not been shown to have single-agent activity. But the efficacy of both these antibodies in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in RRMM showed an ORR exceeding 80%. Tolerability of elotuzumab and daratumumab seems to be acceptable, with the most common adverse event being infusion reactions.Daratumumab and elotuzumab have shown encouraging results in RRMM that led to their FDA approval. Both are well tolerated with minimal toxicities. Phase III clinical trials will define optimal combination and place in therapy of daratumumab and elotuzumab.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting antigens expressed by plasma cells demonstrated major clinical activity in multiple myeloma patients and therefore became a new major class of drug for these patients. Elotuzumab is a humanized mAb targeting the cell surface signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 7, a glycoprotein highly expressed on plasma cells, that is the second mAb approved for the treatment of myeloma patients. The mechanism of action of elotuzumab includes natural killer cell (NK) mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and direct activation of NK-cells. Elotuzumab has been approved in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Elo-Rd) and pomalidomide and dexamethasone (Elo-Pd) for the treatment of relapsed myeloma patients. The present review will focus on elotuzumab, providing a summary of the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety and taking into consideration patients' selection.