Two Quenchers Formed During Photodamage of Phostosystem II and The Role of One Quencher in Preemptive Photoprotection.
ABSTRACT: The quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence caused by photodamage of Photosystem II (qI) is a well recognized phenomenon, where the nature and physiological role of which are still debatable. Paradoxically, photodamage to the reaction centre of Photosystem II is supposed to be alleviated by excitation quenching mechanisms which manifest as fluorescence quenchers. Here we investigated the time course of PSII photodamage in vivo and in vitro and that of picosecond time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence (quencher formation). Two long-lived fluorescence quenching processes during photodamage were observed and were formed at different speeds. The slow-developing quenching process exhibited a time course similar to that of the accumulation of photodamaged PSII, while the fast-developing process took place faster than the light-induced PSII damage. We attribute the slow process to the accumulation of photodamaged PSII and the fast process to an independent quenching mechanism that precedes PSII photodamage and that alleviates the inactivation of the PSII reaction centre.
Project description:Photosynthetic organisms avoid photodamage to photosystem II (PSII) in variable light conditions via a suite of photoprotective mechanisms called nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), in which excess absorbed light is dissipated harmlessly. To quantify the contributions of different quenching mechanisms to NPQ, we have devised a technique to measure the changes in chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime as photosynthetic organisms adapt to varying light conditions. We applied this technique to measure the fluorescence lifetimes responsible for the predominant, rapidly reversible component of NPQ, qE, in living cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Application of high light to dark-adapted cells of C. reinhardtii led to an increase in the amplitudes of 65 ps and 305 ps chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime components that was reversed after the high light was turned off. Removal of the pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane linked the changes in the amplitudes of the two components to qE quenching. The rise times of the amplitudes of the two components were significantly different, suggesting that the changes are due to two different qE mechanisms. We tentatively suggest that the changes in the 65 ps component are due to charge-transfer quenching in the minor light-harvesting complexes and that the changes in the 305 ps component are due to aggregated light-harvesting complex II trimers that have detached from PSII. We anticipate that this technique will be useful for resolving the various mechanisms of NPQ and for quantifying the timescales associated with these mechanisms.
Project description:Low-temperature fluorescence measurements are frequently used in photosynthesis research to assess photosynthetic processes. Upon illumination of photosystem II (PSII) frozen to 77 K, fluorescence quenching is observed. In this work, we studied the light-induced quenching in intact cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at 77 K using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with a streak camera setup. In agreement with previous studies, global analysis of the data shows that prolonged illumination of the sample affects the nanosecond decay component of the PSII emission. Using target analysis, we resolved the quenching on the PSII-684 compartment which describes bulk chlorophyll molecules of the PSII core antenna. Further, we quantified the quenching rate constant and observed that as the illumination proceeds the accumulation of the quencher leads to a speed up of the fluorescence decay of the PSII-684 compartment as the decay rate constant increases from about 3 to 4 ns-?1. The quenching on PSII-684 leads to indirect quenching of the compartments PSII-690 and PSII-695 which represent the red chlorophyll of the PSII core. These results explain past and current observations of light-induced quenching in 77 K steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectra.
Project description:Photodamage to Photosystem II (PSII) has been attributed either to excessive excitation of photosynthetic pigments or by direct of light absorption by Mn4CaO5 cluster. Here we investigated the time course of PSII photodamage and release of Mn in PSII-enriched membranes under high light illumination at 460?nm and 660?nm. We found that the loss of PSII activity, assayed by chlorophyll fluorescence, is faster than release of Mn from the Mn4CaO5 cluster, assayed by EPR. Loss of PSII activity and Mn release was slower during illumination in the presence of exogenous electron acceptors. Recovery of PSII activity was observed, after 30?min of addition of electron donor post illumination. The same behavior was observed under 460 and 660?nm illumination, suggesting stronger correlation between excessive excitation and photodamage compared to direct light absorption by the cluster. A unified model of PSII photodamage that takes into account present and previous literature reports is presented.
Project description:Light damages photosynthetic machinery, primarily photosystem II (PSII), and it results in photoinhibition. A new photodamage model, the two-step photodamage model, suggests that photodamage to PSII initially occurs at the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) by light energy absorbed by manganese and that the PSII reaction center is subsequently damaged by light energy absorbed by photosynthetic pigments due to the limitation of electrons to the PSII reaction center. However, it is still uncertain whether this model is applicable to photodamage to PSII under visible light as manganese absorbs visible light only weakly. In the present study, we identified the initial site of photodamage to PSII upon illumination of visible light using PSII membrane fragments isolated from spinach leaves. When PSII samples were exposed to visible light in the presence of an exogenous electron acceptor, both PSII total activity and the PSII reaction centre activity declined due to photodamage. The supplemental addition of an electron donor to the PSII reaction centre alleviated the decline of the reaction centre activity but not the PSII total activity upon the light exposure. Our results demonstrate that visible light damages OEC prior to photodamage to the PSII reaction center, consistent with two-step photodamage model.
Project description:Coral bleaching caused by heat stress is accompanied by photoinhibition, which occurs under conditions where the rate of photodamage to photosystem II (PSII) exceeds the rate of its repair, in the symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium spp.) within corals. However, the mechanism of heat stress-induced photoinhibition in Symbiodinium still remains poorly understood. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of elevated temperature on the processes associated with the repair of photodamaged PSII in cultured Symbiodinium (OTcH-1 and CS-73). Severe photoinhibition was observed at temperature exceeding 32 degrees C in Symbiodinium CS-73 cells grown at 25-34 degrees C but not in cultures of the more thermally tolerant Symbiodinium OTcH-1. After photoinhibition treatment by strong light, photodamaged PSII was repaired close to initial levels under low light at 25 degrees C in both OTcH-1 and CS-73. However, the repair was strongly inhibited by increased temperature exceeding 31 degrees C in CS-73 but only weakly in OTcH-1. We found that inhibition of the repair process in CS-73 is attributed to impairment of both protein synthesis-dependent and -independent repair processes and is at least partially caused by suppression of the de novo synthesis of thylakoid membrane proteins and impairment of the generation of DeltapH across the thylakoid membrane, respectively. Our results suggest that acceleration of photoinhibition by moderate heat stress is attributed primarily to inhibition of the repair of photodamaged PSII and that the photoinhibition sensitivity of Symbiodinium to heat stress is determined by the thermal sensitivity of the PSII repair processes.
Project description:Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a mechanism of energy dissipation in higher plants protects photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers from damage by excess light. NPQ involves a reduction in the chlorophyll excited state lifetime in the PSII harvesting antenna (LHCII) by a quencher. Yet, little is known about the effect of the quencher on chlorophyll excited state energy and dynamics. Application of picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that NPQ involves a red-shift (60 +/- 5 cm(-1)) and slight enhancement of the vibronic satellite of the main PSII lifetime component present in intact chloroplasts. Whereas this fluorescence red-shift was enhanced by the presence of zeaxanthin, it was not dependent upon it. The red-shifted fluorescence of intact chloroplasts in the NPQ state was accompanied by red-shifted chlorophyll a absorption. Nearly identical absorption and fluorescence changes were observed in isolated LHCII complexes quenched in a low detergent media, suggesting that the mechanism of quenching is the same in both systems. In both cases, the extent of the fluorescence red-shift was shown to correlate with the lifetime of a component. The alteration in the energy of the emitting chlorophyll(s) in intact chloroplasts and isolated LHCII was also accompanied by changes in lutein 1 observed in their 77K fluorescence excitation spectra. We suggest that the characteristic red-shifted fluorescence emission reflects an altered environment of the emitting chlorophyll(s) in LHCII brought about by their closer interaction with lutein 1 in the quenching locus.
Project description:The photosystem II (PSII) subunit S (PsbS) plays a key role in nonphotochemical quenching, a photoprotective mechanism for dissipation of excess excitation energy in plants. The precise function of PsbS in nonphotochemical quenching is unknown. By reconstituting PsbS together with the major light-harvesting complex of PSII (LHC-II) and the xanthophyll zeaxanthin (Zea) into proteoliposomes, we have tested the individual contributions of PSII complexes and Zea to chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching in a membrane environment. We demonstrate that PsbS is stable in the absence of pigments in vitro. Significant Chl fluorescence quenching of reconstituted LHC-II was observed in the presence of PsbS and Zea, although neither Zea nor PsbS alone was sufficient to induce the same quenching. Coreconstitution with PsbS resulted in the formation of LHC-II/PsbS heterodimers, indicating their direct interaction in the lipid bilayer. Two-photon excitation measurements on liposomes containing LHC-II, PsbS, and Zea showed an increase of electronic interactions between carotenoid S1 and Chl states, ?(Coupling)(CarS1-Chl), that correlated directly with Chl fluorescence quenching. These findings are in agreement with a carotenoid-dependent Chl fluorescence quenching by direct interactions of LHCs of PSII with PsbS monomers.
Project description:The biogenesis and assembly of photosystem II (PSII) are mainly regulated by the nuclear-encoded factors. To further identify the novel components involved in PSII biogenesis, we isolated and characterized a high chlorophyll fluorescence low psii accumulation19 (lpa19) mutant, which is defective in PSII biogenesis. LPA19 encodes a Psb27 homolog (At1g05385). Interestingly, another Psb27 homolog (At1g03600) in Arabidopsis was revealed to be required for the efficient repair of photodamaged PSII. These results suggest that the Psb27 homologs play distinct functions in PSII biogenesis and repair in Arabidopsis. Chloroplast protein labeling assays showed that the C-terminal processing of D1 in the lpa19 mutant was impaired. Protein overlay assays provided evidence that LPA19 interacts with D1, and coimmunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that LPA19 interacts with mature D1 (mD1) and precursor D1 (pD1). Moreover, LPA19 protein was shown to specifically interact with the soluble C terminus present in the precursor and mature D1 through yeast two-hybrid analyses. Thus, these studies suggest that LPA19 is involved in facilitating the D1 precursor protein processing in Arabidopsis.
Project description:The maximum chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime in isolated photosystem II (PSII) light-harvesting complex (LHCII) antenna is 4 ns; however, it is quenched to 2 ns in intact thylakoid membranes when PSII reaction centers (RCIIs) are closed (Fm). It has been proposed that the closed state of RCIIs is responsible for the quenching. We investigated this proposal using a new, to our knowledge, model system in which the concentration of RCIIs was highly reduced within the thylakoid membrane. The system was developed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants under long-term treatment with lincomycin, a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor. The treatment led to 1), a decreased concentration of RCIIs to 10% of the control level and, interestingly, an increased antenna component; 2), an average reduction in the yield of photochemistry to 0.2; and 3), an increased nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ). Despite these changes, the average fluorescence lifetimes measured in Fm and Fm' (with NPQ) states were nearly identical to those obtained from the control. A 77 K fluorescence spectrum analysis of treated PSII membranes showed the typical features of preaggregation of LHCII, indicating that the state of LHCII antenna in the dark-adapted photosynthetic membrane is sufficient to determine the 2 ns Fm lifetime. Therefore, we conclude that the closed RCs do not cause quenching of excitation in the PSII antenna, and play no role in the formation of NPQ.
Project description:In nature, plants experience large fluctuations in light intensity and they need to balance the absorption and utilization of this energy appropriately. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a rapidly switchable mechanism that protects plants from photodamage caused by high light exposure by dissipating the excess absorbed energy as heat. It is triggered by the pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane and requires the protein PsbS and the xanthophyll zeaxanthin. However, the site and mechanism of the quencher(s) remain unknown. Here, we constructed a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that lacks light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), the main antenna complex of plants, to verify its contribution to NPQ. The mutant plant has normally stacked thylakoid membranes, displays no upregulation of other LHCs but shows a relative decrease in Photosystem I (PSI), which compensates for the decrease of the PSII antenna. The mutant plant exhibits a reduction in NPQ of about 60% and the remaining NPQ resembles that of mutant plants lacking chlorophyll (Chl) b, which lack all PSII peripheral antenna complexes. We thus report that PsbS-dependent NPQ occurs mainly in LHCII, but there is an additional quenching site in the PSII core.