Physical exercise stimulates salivary secretion of cystatins.
ABSTRACT: Physical exercise is known to activate the sympathetic nervous system, which influences the production of saliva from salivary glands. Our examination of saliva collected from highly trained athletes before and after a number of physical competititions showed an increase in the secretion of S-type cystatins and cystatin C as a subacute response to aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The elevation in salivary cystatins was transient and the recovery time course differed from that of amylase and other salivary proteins. An in vitro assay was developed based on a cell line from a human submandibular gland (HSG) that differentiated into acinus-like structures. Treatments with the ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol caused a shift in the intracellular distribution of S-type cystatins and cystatin C, promoting their accumulation at the outer regions of the acinus prior to release and suggesting the activation of a directional transport involving co-migration of both molecules. In another treatment using non-differentiated HSG cells, it was evident that both expression and secretion of cystatin C increased upon addition of the ?-adrenergic agonist, and these effects were essentially eliminated by the antagonist propranolol. The HSG cell line appears to have potential as a model for exploring the mechanism of cystatin secretion, particularly the S-type cystatins that originate primarily in the submandibular glands.
Project description:Repeated administration of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (isoproterenol, IPR), which produces hypertrophic/hyperplastic enlargements of rat submandibular and parotid glands, induces synthesis of a secretory protein shown to be a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, rat cystatin S. In the current study, Northern blot and hybridizations in situ were carried out to establish the developmental and beta-adrenergic regulation of the expression of the cystatin S gene. Cystatin S mRNA was not detected in submandibular glands of 20-day-old fetuses, nor in the glands of newborn or 10-day-old rats. However, steady-state levels of cystatin S mRNA increased between 21 and 28 days, reaching a conspicuously high concentration at 28 days; cystatin S mRNA then declined rapidly to a barely detectable level in glands of 32-day-old rats. IPR administration for 4 days induced high levels of cystatin S mRNA in submandibular glands of developing and adult rats. In both prepubertal and mature animals, induction of cystatin S mRNA in submandibular glands was more pronounced in female than in male animals. Hybridizations in situ revealed cystatin S mRNA only in acinar but not in duct cells of the submandibular gland. Developmentally, expression of the cystatin S gene coincided with acinar cell differentiation. These data suggest a complex neural, hormonal and developmental regulation of salivary cystatin genes.
Project description:A hybrid linear ion-trap Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer was used for top-down characterization of the abundant human salivary cystatins, including S, S1, S2, SA, SN, C, and D, using collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) after chromatographic purification of the native, disulfide intact proteins. Post-translational modifications and protein sequence polymorphisms arising from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assigned from precursor and product ion masses at a tolerance of 10 ppm, allowing confident identification of individual intact mass tags. Cystatins S, S1, S2, SA, and SN were cleaved of a N-terminal 20 amino acid signal peptide and cystatin C a 26-residue peptide, to yield a generally conserved N-terminus. In contrast, cystatin D isoforms with 24 and 28 amino acid residue N-terminal truncations were found such that their N-termini were not conserved. Cystatin S1 was phosphorylated at Ser3, while S2 was phosphorylated at Ser1 and Ser3, in agreement with previous work. Both cystatin D isoforms carried the polymorphism C46R (SNP: rs1799841). The 14,328 Da isoform of cystatin SN previously assigned with polymorphism P31L due to a SNP (rs2070856) was found only in whole saliva. Parotid secretions contained no detectable cystatins while whole saliva largely mirrored the contents of submandibular/sublingual (SMSL) secretions. With fully characterized cystatin intact mass tags it will now be possible to examine the correlation between the abundance of these molecules and human health and disease.
Project description:Zn<sup>2+</sup> is a divalent cation that is essential for many biological activities, as it influences many ion channels and enzymatic activities. Zn<sup>2+</sup> can evoke G-protein-coupled receptor signaling via activation of the metabotropic zinc receptor ZnR/GPR39. In spite of evidence suggesting the presence of ZnR/GPR39 in salivary gland cells, there has been no evidence of ZnR/GPR39-mediated modulation of salivary gland function. Here we characterized the role of ZnR/GPR39 in human submandibular gland cells. A 0.25% ZnCl<sub>2</sub> solution evoked secretion of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva in humans. We found that ZnR/GPR39 is expressed in human submandibular glands and HSG cells. Zn<sup>2+</sup> increased cytosolic Ca<sup>2+</sup> concentration ([Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub>) in a concentration-dependent manner. Muscarinic antagonist had no effect on Zn<sup>2+</sup>-induced [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub> increase, which was completely blocked by the phospholipase C-? inhibitor. As with muscarinic agonist, Zn<sup>2+</sup> also induced the translocation of aquaporin-5 (AQP-5) to the plasma membrane, which was drastically decreased in ZnR/GPR39-knockdown cells. These data suggest that the metabotropic Zn<sup>2+</sup> receptor ZnR/GPR39 can modulate salivary secretion in human submandibular gland cells independent of muscarinic or histamine receptor signaling.
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with changes in the gut and oral microbiota. Based on the intimate relationship between the oral microbiota and oral mucosal immunity, this study aimed to investigate changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) level in ASD and the underlying mechanism for any such changes. <b>Methods:</b> We recruited 36 children diagnosed with ASD and 35 normally developing children and measured their salivary IgA content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The valproate (VPA) -treated ASD mouse model was established by prenatal exposure to valproate and mouse salivary IgA content was also quantified by ELISA. The submandibular glands of VPA and control mice were isolated and analyzed using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and flow cytometry. ASD-related <i>Streptococci</i> were co-incubated with the human salivary gland (HSG) cell line, and western blotting was used to detect the levels of relevant proteins. <b>Results:</b> We found that salivary IgA content was significantly decreased in patients with ASD and had a significant ASD diagnostic value. The salivary IgA content also decreased in VPA mice and was significantly correlated with autistic-like behaviors among them. The mRNA and protein levels of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (<i>Pigr</i>) were downregulated in the submandibular glands of VPA mice and the <i>Pigr</i> mRNA level was positively correlated with mouse salivary IgA content. HSG cells treated with ASD-related <i>Streptococci</i> had reduced PIGR protein level. <b>Conclusion:</b> Therefore, protective IgA levels were reduced in the saliva of individuals with ASD, which correlated with the bacteria-induced downregulation of <i>Pigr</i> in salivary glands. This study suggests a new direction for ASD diagnosis and prevention of oral diseases in ASD cohorts and provides evidence for the ASD mucosal immunophenotype in the oral cavity.
Project description:A human submandibular-gland (SMG) cDNA library was constructed in a lambda was constructed in a lambda gt11 Sfi-Not orientation-specific expression vector and then screened with antibody generated against human salivary cystatins. The clone C4-4 encoded an N-terminally truncated cystatin S, whereas the others encoded cystatin SN. The library was then rescreened with the C4-4, and the inserts of several positive clones were directly amplified from the eluted plaques by linear PCR and the PCR products analysed by Southern blotting and direct DNA sequencing. Two clones (C3 and C12) encoded a full-length secreted cystatin S and its leader peptide and included 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions. These clones showed a high degree of sequence similarity to cDNA clones encoding human salivary cystatin SN and genomic clones encoding cystatin SN and SA. Hybridization in situ of normal human SMG and parotid-gland (PG) tissue sections localized the cystatin-gene transcripts to the cytoplasm of serous acinar cells of both glands, with a much higher concentration of cystatin mRNA in the SMG. Immunocytochemistry localized the salivary cystatin gene products also to the serous cells, and the levels of cystatin protein correlated with the amount of cystatin mRNA, with a much stronger signal in the SMG than in the PG.
Project description:It is known that aquaporin (AQP) 5 expression in the apical membrane of acinar cells in salivary glands is important for the secretion of saliva in rodents and humans. Although heat acclimation enhances saliva secretion in rodents, the molecular mechanism of how heat induces saliva secretion has not been determined. Here, we found that heat acclimation enhanced the expression of AQP5 and AQP1 in rat submandibular glands concomitant with the promotion of the HIF-1? pathway, leading to VEGF induction and CD31-positive angiogenesis. The apical membrane distribution of AQP5 in serous acinar cells enhanced after heat acclimation, while AQP1 expression was restricted to the endothelial cells in the submandibular glands. A network of AQPs may be involved in heat-acclimated regulation in saliva secretion. Because AQPs probably plays a crucial role in saliva secretion in humans, these findings may lead to a novel strategy for treating saliva hyposecretion.
Project description:In the last few years, microbial infection and innate immune theories have been proposed as an alternative approach explaining the etiopathogenesis and origin of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Lactoferrin, one of the main antimicrobial proteins in saliva, is an important modulator of immune response and inflammation, and represents an important defensive element by inducing a broad spectrum of antimicrobial effects against microbial infections. We demonstrated that lactoferrin levels in saliva are decreased in prodromal and dementia stages of AD compared with healthy subjects. That finding seems to be specific to cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) load as such observation was not observed in healthy elderly controls or those subjects with frontotemporal dementia. In the present study, we analysed salivary lactoferrin levels in a mouse model of AD. We observed robust and early reduction of lactoferrin levels in saliva from 6- and 12-month-old APP/PS1 mice. Because saliva is secreted by salivary glands, we presume that deregulation in salivary glands resulting in reduced salivary lactoferrin levels may occur in AD. To test this hypothesis, we collected submandibular glands from APP/PS1 mice, as well as submandibular gland tissue from AD patients and we analysed the expression levels of key components of the salivary protein signalling pathway. A significant reduction in M3 receptor levels was found along with decreased acetylcholine (Ach) levels in submandibular glands from APP/PS1 mice. Similarly, a reduction in M3 receptor levels was observed in human submandibular glands from AD patients but in that case, the Ach levels were found increased. Our data suggest that the ACh-mediated M3 signalling pathway is impaired in salivary glands in AD, resulting in salivary gland dysfunction and reduced salivary lactoferrin secretion.
Project description:Anoctamin1 (ANO1), a calcium activated chloride channel, is known to play a critical role in salivary secretion. In the salivary gland, ANO1 is expressed exclusively in the acinar cells, with no expression in the ductal cells. However, the mechanisms that determine this distinctive cell type-dependent expression pattern of ANO1 remain unknown. In this study, we discovered that the cell-dependent expression of ANO1 during salivary gland organogenesis is regulated by DNA methylation of ANO1 CpG islands. ANO1 CpG islands in e12 embryonic submandibular glands (eSMG) are highly methylated, but those in e14 eSMG or adult SMG are significantly unmethylated. The differential expression pattern of ANO1 in duct and acini is defined at e14. Artificial demethylation by treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), induced the expression of ANO1 in both the ductal cell line Human Submandibular Gland (HSG) and in the duct cells of adult mouse SMG. During the trans-differentiation in Matrigel of duct-origin HSG cells into acinar-like phenotype, significant demethylation of ANO1 CpG islands is observed. This may be due to the reduced expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3a and 3b. These results suggest that the differential expression of ANO1 in salivary glands during organogenesis and differentiation is mainly regulated by epigenetic demethylation of the ANO1 gene.
Project description:The solute carrier family 26 (SLC26) gene family encodes at least 10 different anion exchangers. SLC26 member 6 (SLC26A6 or CFEX/PAT-1) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) co-localize to the apical membrane of pancreatic duct cells, where they act in concert to drive HCO3- and fluid secretion. In contrast, in the small intestine, SLC26A6 serves as the major pathway for oxalate secretion. However, little is known about the function of Slc26a6 in murine salivary glands. Here, RNA sequencing-based transcriptional profiling and Western blots revealed that Slc26a6 is highly expressed in mouse submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Slc26a6 localized to the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells with no detectable immunostaining in the ducts. CHO-K1 cells transfected with mouse Slc26a6 exchanged Cl- for oxalate and HCO3-, whereas two other anion exchangers known to be expressed in salivary gland acinar cells, Slc4a4 and Slc4a9, mediated little, if any, Cl-/oxalate exchange. Of note, both Cl-/oxalate exchange and Cl-/HCO3- exchange were significantly reduced in acinar cells isolated from the submandibular glands of Slc26a6-/- mice. Oxalate secretion in submandibular saliva also decreased significantly in Slc26a6-/- mice, but HCO3- secretion was unaffected. Taken together, our findings indicate that Slc26a6 is located at the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells, where it mediates Cl-/oxalate exchange and plays a critical role in the secretion of oxalate into saliva.
Project description:PURPOSE:Salivary fluid formation is primarily driven by Ca(2+)-activated, apical efflux of chloride into the lumen of the salivary acinus. The anoctamin1 protein is an anion channel with properties resembling the endogenous calcium-activated chloride channels. In order to better understand the role of anoctamin proteins in salivary exocrine secretion, the expression of the ten members of the anoctamin gene family in the mouse submandibular gland was studied. METHODS:Total RNA extracted from mouse submandibular salivary glands was reverse transcribed using primer pairs to amplify the full-length coding regions of each anoctamin gene and was subcloned into plasmid vectors for DNA sequencing. Alternative splice variants were also screened by polymerase chain reaction using primer pairs that amplified six overlapping regions of the complementary DNA of each anoctamin gene, spanning multiple exons. RESULTS:Multiple anoctamin transcripts were found in the mouse submandibular salivary gland, including full-length transcripts of anoctamin1, anoctamin3, anoctamin4, anoctamin5, anoctamin6, anoctamin9, and anoctamin10. Exon-skipping splicing in the N-terminal exons of the anoctamins1, anoctamin5, and anoctamin6 genes resulted in multiple alternative splice variants. No expression of anoctamin2, anoctamin7, or anoctamin8 was found. CONCLUSIONS:The predominant anoctamin transcript expressed in the mouse submandibular gland is anoctamin1ac. The chloride channel protein produced by anoctamin1ac is likely responsible for the Ca(2+)-activated chloride efflux, which is the rate-limiting step in salivary exocrine secretion.