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The genetic landscape of the human solute carrier (SLC) transporter superfamily.


ABSTRACT: The human solute carrier (SLC) superfamily of transporters is comprised of over 400 membrane-bound proteins, and plays essential roles in a multitude of physiological and pharmacological processes. In addition, perturbation of SLC transporter function underlies numerous human diseases, which renders SLC transporters attractive drug targets. Common genetic polymorphisms in SLC genes have been associated with inter-individual differences in drug efficacy and toxicity. However, despite their tremendous clinical relevance, epidemiological data of these variants are mostly derived from heterogeneous cohorts of small sample size and the genetic SLC landscape beyond these common variants has not been comprehensively assessed. In this study, we analyzed Next-Generation Sequencing data from 141,456 individuals from seven major human populations to evaluate genetic variability, its functional consequences, and ethnogeographic patterns across the entire SLC superfamily of transporters. Importantly, of the 204,287 exonic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) which we identified, 99.8% were present in less than 1% of analyzed alleles. Comprehensive computational analyses using 13 partially orthogonal algorithms that predict the functional impact of genetic variations based on sequence information, evolutionary conservation, structural considerations, and functional genomics data revealed that each individual genome harbors 29.7 variants with putative functional effects, of which rare variants account for 18%. Inter-ethnic variability was found to be extensive, and 83% of deleterious SLC variants were only identified in a single population. Interestingly, population-specific carrier frequencies of loss-of-function variants in SLC genes associated with recessive Mendelian disease recapitulated the ethnogeographic variation of the corresponding disorders, including cystinuria in Jewish individuals, type II citrullinemia in East Asians, and lysinuric protein intolerance in Finns, thus providing a powerful resource for clinical geneticists to inform about population-specific prevalence and allelic composition of Mendelian SLC diseases. In summary, we present the most comprehensive data set of SLC variability published to date, which can provide insights into inter-individual differences in SLC transporter function and guide the optimization of population-specific genotyping strategies in the bourgeoning fields of personalized medicine and precision public health.

SUBMITTER: Schaller L 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6874521 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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