The genetic landscape of the human solute carrier (SLC) transporter superfamily.
ABSTRACT: The human solute carrier (SLC) superfamily of transporters is comprised of over 400 membrane-bound proteins, and plays essential roles in a multitude of physiological and pharmacological processes. In addition, perturbation of SLC transporter function underlies numerous human diseases, which renders SLC transporters attractive drug targets. Common genetic polymorphisms in SLC genes have been associated with inter-individual differences in drug efficacy and toxicity. However, despite their tremendous clinical relevance, epidemiological data of these variants are mostly derived from heterogeneous cohorts of small sample size and the genetic SLC landscape beyond these common variants has not been comprehensively assessed. In this study, we analyzed Next-Generation Sequencing data from 141,456 individuals from seven major human populations to evaluate genetic variability, its functional consequences, and ethnogeographic patterns across the entire SLC superfamily of transporters. Importantly, of the 204,287 exonic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) which we identified, 99.8% were present in less than 1% of analyzed alleles. Comprehensive computational analyses using 13 partially orthogonal algorithms that predict the functional impact of genetic variations based on sequence information, evolutionary conservation, structural considerations, and functional genomics data revealed that each individual genome harbors 29.7 variants with putative functional effects, of which rare variants account for 18%. Inter-ethnic variability was found to be extensive, and 83% of deleterious SLC variants were only identified in a single population. Interestingly, population-specific carrier frequencies of loss-of-function variants in SLC genes associated with recessive Mendelian disease recapitulated the ethnogeographic variation of the corresponding disorders, including cystinuria in Jewish individuals, type II citrullinemia in East Asians, and lysinuric protein intolerance in Finns, thus providing a powerful resource for clinical geneticists to inform about population-specific prevalence and allelic composition of Mendelian SLC diseases. In summary, we present the most comprehensive data set of SLC variability published to date, which can provide insights into inter-individual differences in SLC transporter function and guide the optimization of population-specific genotyping strategies in the bourgeoning fields of personalized medicine and precision public health.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a superfamily of 48 structurally similar membrane transporters that mediate the ATP-dependent cellular export of a plethora of endogenous and xenobiotic substances. Importantly, genetic variants in ABC genes that affect gene function have clinically important effects on drug disposition and can be predictors of the risk of adverse drug reactions and efficacy of chemotherapeutics, calcium channel blockers, and protease inhibitors. Furthermore, loss-of-function of ABC transporters is associated with a variety of congenital disorders. Despite their clinical importance, information about the frequencies and global distribution of functionally relevant ABC variants is limited and little is known about the overall genetic complexity of this important gene family. Here, we systematically mapped the genetic landscape of the entire human ABC superfamily using Next-Generation Sequencing data from 138,632 individuals across seven major populations. Overall, we identified 62,793 exonic variants, 98.5% of which were rare. By integrating five computational prediction algorithms with structural mapping approaches using experimentally determined crystal structures, we found that the functional ABC variability is extensive and highly population-specific. Every individual harbored between 9.3 and 13.9 deleterious ABC variants, 76% of which were found only in a single population. Carrier rates of pathogenic variants in ABC transporter genes associated with autosomal recessive congenital diseases, such as cystic fibrosis or pseudoxanthoma elasticum, closely mirrored the corresponding population-specific disease prevalence, thus providing a novel resource for rare disease epidemiology. Combined, we provide the most comprehensive, systematic, and consolidated overview of ethnogeographic ABC transporter variability with important implications for personalized medicine, clinical genetics, and precision public health.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Inter-individual differences in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD encoding DPD) and thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity are important predictors for fluoropyrimidine and thiopurine toxicity. While several variants in these genes are known to decrease enzyme activities, many additional genetic variations with unclear functional consequences have been identified, complicating informed clinical decision-making in the respective carriers.<h4>Methods</h4>We used a novel pharmacogenetically trained ensemble classifier to analyse DPYD and TPMT genetic variability based on sequencing data from 138,842 individuals across eight populations.<h4>Results</h4>The algorithm accurately predicted in vivo consequences of DPYD and TPMT variants (accuracy 91.4% compared to 95.3% in vitro). Further analysis showed high genetic complexity of DPD deficiency, advocating for sequencing-based DPYD profiling, whereas genotyping of four variants in TPMT was sufficient to explain >95% of phenotypic TPMT variability. Lastly, we provided population-scale profiles of ethnogeographic variability in DPD and TPMT phenotypes, and revealed striking interethnic differences in frequency and genetic constitution of DPD and TPMT deficiency.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results provide the most comprehensive data set of DPYD and TPMT variability published to date with important implications for population-adjusted genetic profiling strategies of fluoropyrimidine and thiopurine risk factors and precision public health.
Project description:Autosomal recessive (AR) disorders pose a significant burden for public health. However, despite their clinical importance, epidemiology and molecular genetics of many AR diseases remain poorly characterized. Here, we analyzed the genetic variability of 508 genes associated with AR disorders based on sequencing data from 141,456 individuals across seven ethnogeographic groups by integrating variants with documented pathogenicity from ClinVar, with stringent functionality predictions for variants with unknown pathogenicity. We first validated our model using 85 diseases for which population-specific prevalence data were available and found that our estimates strongly correlated with the respective clinically observed disease frequencies (r = 0.68; p < 0.0001). We found striking differences in population-specific disease prevalence with 101 AR diseases (27%) being limited to specific populations, while an additional 305 diseases (68%) differed more than tenfold across major ethnogeographic groups. Furthermore, by analyzing genetic AR disease complexity, we confirm founder effects for cystic fibrosis and Stargardt disease, and provide strong evidences for >25 additional population-specific founder mutations. The presented analyses reveal the molecular genetics of AR diseases with unprecedented resolution and provide insights into epidemiology, complexity, and population-specific founder effects. These data can serve as a powerful resource for clinical geneticists to inform population-adjusted genetic screening programs, particularly in otherwise understudied ethnogeographic groups.
Project description:The wild Solanum pimpinellifolium (SP) and the weedy S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (SLC) are largely unexploited genetic reservoirs easily accessible to breeders, as they are fully cross-compatible with cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum var. lycopersicum). We performed a comprehensive morphological and genomic characterization of four wild SP and four weedy SLC accessions, selected to maximize the range of variation of both taxa. These eight accessions are the founders of the first tomato interspecific multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population. The morphoagronomic characterization was carried out with 39 descriptors to assess plant, inflorescence, fruit and agronomic traits, revealing the broad range of diversity captured. Part of the morphological variation observed in SP was likely associated to the adaptation of the accessions to different environments, while in the case of SLC to both human activity and adaptation to the environment. Whole-genome resequencing of the eight accessions revealed over 12 million variants, ranging from 1.2 to 1.9 million variants in SLC and from 3.1 to 4.8 million in SP, being 46.3% of them (4,897,803) private variants. The genetic principal component analysis also confirmed the high diversity of SP and the complex evolutionary history of SLC. This was also reflected in the analysis of the potential footprint of common ancestors or old introgressions identified within and between the two taxa. The functional characterization of the variants revealed a significative enrichment of GO terms related to changes in cell walls that would have been negatively selected during domestication and breeding. The comprehensive morphoagronomic and genetic characterization of these accessions will be of great relevance for the genetic analysis of the first interspecific MAGIC population of tomato and provides valuable knowledge and tools to the tomato community for genetic and genomic studies and for breeding purposes.
Project description:Members of the solute carrier (SLC) family of transporters are responsible for the cellular influx of a broad range of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics in multiple tissues. Many of these transporters are highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney and are considered to be of particular importance in governing drug absorption, elimination, and cellular sensitivity of specific organs to a wide variety of oncology drugs. Although the majority of studies on the interaction of oncology drugs with SLC have been restricted to the use of exploratory in vitro model systems, emerging evidence suggests that several SLCs, including OCT2 and OATP1B1, contribute to clinically important phenotypes associated with those agents. Recent literature has indicated that modulation of SLC activity may result in drug-drug interactions, and genetic polymorphisms in SLC genes have been described that can affect the handling of substrates. Alteration of SLC function by either of these mechanisms has been demonstrated to contribute to interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics and toxicity associated with several oncology drugs. In this report, we provide an update on this rapidly emerging field.
Project description:Apical reabsorption from the urine has been shown to be important for such processes as the maintenance of critical metabolites in the blood and the excretion of nephrotoxic compounds. The solute carrier (SLC) transporter OAT4 (SLC22A11) is expressed on the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells and is known to mediate the transport of a variety of xenobiotic and endogenous organic anions. Functional characterization of genetic variants of apical transporters thought to mediate reabsorption, such as OAT4, may provide insight into the genetic factors influencing the complex pathways involved in drug elimination and metabolite reclamation occurring in the kidney. Naturally occurring genetic variants of OAT4 were identified in public databases and by resequencing DNA samples from 272 individuals comprising 4 distinct ethnic groups. Nine total nonsynonymous variants were identified and functionally assessed using uptake of three radiolabeled substrates. A nonsense variant, R48Stop, and three other variants (R121C, V155G, and V155M) were found at frequencies of at least 2% in an ethnic group specific fashion. The L29P, R48Stop, and H469R variants displayed a complete loss of function, and kinetic analysis identified a reduced V(max) in the common nonsynonymous variants. Plasma membrane levels of OAT4 protein were absent or reduced in the nonfunctional variants, providing a mechanistic reason for the observed loss of function. Characterization of the genetic variants of reabsorptive transporters such as OAT4 is an important step in understanding variability in tubular reabsorption with important implications in innate homeostatic processes and drug disposition.
Project description:Solute carrier (SLC) transporters - a family of more than 300 membrane-bound proteins that facilitate the transport of a wide array of substrates across biological membranes - have important roles in physiological processes ranging from the cellular uptake of nutrients to the absorption of drugs and other xenobiotics. Several classes of marketed drugs target well-known SLC transporters, such as neurotransmitter transporters, and human genetic studies have provided powerful insight into the roles of more-recently characterized SLC transporters in both rare and common diseases, indicating a wealth of new therapeutic opportunities. This Review summarizes knowledge on the roles of SLC transporters in human disease, describes strategies to target such transporters, and highlights current and investigational drugs that modulate SLC transporters, as well as promising drug targets.
Project description:Polymorphisms in drug transporters, like the adenosine triposphate-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) superfamilies, may contribute to the observed diversity in drug response in African patients. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary and analysis of the frequencies and distributions in African populations of ABC and SLC variants that affect drug pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Of polymorphisms evaluated in African populations, SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and SLC22A6 rs1158626 were found at markedly higher frequencies than in non-African populations. SLCO1B1 rs4149056 was associated with reduction in rifampin exposure, which has implications for dosing this important anti-tuberculosis therapy. SLC22A6 rs1158626 was associated with increased affinity for antiretroviral drugs. Genetic diversity in SLC and ABC transporters in African populations has implications for conventional therapies, notably in tuberculosis and HIV. More PK and PD data in African populations are needed to assess potential for a different response to drugs compared with other global populations.
Project description:Hydroxyurea has proven laboratory and clinical therapeutic benefits for sickle cell anemia and other diseases, yet many questions remain about its in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Previous reports suggest that hydroxyurea passively diffuses across cells, but its observed rapid absorption and distribution are more consistent with facilitated or active transport. We investigated the potential role of solute carrier (SLC) transporters in cellular uptake and accumulation of hydroxyurea.Passive diffusion of hydroxyurea across cell membranes was determined using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. SLC transporter screens were conducted using in vitro intracellular drug accumulation and transcellular transport assays in cell lines and oocytes overexpressing SLC transporters. Gene expression of SLC transporters was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in human tissues and cell lines.Hydroxyurea had minimal diffusion across a lipid bilayer but was a substrate for five different SLC transporters belonging to the organic cation/carnitine transporters and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) families of transporters and urea transporters A and B. Further characterization of hydroxyurea transport revealed that cellular uptake by OATP1B3 is time- and temperature-dependent and inhibited by known substrates of OATP1B3. Urea transporters A and B are expressed differentially in human tissues and erythroid cells, and transport hydroxyurea bidirectionally via facilitated diffusion.These studies provide new insight into drug transport proteins that may be involved in the in vivo absorption, cellular distribution, and elimination of hydroxyurea. Elucidation of hydroxyurea transcellular movement should improve our understanding of its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and may help explain some of the interpatient drug variability observed in patients with sickle cell anemia.
Project description:Genes central to drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) also regulate numerous endogenous molecules. The Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis argues that an ADME gene-centered network-including SLC and ABC "drug" transporters, "drug" metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), and regulatory genes-is essential for inter-organ communication via metabolites, signaling molecules, antioxidants, gut microbiome products, uremic solutes, and uremic toxins. By cross-tissue co-expression network analysis, the gut, liver, and kidney (GLK) formed highly connected tissue-specific clusters of SLC transporters, ABC transporters, and DMEs. SLC22, SLC25 and SLC35 families were network hubs, having more inter-organ and intra-organ connections than other families. Analysis of the GLK network revealed key physiological pathways (e.g., involving bile acids and uric acid). A search for additional genes interacting with the network identified HNF4?, HNF1?, and PXR. Knockout gene expression data confirmed ~60-70% of predictions of ADME gene regulation by these transcription factors. Using the GLK network and known ADME genes, we built a tentative gut-liver-kidney "remote sensing and signaling network" consisting of SLC and ABC transporters, as well as DMEs and regulatory proteins. Together with protein-protein interactions to prioritize likely functional connections, this network suggests how multi-specificity combines with oligo-specificity and mono-specificity to regulate homeostasis of numerous endogenous small molecules.