Eating pathology and associations with long-term changes in weight and quality of life in the longitudinal assessment of bariatric surgery study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:This study examines the course of eating pathology and its associations with change in weight and health-related quality of life following bariatric surgery. METHOD:Participants (N =?184) completed the eating disorder examination-bariatric surgery version (EDE-BSV) and the medical outcomes study 36-Item short form health survey (SF-36) prior to and annually following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) for up to 7?years. RESULTS:The prevalence of ? weekly loss of control (LOC) eating, picking/nibbling, and cravings declined post-RYGB and remained lower through 7 years (LOC: 5.4% at Year-7 vs. 16.2% pre-RYGB, p =?.03; picking/nibbling: 7.0% vs. 32.4%, p
Project description:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception, which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss.Subjects were studied before and after ?20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 17) or LAGB (n = 10). The following have been evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli, sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences, sweetness palatability, eating behavior, and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae.Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (-12 ± 10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (-7 ± 5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (-22 ± 5%), influence of emotions (-27 ± 5%), and external food cues (-30 ± 4%) on eating behavior, and expression of ?-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P = 0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds nor MSG preferences.LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved.
Project description:BACKGROUND:History of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk of mental disorders, eating pathology, and obesity. OBJECTIVE:To examine associations between childhood trauma and changes in depressive symptoms, eating pathology, and weight after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). SETTING:Three U.S. academic medical centers. METHOD:Adults undergoing bariatric surgery (2007-2011) were enrolled in a cohort study. Participants (96 of 114; 86%) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-1 (BDI-1) to assess depressive symptomology, the interviewer-administered Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) to assess subthreshold eating pathology, weight assessment before and 6 months and annually after RYGB for ?7 years, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) once post-RYGB. RESULTS:Presurgery, median age was 46 years, and median body mass index was 47 kg/m2; 79% were female. Data completeness across 7-year follow-up was 78% to 90%, 66% to 91%, and 93% to 100% for the BDI-1, EDE, and weight, respectively. Using mixed models, presence/severity of childhood emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect, but not sexual abuse or physical abuse, were significantly associated (P < .05) with change (i.e., less improvement/worsening) in the BDI-1 and EDE global scores, as were higher total CTQ score and more types of moderate-intensity trauma. All CTQ measures were associated (P < .05) with less improvement or worsening in the EDE eating concern and shape concern scores. CTQ measures were not significantly related to weight loss or regain. CONCLUSIONS:Although childhood trauma did not affect weight outcomes after RYGB, those who experienced childhood trauma had less improvement in depressive symptomology and eating pathology and therefore might benefit from clinical intervention.
Project description:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are anatomically different bariatric operations. RYGB achieves greater weight loss compared with LAGB. Changes in the gut microbiome have been documented after RYGB, but not LAGB, and the microbial contribution to sustainable surgical weight loss warrants further evaluation. We hypothesized that RYGB imposes greater changes on the microbiota and its metabolism than LAGB, and that the altered microbiota may contribute to greater weight loss. Using multi-omic approaches, we analyzed fecal microbial community structure and metabolites of pre-bariatric surgery morbidly obese (PreB-Ob), normal weight (NW), post-RYGB, and post-LAGB participants. RYGB microbiomes were significantly different from those from NW, LAGB and PreB-Ob. Microbiome differences between RYGB and PreB-Ob populations were mirrored in their metabolomes. Diversity was higher in RYGB compared with LAGB, possibly because of an increase in the abundance of facultative anaerobic, bile-tolerant and acid-sensible microorganisms in the former. Possibly because of lower gastric acid exposure, phylotypes from the oral cavity, such as Escherichia, Veillonella and Streptococcus, were in greater abundance in the RYGB group, and their abundances positively correlated with percent excess weight loss. Many of these post-RYGB microorganisms are capable of amino-acid fermentation. Amino-acid and carbohydrate fermentation products-isovalerate, isobutyrate, butyrate and propionate-were prevalent in RYGB participants, but not in LAGB participants. RYGB resulted in greater alteration of the gut microbiome and metabolome than LAGB, and RYGB group exhibited unique microbiome composed of many amino-acid fermenters, compared with nonsurgical controls.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The superior effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on glucose control compared with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is confounded by the greater weight loss after RYGB. We therefore examined the effect of these two surgeries on metabolic parameters matched on small and large amounts of weight loss. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Severely obese individuals with type 2 diabetes were tested for glucose metabolism, β-cell function, and insulin sensitivity after oral and intravenous glucose stimuli, before and 1 year after RYGB and LAGB, and at 10% and 20% weight loss after each surgery. RESULTS:RYGB resulted in greater glucagon-like peptide 1 release and incretin effect, compared with LAGB, at any level of weight loss. RYGB decreased glucose levels (120 min and area under the curve for glucose) more than LAGB at 10% weight loss. However, the improvement in glucose metabolism, the rate of diabetes remission and use of diabetes medications, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function were similar after the two types of surgery after 20% equivalent weight loss. CONCLUSIONS:Although RYGB retained its unique effect on incretins, the superiority of the effect of RYGB over that of LAGB on glucose metabolism, which is apparent after 10% weight loss, was attenuated after larger weight loss.
Project description:Data from studies conducted in animal models suggest that intestinal glucose uptake and metabolism are upregulated after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, which contributes to a weight-loss-independent improvement in glycemic control.We conducted a cohort study to evaluate whether an increase in gastrointestinal metabolism of ingested glucose occurs in obese people who underwent RYGB compared with those who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB).A mixed meal containing stable isotope-labeled glucose was used to determine the gastrointestinal (small intestine and liver) retention, and presumably metabolism, of ingested glucose in obese subjects before and after matched weight loss (∼21%) induced by RYGB (n = 16) or LAGB (n = 9).The total percentage of ingested glucose that appeared in the systemic circulation was slightly lower after than before RYGB (85% ± 9% and 90% ± 8%, respectively) but was slightly higher after than before LAGB (89% ± 3% and 85% ± 4%, respectively) (P-interaction < 0.05). Accordingly, gastrointestinal clearance of ingested glucose (cumulative percentage cleared over 6 h postprandially) increased after RYGB (from 10% ± 8% before to 15% ± 9% after surgery) but decreased after LAGB (from 15% ± 4% before to 11% ± 3% after surgery) (P < 0.05). Surgery-induced weight loss caused a similar decrease in the 6-h postprandial plasma glucose area under the curve in both RYGB and LAGB groups (-4% ± 9% and -6% ± 5%, respectively; P = 0.475).These data support the notion that intestinal glucose disposal increases after RYGB surgery. However, the magnitude of the effect was small and did not result in weight-loss-independent therapeutic effects on postprandial glycemic control. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00981500.
Project description:Limited data guide the prediction of weight loss success or failure after bariatric surgery according to presurgery factors. There is significant variation in weight change after bariatric surgery and much interest in identifying preoperative factors that may contribute to these differences. This report evaluates the associations of a comprehensive set of baseline factors and 3-year weight change.Ten hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers in the United States.Adults undergoing a first bariatric surgical procedure as part of clinical care by participating surgeons were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Participants completed research assessments utilizing standardized and detailed data collection on over 100 preoperative and operative parameters for individuals undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Weight was measured 3 years after surgery. Percent weight change for RYGB or LAGB from baseline to 3 years was analyzed as both a continuous and dichotomous outcome with cut points at 25% for RYGB and 10% for LAGB. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to identify independent baseline predictors of the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively.The median weight loss 3 years after surgery for RYGB (n = 1513) participants was 31.5% (IQR: 24.6%-38.4%; range, 59.2% loss to .9% gain) of baseline weight and 16.0% (IQR: 8.1%-23.1%; range, 56.1% loss to 12.5% gain) for LAGB (n = 509) participants. The median age was 46 years for RYGB and 48 years for LAGB; 80% of RYGB participants and 75% of LAGB participants were female; and the median baseline body mass index (BMI) was 46 kg/m(2) for RYGB and 44 kg/m(2) for LAGB. For RYGB, black participants lost 2.7% less weight compared with whites and participants with diabetes at baseline had 3.7% less weight loss at year 3 than those without diabetes at baseline. There were small but statistically significant differences in weight change for RYGB in those with abnormal kidney function and current or recent smoking. For LAGB participants, those with a large band circumference had 75% greater odds of experiencing less than 10% weight loss after adjusting for BMI and sex.Few baseline variables were associated with 3-year weight change and the effects were small. These results indicate that baseline variables have limited predictive value for an individual's chance of a successful weight loss outcome after bariatric surgery.NCT00465829, ClinicalTrials.gov.
Project description:Severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] ?35) is associated with a broad range of health risks. Bariatric surgery induces weight loss and short-term health improvements, but little is known about long-term outcomes of these operations.To report 3-year change in weight and select health parameters after common bariatric surgical procedures.The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Consortium is a multicenter observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers. PARTICIPANTS AND EXPOSURE: Adults undergoing first-time bariatric surgical procedures as part of routine clinical care by participating surgeons were recruited between 2006 and 2009 and followed up until September 2012. Participants completed research assessments prior to surgery and 6 months, 12 months, and then annually after surgery.Three years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), we assessed percent weight change from baseline and the percentage of participants with diabetes achieving hemoglobin A1c levels less than 6.5% or fasting plasma glucose values less than 126 mg/dL without pharmacologic therapy. Dyslipidemia and hypertension resolution at 3 years was also assessed.At baseline, participants (N?=?2458) were 18 to 78 years old, 79% were women, median BMI was 45.9 (IQR, 41.7-51.5), and median weight was 129 kg (IQR, 115-147). For their first bariatric surgical procedure, 1738 participants underwent RYGB, 610 LAGB, and 110 other procedures. At baseline, 774 (33%) had diabetes, 1252 (63%) dyslipidemia, and 1601 (68%) hypertension. Three years after surgery, median actual weight loss for RYGB participants was 41 kg (IQR, 31-52), corresponding to a percentage of baseline weight lost of 31.5% (IQR, 24.6%-38.4%). For LAGB participants, actual weight loss was 20 kg (IQR, 10-29), corresponding to 15.9% (IQR, 7.9%-23.0%). The majority of weight loss was evident 1 year after surgery for both procedures. Five distinct weight change trajectory groups were identified for each procedure. Among participants who had diabetes at baseline, 216 RYGB participants (67.5%) and 28 LAGB participants (28.6%) experienced partial remission at 3 years. The incidence of diabetes was 0.9% after RYGB and 3.2% after LAGB. Dyslipidemia resolved in 237 RYGB participants (61.9%) and 39 LAGB participants (27.1%); remission of hypertension occurred in 269 RYGB participants (38.2%) and 43 LAGB participants (17.4%).Among participants with severe obesity, there was substantial weight loss 3 years after bariatric surgery, with the majority experiencing maximum weight change during the first year. However, there was variability in the amount and trajectories of weight loss and in diabetes, blood pressure, and lipid outcomes.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00465829.
Project description:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to high-turnover bone loss, but little is known about skeletal effects of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) or mechanisms underlying bone loss after bariatric surgery.To evaluate effects of RYGB and LAGB on fasting and postprandial indices of bone remodeling.Ancillary investigation of a prospective study at 2 academic institutions.Obese adults aged 21-65 years with type 2 diabetes who underwent RYGB (n = 11) or LAGB (n = 8).Serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and PTH were measured during a mixed meal tolerance test at baseline, 10 days and 1 year after surgery. Changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D, polypeptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, and insulin were also assessed.Fasting CTX increased 10 days after RYGB but not LAGB (+69 ± 23% vs +12±12%, P < .001), despite comparable weight loss at that time. By 1 year, fasting CTX and P1NP increased more after RYGB than LAGB (CTX +221 ± 60% vs +15 ± 6%, P<0.001; P1NP +93 ± 25% vs -9 ± 10%, P < .001) and weight loss was greater with RYGB. Changes in CTX were independent of PTH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D but were associated with increases in fasting PYY. Postprandial suppression of CTX was more pronounced after RYGB than LAGB at 10 days and 1 year postoperatively.RYGB is accompanied by early increases in fasting indices of bone remodeling, independent of weight loss or changes in PTH or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. LAGB did not affect bone markers. PYY and other enterohormonal signals may play a role in RYGB-specific skeletal changes.
Project description:Bariatric surgery has proved to be an effective strategy in treating obesity. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of 3 most common bariatric surgery procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB), reported inconsistent results. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis to synthesize evidence of effectiveness of the 3 common bariatric procedures from relevant RCTs.The present study was a systematic review and network meta-analysis of RCTs. All RCTs must meet the following criteria to be included in the analysis: patients with body mass index (BMI) ?30?kg/m, reported at least 1 outcome of interest, compared at least 2 of the 3 bariatric procedures, and had follow-ups of at least 1 year. Primary outcome was weight loss, expressed as differences in mean BMI reduction and percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) following 1 year after the surgery. Network meta-analysis was based on Bayesian framework with Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation approach.Eleven RCTs that met the criteria were included in the review. Of 9 trials (n?=?765), the differences in mean BMI reduction were -0.76 (95% CI: -3.1 to 1.6) for RYGB versus SG, -5.8 (95% CI: -9.2 to -2.4) for RYGB versus LAGB, and -5.0 (95% CI: -9.0 to -1.0) for SG versus LAGB. Eight RCTs (n?=?656) reported percentage excess weight-loss (%EWL), the mean differences between RYGB and SG, RYGB and LAGB, and SG and LAGB were 3.8% (95% CI: -8.5% to 13.8%), -22.2% (95% CI: -34.7% to -6.5%), and -26.0% (95% CI: -40.6% to -6.4%), respectively. The meta-analysis indicated low heterogeneity between studies, and the node splitting analysis showed that the studies were consistent between direct and indirect comparisons (P?>?.05).The RYGB and SG yielded similar in weight-loss effect and both were superior to LAGB. Other factors such as complications and patient preference should be considered during surgical consultations.