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Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promotes the Recruitment and Polarization of Macrophages in Cancer.


ABSTRACT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has a pro-tumorigenic function via its pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic activities. Here, we demonstrate that PAI-1 promotes the recruitment and M2 polarization of monocytes/macrophages through different structural domains. Its LRP1 interacting domain regulated macrophage migration, while its C-terminal uPA interacting domain promoted M2 macrophage polarization through activation of p38MAPK and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and induction of an autocrine interleukin (IL)-6/STAT3 activation pathway. We then show in several experiments in mice that expression of PAI-1 is associated with increased tumorigenicity, increased presence of M2 macrophages, higher levels of IL-6, and increased STAT3 phosphorylation in macrophages. Strong positive correlations between PAI-1, IL-6, and CD163 (M2 marker) expression were also found by meta-analysis of transcriptome data in many human cancers. Altogether, these data provide evidence for a mechanism explaining the paradoxical pro-tumorigenic function of PAI-1 in cancer.

SUBMITTER: Kubala MH 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6876299 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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