MSC-secreted TGF-? regulates lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage M2-like polarization via the Akt/FoxO1 pathway.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:An uncontrolled inflammatory response is a critical pathophysiological feature of sepsis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induce macrophage phenotype polarization and reduce inflammation in sepsis. MSC-secreted transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) participated in the immune modulatory function of MSCs. However, the underlying mechanism of MSC-secreted TGF-? was not fully elucidated in regulation macrophage M2-like polarization. METHODS:The paracrine effects of MSCs on macrophage polarization were studied using a co-culture protocol with LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells/mouse peritoneal macrophages and MSCs. The effect of TGF-? in the co-culture system was blocked by the TGF-? receptor inhibitor. To determine the role of MSC-secreted TGF-?, we used recombinant TGF-? to culture with LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, we employed antibody microarray analysis to determine the mechanisms of MSC secreted TGF-? on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cell/mouse peritoneal macrophage M2-like polarization. Furthermore, we used an Akt inhibitor and a FoxO1 inhibitor to inhibit the Akt/FoxO1 pathway. The nuclear translocation of FoxO1 was detected by Western blot. RESULTS:MSCs induced LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cell/mouse peritoneal macrophage polarization towards the M2-like phenotype and significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels via paracrine, which was inhibited by TGF-? receptor inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that MSC-secreted TGF-? enhanced the macrophage phagocytic ability. The antibody microarray analysis and Western blot verified that TGF-? treatment activated the Akt/FoxO1 pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophages, TGF-?-induced FoxO1 nuclear translocation and obviously expressed in the cytoplasm, the effects of TGF-? regulatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage were inhibited by pre-treatment with Akt inhibitor and FoxO1 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS:TGF-? secreted by MSCs could skew LPS-stimulated macrophage polarization towards the M2-like phenotype, reduce inflammatory reactions, and improve the phagocytic ability via the Akt/FoxO1 pathway, providing potential therapeutic strategies for sepsis.
Project description:Therapeutic treatment of various inflammation-related diseases using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has increased in recent years because of the paracrine action of these cells but shows several limitations. First, MSC-based therapies exhibit varying efficacies; thus, biomarkers should be determined to identify who may benefit from these candidate therapeutic agents. Second, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects is poorly understood. To evaluate the effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (UCB-MSCs) on macrophages, the macrophage cell line NR8383 stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was cocultured by UCB-MSCs. We found that UCB-MSCs mediated changes in macrophage polarization towards M2 from M1 macrophages. To identify the paracrine action underlying the anti-inflammation effect of UCB-MSCs, the secretion of UCB-MSCs exposed to LPS-stimulated NR8383 cells was tested using a biotin label-based 507 antibody array. Among the secreted proteins, we selected pentraxin-related protein PTX3/tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 14 protein (PTX3) to investigate its association with UCB-MSCs in macrophage polarization. We found that human PTX3 was secreted from UCB-MSCs under inflammation condition and reinforced the M2 macrophage marker via the Dectin-1 receptor by activating MSK1/2 phosphorylation signaling in NR8383 cells. Accordingly, knockdown of PTX3 in UCB-MSCs significantly attenuated their therapeutic effects in a neonatal hyperoxic lung injury resulting in reduced survival, lung alveolarization, M2 marker expression, Dectin-1 levels, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and improved M1 marker expression and inflammatory cytokines compared to control MSC-injected rats. UCB-MSCs show therapeutic potential by controlling macrophage polarization. Interestingly, higher PTX3 levels in UCB-MSCs induced greater improvement in the therapeutic effects than lower PTX3 levels. Collectively, PTX3 is a potential marker with critical paracrine effects for predicting the therapeutic potential of MSC therapy in inflammatory diseases; quality control assessments using PTX3 may be useful for improving the therapeutic effects of UCB-MSCs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During the last decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained much attention in the field of regenerative medicine due to their capacity to differentiate into different cell types and to promote immunosuppressive effects. However, the underlying mechanism of MSC-mediated immunoregulation is not fully understood so far. Macrophages are distinguished in classical activated, pro-inflammatory M1 and alternatively activated M2 cells, which possess different functions and transcriptional profiles with respect to inflammatory responses. As polarization is not fixed, macrophage functional plasticity might be modulated by the microenvironment allowing them to rapidly react to danger signals and maintaining tissue homeostasis. METHODS:Murine MSCs were preconditioned with IL-1ß and IFN-? to enhance their immunosuppressive capacity regarding macrophage polarization under M1- and M2a-polarizing conditions. Macrophage polarization was analyzed by real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and cytokine detection in culture supernatants. The role of MSC-derived nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and IL-6 in this process has been evaluated using siRNA transfection and IL-6 receptor-deficient macrophages, respectively. RESULTS:Preconditioned, but not unprimed, MSCs secreted high levels of NO, IL-6, and PGE2. Co-culture with macrophages (M0) in the presence of M1 inducers (LPS?+?IFN-?) led to significant reduction of CD86 and iNOS protein in macrophages and diminished TNF-? secretion. Additionally, CD86 and iNOS protein expression as well as NO and IL-10 secretion were markedly increased under M2a-polarizing culture conditions (IL-4). MSC-dependent macrophage polarization did not depend on direct cell-cell contact. Co-culturing in the presence of LPS and IFN-? resulted in the upregulation of M2a, M2b, and M2c marker genes, whereas in the presence of IL-4 only M2b markers were significantly increased. In turn, IL-10-producing regulatory M2b cells significantly inhibited IFN-? expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Finally, we show that MSC-mediated macrophage polarization strongly depends on IL-6, whereas a minor role for NO and PGE2 was found. CONCLUSIONS:Preconditioning of MSCs highly strengthens their capacity to regulate macrophage features and to promote immunosuppression. Repression of M1 polarization during inflammation and M2b polarization under anti-inflammatory conditions strongly depend on functional IL-6 signaling in macrophages. The potential benefit of preconditioned MSCs and IL-6 should be considered for future clinical treatment.
Project description:: The regulation of microglial cell phenotype is a potential therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative disease. Previously, we reported that transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) levels in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) could be used as potential biological markers to predict the effectiveness of autologous MSC therapy in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the underlying mechanism of TGF-? in MSCs was not fully elucidated in determining the functional properties of microglia. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of TGF-? that is involved in MSC effectiveness, especially focusing on microglia functional properties that play a pivotal role in neuroinflammation. We found that MSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM) inhibited proinflammatory cytokine expression, restored alternative activated microglia phenotype markers (fractalkine receptor, mannose receptor, CD200 receptor), and enhanced phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia. In addition, TGF-? in MSC-CM played a major role in these effects by inhibiting the nuclear factor-?B pathway and restoring the TGF-? pathway in LPS-stimulated microglia. Recombinant TGF-? also induced similar effects to MSC-CM in LPS-stimulated microglia. Therefore, we propose that MSCs can modulate the functional properties of microglia via TGF-? secretion, switching them from a classically activated phenotype to an inflammation-resolving phenotype. The latter role may be associated with the inhibition of neuroinflammatory processes in neurodegenerative disorders.<h4>Significance</h4>The results of this study showed that microglia functional properties may be modulated depending on the composition and quantity of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-secreting factors. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? is proposed as a modulator of microglia functional properties among MSC-secreting factors, and this study aligns with a previous clinical study by these same authors. TGF-? releasing capacity could be an important factor enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in clinical trials.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of myricetin in a diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model and the underlying mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard chow or the choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) for 8 weeks with the treatment of myricetin (100 mg/kg) or vehicle by daily gavage. Hepatic inflammation, steatosis, fibrosis, and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation were assessed. We also analyzed M1 and M2 macrophages and its related markers in livers from NASH mice and in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin 4 (IL-4) in vitro. Furthermore, we determined the effect of myricetin on the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1), toll like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling both in livers from mice and in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. Our results revealed that myricetin remarkably ameliorated hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and inhibited hepatic macrophage infiltration in CDAHFD-fed mice. Myricetin-treated to CDAHFD-fed mice also inhibited liver fibrosis and HSC activation when compared with vehicle-treated to those mice. Moreover, myricetin inhibited M1 macrophage polarization and its relative markers in livers of NASH mice while induced M2 polarization. Similarly, in vitro study, myricetin inhibited the LPS-induced mRNA expression of M1 macrophages marker genes and induced IL-4-induced M2 macrophage marker genes in RAW264.7 macrophages. Mechanically, myricetin inhibited the expression of TREM-1 and TLR2/4-MyD88 signaling molecules in livers from NASH mice and in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by LPS in vitro. Additionally, myricetin inhibited the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling and the phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Taken together, our data indicated that myricetin modulated the polarization of macrophages via inhibiting the TREM-1-TLR2/4-MyD88 signaling molecules in macrophages and therefore mitigated NASH and hepatic fibrosis in the CDAHFD-diet-induced NASH model in mice.
Project description:Induction of therapeutic mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) function is dependent upon activating factors present in diseased or injured tissue microenvironments. These functions include modulation of macrophage phenotype via secreted molecules including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Many approaches aim to optimize MSC-based therapies, including preconditioning using soluble factors and cell immobilization in biomaterials. However, optimization of MSC function is usually inefficient as only a few factors are manipulated in parallel. We utilized fractional factorial design of experiments to screen a panel of 6 molecules (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1?, interferon [IFN]-?, and IFN-?), individually and in combinations, for the upregulation of MSC PGE2 secretion and attenuation of macrophage secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, a pro-inflammatory molecule, by activated-MSC conditioned medium (CM). We used multivariable linear regression (MLR) and analysis of covariance to determine differences in functions of optimal factors on monolayer MSCs and alginate-encapsulated MSCs (eMSCs). The screen revealed that LPS and IL-1? potently activated monolayer MSCs to enhance PGE2 production and attenuate macrophage TNF-?. Activation by LPS and IL-1? together synergistically increased MSC PGE2, but did not synergistically reduce macrophage TNF-?. MLR and covariate analysis revealed that macrophage TNF-? was strongly dependent on the MSC activation factor, PGE2 level, and macrophage donor but not MSC culture format (monolayer versus encapsulated). The results demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using statistical approaches for higher throughput cell analysis. This approach can be extended to develop activation schemes to maximize MSC and MSC-biomaterial functions prior to transplantation to improve MSC therapies.
Project description:AIMS:Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) gradually become attractive candidates for cardiac inflammation modulation, yet understanding of the mechanism remains elusive. Strikingly, recent studies indicated that exosomes secreted by MSCs might be a novel mechanism for the beneficial effect of MSCs transplantation after myocardial infarction. We therefore explored the role of MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) in the immunomodulation of macrophages after myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and its implications in cardiac injury repair. METHODS AND RESULTS:Exosomes were isolated from the supernatant of MSCs using gradient centrifugation method. Administration of MSC-Exo to mice through intramyocardial injection after myocardial I/R reduced infarct size and alleviated inflammation level in heart and serum. Systemic depletion of macrophages with clodronate liposomes abolished the curative effects of MSC-Exo. MSC-Exo modified the polarization of M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages both in vivo and in vitro. miRNA sequencing of MSC-Exo and bioinformatics analysis implicated miR-182 as a potent candidate mediator of macrophage polarization and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as a downstream target. Diminishing miR-182 in MSC-Exo partially attenuated its modulation of macrophage polarization. Likewise, knock down of TLR4 also conferred cardioprotective efficacy and reduced inflammation level in a mouse model of myocardial I/R. CONCLUSION:Our data indicate that MSC-Exo attenuates myocardial I/R injury in mice via shuttling miR-182 that modifies the polarization status of macrophages. This study sheds new light on the application of MSC-Exo as a potential therapeutic tool for myocardial I/R injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sepsis remains a leading cause of death in critically ill patients. It is well known that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapy partly due to their paracrine-mediated immunoregulatory function. Previous study demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) is an important cytokine secreted by MSCs and that it participates in MSC-mediated macrophage phenotype switch from pro-inflammatory to pro-resolution. In addition, the transformation of macrophage phenotype may be a potential treatment for sepsis. However, the therapeutic effect of overexpressing TGF-?1 in MSCs (MSC-TGF-?1) on sepsis is not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of TGF-?1 overexpressing MSCs on organ injury in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic mice and to detect the changes in macrophage phenotype during this process. METHODS:Mouse MSCs stably transfected with TGF-?1 were constructed and injected into CLP-induced septic mice via tail vein. After 24?h, the mice were sacrificed; then, the histopathology of the organ was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Inflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA. Macrophage infiltration and phenotype transformation in the tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. In addition, we performed adoptive transfer of mouse peritoneal macrophage pretreated with TGF-?1 overexpressing MSCs in septic mice. RESULTS:We found that infusion of TGF-?1 overexpressing MSCs attenuated the histopathological impairment of the organ, decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and inhibited macrophage infiltration in tissues. TGF-?1 overexpressing MSCs induced macrophage phenotypes changed from pro-inflammatory to pro-resolution in inflammatory environment. The adoptive transfer of mouse peritoneal macrophages pretreated with TGF-?1 overexpressing MSCs also relieved organ damage in CLP-induced septic mice. CONCLUSION:Under septic conditions, TGF-?1 overexpressing MSCs can enhance the therapeutic effects of MSCs on organ injury and inflammation as a result of reduced macrophage infiltration and induced macrophages transformation, the adoptive transfer of macrophages treated with TGF-?1 overexpressing MSCs also relieved organ damage. This will provide new hope for the treatment of sepsis.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs that play a significant role in biological processes in various cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, how miRNAs regulate the immunomodulatory functions of adipose-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) remains unknown. Here, we showed that modulation of miR-301a in AD-MSCs altered macrophage polarization. Bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages were stimulated with LPS (1??g/ml) and co-cultured with miRNA transfected AD-MSCs for 24?h. The expression of M1 and M2 markers in macrophages was analyzed. Inhibition of miR-301a induced M2 macrophage with arginase-1, CD163, CD206, and IL-10 upregulation. Additionally, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 mRNA expression in macrophages was downregulated in co-cultures with AD-MSCs transfected with a miR-301a inhibitor. Nitric oxide (NO) in the supernatant of AD-MSC/macrophage co-culture was also suppressed by inhibition of miR-301a in AD-MSCs. We further found that suppression of miR-301a in AD-MSCs increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in the conditioned medium of the co-culture. Taken together, the results of our study indicate that miR-301a can modulate the immunoregulatory functions of AD-MSCs that favor the applicability as a potential immunotherapeutic agent.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have become a promising candidate for cell-based immune therapy for acute rejection (AR) after heart transplantation due to possessing immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of soluble fibronectin-like protein 2 (sFgl2) overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells (sFgl2-MSCs) in inhibiting AR of heart transplantation in mice by regulating immune tolerance through inducing M2 phenotype macrophage polarization. METHODS AND RESULTS:The sFgl2, a novel immunomodulatory factor secreted by regulatory T cells, was transfected into MSCs to enhance their immunosuppressive functions. After being co-cultured for 72?h, the sFgl2-MSCs inhibited M1 polarization whereas promoted M2 of polarization macrophages through STAT1 and NF-?B pathways in vitro. Besides, the sFgl2-MSCs significantly enhanced the migration and phagocytosis ability of macrophages stimulated with interferon-? (IFN-?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Further, the application potential of sFgl2-MSCs in AR treatment was demonstrated by heterotopic cardiac transplantation in mice. The tissue damage and macrophage infiltration were evaluated by H&E and immunohistochemistry staining, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines was analyzed by ELISA. The results showed that sFgl2-MSCs injected intravenously were able to locate in the graft, promote the M2 polarization of macrophages in vivo, regulate the local and systemic immune response, significantly protect tissues from damaging, and finally prolonged the survival time of mice heart grafts. CONCLUSION:sFgl2-MSCs ameliorate AR of heart transplantation by regulating macrophages, which provides a new idea for the development of anti-AR treatment methods after heart transplantation.
Project description:Macrophages within adipose tissue play a key role in mediating inflammatory responses in adipose tissue that are associated with obesity-related metabolic complications. In an effort to identify novel proteins secreted from adipocytes that may negatively regulate macrophage inflammation, we found that peroxiredoxin (PRX)-like 2 activated in M-CSF stimulated monocytes (PAMM), a CXXC-type PRX-like 2 domain-containing redox regulatory protein, is a novel secreted protein with potent anti-inflammatory properties. PAMM is secreted from mature human adipocytes but not preadipocytes. Overexpression of PAMM significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage inflammation. Incubation of macrophages with adipocyte-conditional medium treated with anti-PAMM antibody significantly enhanced LPS-induced interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression in Raw264.7 cells. In addition, incubation of Raw264.7 cells with purified PAMM protein had a similar anti-inflammatory effect. Moreover, forced expression of PAMM in Raw264.7 cells resulted in decreased LPS-induced ERK1/2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, suggesting that PAMM exerted the anti-inflammatory function probably by suppressing the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. Mutations in the CXXC motif of PAMM that suppressed its anti-redox activity were still able to suppress production of inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages, suggesting that PAMM's anti-inflammatory properties may be independent of its antioxidant properties. Finally, PAMM was highly expressed in both white (WAT) and brown adipose tissues (BAT) and further increased in obesity status. Our results suggest that adipocyte-derived PAMM may suppress macrophage activation by inhibiting MAPK signalling pathway.