Pan-caspase inhibitor F573 mitigates liver ischemia reperfusion injury in a murine model.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a challenge in liver transplantation. A number of compounds have previously demonstrated efficacy in mitigating IRI. Herein, we applied three specific additive strategies to a mouse IRI screening model to determine their relative potencies in reducing such injury, with a view to future testing in a large animal and clinical ex situ normothermic perfusion setting: 1) F573, a pan-caspase inhibitor, 2) anti-inflammatory anakinra and etanrecept and 3) BMX-001, a mimetic of superoxide dismutase. METHODS:A non-lethal liver ischemia model in mice was used. Additives in the treatment groups were given at fixed time points before induction of injury, compared to a vehicle group that received no therapeutic treatment. Mice were recovered for 6 hours following the ischemic insult, at which point blood and tissue samples were obtained. Plasma was processed for transaminase levels. Whole liver tissue samples were processed for histology, markers of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and cytokine levels. RESULTS:In an in vivo murine IRI model, the F573 treatment group demonstrated statistically lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (p = 0.01), less evidence of apoptosis (p = 0.03), and lower cytokine levels compared to vehicle. The etanercept with anakinra treatment group demonstrated significantly lower cytokine levels. The BMX-001 group demonstrated significantly decreased apoptosis (p = 0.01) evident on TUNEL staining. CONCLUSIONS:The administration of pan-caspase inhibitor F573 in a murine in vivo model likely mitigates liver IRI based on decreased markers of cellular injury, decreased evidence of apoptosis, and improved cytokine profiles. Anakinra with etanercept, and BMX-001 did not demonstrate convincing efficacy at reducing IRI in this model, and likely need further optimization. The positive findings set rational groundwork for future translational studies of applying F573 during normothermic ex situ liver perfusion, with the aim of improving the quality of marginal grafts.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Extended criteria donor (ECD) livers are increasingly accepted for transplantation in an attempt to reduce the gap between the number of patients on the waiting list and the available number of donor livers. ECD livers; however, carry an increased risk of developing primary non-function (PNF), early allograft dysfunction (EAD) or post-transplant cholangiopathy. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) plays an important role in the development of these complications. Machine perfusion reduces IRI and allows for reconditioning and subsequent evaluation of liver grafts. Single or dual hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (DHOPE) (4°C-12°C) decreases IRI by resuscitation of mitochondria. Controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR) may further reduce IRI by preventing sudden temperature shifts. Subsequent normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) (37°C) allows for ex situ viability assessment to facilitate the selection of ECD livers with a low risk of PNF, EAD or post-transplant cholangiopathy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This prospective, single-arm study is designed to resuscitate and evaluate initially nationwide declined ECD livers. End-ischaemic DHOPE will be performed for the initial mitochondrial and graft resuscitation, followed by COR of the donor liver to a normothermic temperature. Subsequently, NMP will be continued to assess viability of the liver. Transplantation into eligible recipients will proceed if all predetermined viability criteria are met within the first 150?min of NMP. To facilitate machine perfusion at different temperatures, a perfusion solution containing a haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier will be used. With this protocol, we aim to transplant extra livers. The primary endpoint is graft survival at 3 months after transplantation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This protocol was approved by the medical ethical committee of Groningen, METc2016.281 in August 2016 and registered in the Dutch Trial registration number TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NTR5972, NCT02584283.
Project description:Loss of liver mass and ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) are major contributors to postresectional liver failure and small-for-size syndrome. Mesenchymal stromal cell- (MSC-) secreted factors are described to stimulate regeneration after partial hepatectomy. This study investigates if liver-derived MSC-secreted factors also promote liver regeneration after resection in the presence of IRI. C57BL/6 mice underwent IRI of 70% of their liver mass, alone or combined with 50% partial hepatectomy (PH). Mice were treated with MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) or unconditioned medium (UM) and sacrificed after 6 or 24 hours (IRI group) or after 48 hours (IRI + PH group). Blood and liver tissue were analyzed for tissue injury, hepatocyte proliferation, and gene expression. In the IRI alone model, serum ALT and AST levels, hepatic tissue damage, and inflammatory cytokine gene expression showed no significant differences between both treatment groups. In the IRI + PH model, significant reduction in hepatic tissue damage as well as a significant increase in hepatocyte proliferation was observed after MSC-CM treatment.Mesenchymal stromal cell-derived factors promote tissue regeneration of small-for-size livers exposed to ischemic conditions but do not protect against early ischemia and reperfusion injury itself. MSC-derived factors therefore represent a promising treatment strategy for small-for-size syndrome and postresectional liver failure.
Project description:Background and Aims: Liver transplantation is a successful treatment for patients with liver failure. However, organ shortage results in over 11% of patients loosing their chance of a transplant due to worsening of their liver disease. Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is the major cause leading to graft loss after liver transplantation. Therefore, novel methods of organ-preservation have been developed in recent years to minimize IRI. One such device is the OrganOx metra, a normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) device providing oxygen and nutrition to allow aerobic metabolism and minimizing IRI. OrganOx metra has presented with several advantages compared to conventional cold storage (CS). We aimed to confirm the impact of NMP on reducing IRI and to define the underling mechanisms. Methods: We compared 12 NMP with 27 CS-preserved livers by performing gene microarray, immunoprofiling of hepatic lymphocytes and immunochemistry staining of liver tissues for assessing necrosis, platelet deposition and neutrophil infiltration, and the status of steatosis after NMP or CS pre- and post-reperfusion. Results: Recipients receiving NMP grafts showed significantly lower peak AST levels than those receiving CS grafts. NMP altered gene-expression profiles of liver tissue from pro-inflammation to pro-healing and regeneration. NMP also reduced the number of IFN- and IL-17 producing T cells and enlarged CD4posCD25highCD127negFOXP3pos Treg pool. NMP liver tissues showed less necrosis and apoptosis in the parenchyma and fewer neutrophils and platelet infiltration compared to CS liver tissues. Conclusion: Reduced IRI in NMP recipients was the consequence of the combination of inhibiting inflammation and promoting graft regeneration. Overall design: Gene expression of 15 NMP with 11 preserved livers (CONTROL) under pre- and post-reperfusion.
Project description:The Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway regulates host cell defense responses against oxidative stress and maintains the cellular redox balance.We investigated the function/molecular mechanisms by which Keap1-Nrf2 complex may influence liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in a mouse model of hepatic cold storage (20h at 4°C) followed by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).The Keap1 hepatocyte-specific knockout (HKO) in the donor liver ameliorated post-transplant IRI, evidenced by improved hepatocellular function and OLT outcomes (Keap1 HKO?Keap1 HKO; 100% survival), as compared with controls (WT?WT; 50% survival; p<0.01). By contrast, donor liver Nrf2 deficiency exacerbated IRI in transplant recipients (Nrf2 KO?Nrf2 KO; 40% survival). Ablation of Keap1 signaling reduced macrophage/neutrophil trafficking, pro-inflammatory cytokine programs, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis, while simultaneously promoting anti-apoptotic functions in OLTs. At the molecular level, Keap1 HKO increased Nrf2 levels, stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and enhanced expression of anti-oxidant Trx1, HIF-1?, and HO-1. Pretreatment of liver donors with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) disrupted Akt/HIF-1A signaling and recreated hepatocellular damage in otherwise IR-resistant Keap1 HKO transplants. In parallel in vitro studies, hydrogen peroxide-stressed Keap1-deficient hepatocytes were characterized by enhanced expression of Nrf2, Trx1, and Akt phosphorylation, in association with decreased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in cell culture supernatants.Keap1-Nrf2 complex prevents oxidative injury in IR-stressed OLTs through Keap1 signaling, which negatively regulates Nrf2 pathway. Activation of Nrf2 induces Trx1 and promotes PI3K/Akt, crucial for HIF-1? activity. HIF-1?-mediated overexpression of HO-1/Cyclin D1 facilitates cytoprotection by limiting hepatic inflammatory responses, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent manner.
Project description:Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to liver damage in many clinical situations, such as liver resection and liver transplantation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agent salidroside (Sal) on hepatic IRI in mice. The mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, Sham, Sal (20 mg/kg), IRI, IRI + Sal (10 mg/kg), and IRI + Sal (20 mg/kg). We measured liver enzymes, proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-? and interleukin-6, and apoptosis- and autophagy-related marker proteins at 2, 8, and 24 hours after reperfusion. Components of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, including P-38, jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), were also measured using an MAPK activator anisomycin to deduce their roles in hepatic IRI. Our results show that Sal safely protects hepatocytes from IRI by reducing levels of liver enzymes in the serum. These findings were confirmed by histopathology. We concluded that Sal protects hepatocytes from IRI partly by inhibiting the activation of MAPK signaling, including the phosphorylation of P38, JNK, and ERK. This ameliorates inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, and autophagy in the mouse liver.
Project description:Programmed death-1 (PD-1)/B7-H1 costimulation acts as a negative regulator of host alloimmune responses. Although CD4 T cells mediate innate immunity-dominated ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in the liver, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study focused on the role of PD-1/B7-H1 negative signaling in liver IRI. We used an established mouse model of partial liver warm ischemia (90 minutes) followed by reperfusion (6 hours). Although disruption of PD-1 signaling after anti-B7-H1 monoclonal antibody treatment augmented hepatocellular damage, its stimulation following B7-H1 immunoglobulin (B7-H1Ig) fusion protected livers from IRI, as evidenced by low serum alanine aminotransferase levels and well-preserved liver architecture. The therapeutic potential of B7-H1 engagement was evident by diminished intrahepatic T lymphocyte, neutrophil, and macrophage infiltration/activation; reduced cell necrosis/apoptosis but enhanced anti-necrotic/apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xl; and decreased proinflammatory chemokine/cytokine gene expression in parallel with selectively increased interleukin (IL)-10. Neutralization of IL-10 re-created liver IRI and rendered B7-H1Ig-treated hosts susceptible to IRI. These findings were confirmed in T cell-macrophage in vitro coculture in which B7-H1Ig diminished tumor necrosis factor-?/IL-6 levels in an IL-10-dependent manner. Our novel findings document the essential role of the PD-1/B7-H1 pathway in liver IRI.This study is the first to demonstrate that stimulating PD-1 signals ameliorated liver IRI by inhibiting T cell activation and Kupffer cell/macrophage function. Harnessing mechanisms of negative costimulation by PD-1 upon T cell-Kupffer cell cross-talk may be instrumental in the maintenance of hepatic homeostasis by minimizing organ damage and promoting IL-10-dependent cytoprotection.
Project description:Utilization of kidneys from extended criteria donors leads to an increase in average warm ischemia time (WIT), which is associated with larger degrees of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Kidney resuscitation by extracorporeal perfusion in situ allows up to 60 minutes of asystole after the circulatory death. Molecular studies of kidney grafts from human donors with critically expanded WIT are warranted. Transcriptomes of two human kidneys from two different donors were profiled after 35-45 minutes of WIT and after 120 minutes of normothermic perfusion and compared. Baseline gene expression patterns in ischemic grafts display substantial intrinsic differences. IRI does not lead to substantial change in overall transcription landscape but activates a highly connected protein network with hubs centered on Jun/Fos/ATF transcription factors and HSP1A/HSPA5 heat shock proteins. This response is regulated by positive feedback. IRI networks are enriched in soluble proteins and biofluids assayable substances, thus, indicating feasibility of the longitudinal, minimally invasive assessment <i>in vivo</i>. Mapping of IRI related molecules in ischemic and reperfused kidneys provides a rationale for possible organ conditioning during machine assisted ex vivo normothermic perfusion. A study of natural diversity of the transcriptional landscapes in presumably normal, transplantation-suitable human organs is warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Blood flow restoration is a definitive therapy for salvaging the myocardium following ischemic injury. Nevertheless, the sudden restoration of blood flow to the ischemic myocardium can induce ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). RESULTS:Herein, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of remote ischemic postconditioning (RPostC) through our in vivo rat model of myocardial IRI. The study included three groups: the control group, the IRI group, and the IRI?+?RPostC group. Ischemia-reperfusion treatment led to an increase in the myocardial infarction area, which was inhibited by RPostC. In contrast to that in the control group, the myocardial apoptosis level was enhanced in the IRI group, whereas RPostC treatment decreased IRI-induced cellular apoptosis. Affymetrix Rat Gene 2.0 ST chip data identified a total of 265 upregulated genes and 267 downregulated genes between the IRI and IRI?+?RPostC groups. A group of differentially expressed noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as MTA_TC0600002772.mm, MTA_TC1300002394.mm, U7 small nuclear RNA (Rnu7) and RGD7543256_1, were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that the positive regulation of some molecular functions, such as GTPase activity, GTP binding, cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and cytokine activity, may contribute to the cardioprotective role of RPostC. Moreover, pathway enrichment analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) suggested the potential implication of the TNF signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Global signal transduction network analysis, co-expression network analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis further identified several core genes, including Pdgfra, Stat1, Lifr and Stfa3. CONCLUSION:Remote ischemic postconditioning treatment can decrease IRI-mediated myocardial apoptosis by regulating multiple processes and pathways, such as GTPase activity, cytokine activity, and the TNF and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. The potential role of the above ncRNAs and core genes in IRI-induced cardiac damage merits further study as well.
Project description:Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a critical component of hepatic surgery. Oxidative stress has long been implicated as a key player in IRI. In this study, we examine the cell-specific role of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element pathway in warm hepatic IRI. Nrf2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) animals and novel transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (caNrf2) mutant in hepatocytes (AlbCre+/caNrf2+) and their littermate controls underwent partial hepatic ischemia or sham surgery. The animals were killed 6 hours after reperfusion, and their serum and tissue were collected for analysis. As compared to WT animals after ischemia/reperfusion (IR), Nrf2 KO mice had increased hepatocellular injury with increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, Suzuki score, apoptosis, an increased inflammatory infiltrate, and enhanced inflammatory cytokine expression. On the other hand, AlbCre+/caNrf2+ that underwent IR had significantly reduced serum transaminases, less necrosis on histology, and a less pronounced inflammatory infiltrate and inflammatory cytokine expression as compared to the littermate controls. However, there were no differences in apoptosis. Taken together, Nrf2 plays a critical role in our murine model of warm hepatic IRI, with Nrf2 deficiency exacerbating hepatic IRI and hepatocyte-specific Nrf2 overactivation providing protection against warm hepatic IRI.
Project description:Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), an adaptor protein for inflammasome receptors, is essential for inducing caspase-1 activation and the consequent secretion of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), which is associated with local inflammation during liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). However, little is known about the mechanisms by which the ASC/caspase-1/IL-1? axis exerts its function in hepatic IRI. This study was designed to explore the functional roles and molecular mechanisms of ASC/caspase-1/IL-1? signaling in the regulation of inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. With a partial lobar liver warm ischemia (90 minutes) model, ASC-deficient and wild-type mice (C57BL/6) were sacrificed at 6 hours of reperfusion. Separate animal cohorts were treated with an anti-IL-1? antibody or control immunoglobulin G (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally). We found that ASC deficiency inhibited caspase-1/IL-1? signaling and led to protection against liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damage, local enhancement of antiapoptotic functions, and down-regulation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-mediated, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-driven inflammation. Interestingly, the treatment of ASC-deficient mice with recombinant HMGB1 re-created liver IRI. Moreover, neutralization of IL-1? ameliorated the hepatocellular damage by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B)/cyclooxygenase 2 signaling in IR-stressed livers. In parallel in vitro studies, the knockout of ASC in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages depressed HMGB1 activity via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and led to the inhibition of TLR4/NF-?B and ultimately the depression of proinflammatory cytokine programs.ASC-mediated caspase-1/IL-1? signaling promotes HMGB1 to produce a TLR4-dependent inflammatory phenotype and leads to hepatocellular injury. Hence, ASC/caspase-1/IL-1? signaling mediates the inflammatory response by triggering HMGB1 induction in hepatic IRI. Our findings provide a rationale for a novel therapeutic strategy for managing liver injury due to IR.