Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for Identification and Quantitation of Transplant-Related DNA Viruses.
ABSTRACT: Infections with DNA viruses are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. This study describes the analytical and clinical performance characteristics of the Arc Bio Galileo Pathogen Solution, an all-inclusive metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) reagent and bioinformatics pipeline that allows the simultaneous quantitation of 10 transplant-related double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses (adenovirus [ADV], BK virus [BKV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human herpesvirus 6A [HHV-6A], HHV-6B, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, JC virus [JCV], and varicella-zoster virus [VZV]). The mNGS 95% limit of detection ranged from 14 copies/ml (HHV-6) to 191 copies/ml (BKV), and the lower limit of quantitation ranged from 442?international units (IU)/ml (EBV) to 661 copies/ml (VZV). An evaluation of 50 residual plasma samples with at least one DNA virus detected in prior clinical testing showed a total percent agreement of mNGS and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of 89.2% (306/343), with a ? statistic of 0.725. The positive percent agreement was 84.9% (73/86), and the negative percent agreement was 90.7% (233/257). Furthermore, mNGS detected seven subsequently confirmed coinfections that were not initially requested by qPCR. Passing-Bablok regression revealed a regression line of y?=?0.953x?+?0.075 (95% confidence interval [CI] of the slope, 0.883 to 1.011; intercept, -0.100 to 0.299), and Bland-Altman analysis (mNGS - qPCR) showed a slight positive bias (0.28 log10 concentration; 95% limits of agreement, -0.62 to 1.18). In conclusion, the mNGS-based Galileo pipeline demonstrates analytical and clinical performance comparable to that of qPCR for transplant-related DNA viruses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Infections by several DNA viruses can severely impact outcomes in paediatric immunocompromised patients. Current testing, which is generally limited to singleplex qPCR assays, can miss both common and rarer viruses if they are not targeted.<h4>Objectives</h4>To evaluate the performance of the Galileo Viral Panel (Galileo), a sample-to-result shotgun metagenomics platform for the detection and quantification of 12 DNA viruses, compared to standard of care qPCR assays.<h4>Study design</h4>A clinical performance evaluation was carried out using 43 prospectively collected EDTA plasma samples positive for one or more DNA viruses. Agreement between assays was assessed by overall, positive, and negative percent agreement, as well as quantitative agreement by linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Overall positive percent agreement was 84% (95% CI: 76%-90%), and negative percent agreement was 95% (95% CI: 92%-97%). There was a high correlation between Galileo and qPCR for ADV, CMV, EBV, and VZV (<i>R<sup>2</sup></i> = 0.91) and a mean difference by Bland Altman of -0.43 log<sub>10</sub> IU or cp/ml (95% limits of agreement, -1.37 to 0.51). In addition, there was a high correlation between Galileo Signal Score and qPCR for TTV (<i>R<sup>2</sup></i> = 0.85).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We observed high qualitative and quantitative agreement between qPCR and Galileo. Galileo identified additional viruses that were not tested with routine qPCR and could impact clinical outcomes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:BK virus (BKV) infection in renal transplant patients may cause kidney allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Accurate determination of BKV viral load is critical to prevent BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) but the cut-off that best predicts BKVAN remains controversial. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the performance of a commercial and an in-house qPCR test for quantitative detection of BK virus in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS:This was a prospective study with kidney transplant recipients from two large university hospitals in Brazil. Patients were screened for BKV infection every 3 months in the first year post-transplant with a commercial and an in-house real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test. BKVAN was confirmed based on histopathology. The area under the curve for plasma qPCR was determined from receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS:A total of 200 patients were enrolled. Fifty-eight percent were male, 19.5% had diabetes mellitus, and 82% had the kidney transplanted from a deceased donor. BKV viremia was detected in 32.5% and BKVAN was diagnosed in 8 patients (4%). BKVAN was associated with viremia of 4.1 log copies/mL, using a commercial kit. The cut-off for the in-house assay was 6.1 log copies/mL. The linearity between the commercial kit and the in-house assay was R2=0.83. CONCLUSION:Our study shows that marked variability occurs in BKV viral load when different qPCR methodologies are used. The in-house qPCR assay proved clinically useful, a cheaper option in comparison to commercial qPCR kits. There is an urgent need to make BKV standards available to the international community.
Project description:Central nervous system (CNS) complications can occur in 9%-15% of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The clinical manifestations of the CNS complications are non-specific, with most of them being disturbances of consciousness, convulsions, headaches, fever, and epilepsy, making it difficult to infer the cause of the complications based on clinical manifestations. We retrospectively analyzed the sensitivity and feasibility of metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) in the diagnosis of CNS infections after allo-HSCT. Lumbar punctures were performed on 20 patients with CNS symptoms after receiving alternative donor HSCT(AD-HSCT) at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2019 to December 2020, and their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected. The mNGS technique was used to detect pathogens in the CSF. Routine CSF testing, biochemical analyses, G experiments, GM experiments, ink staining, acid-fast staining, and bacterial cultures were carried out, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) tests were used to detect cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), and human alphaherpesvirus (HHV). A total of 29 tests were performed with 21 of them being positive. Of the five negative patients, three were diagnosed with a posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, one as having transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy, and one with transient seizure caused by hypertension. Fifteen patients tested positive, of which four had single infections and eleven had mixed infections. Five cases of fungal infections, six cases of bacterial infections, and 13 cases of viral infections were detected. Among the 13 cases of viral infections, ten cases were CMV(HHV-5); three were BKPyV; two were Torque teno virus (TTV); Two were HHV-1,two were EBV(HHV4), and one each of HpyV5 and HHV-6B. Thirteen patients tested positive for virus while the qPCR detection method of 6 identical specimens were below the minimum detection limit(<1×10<sup>3</sup> U/ml). The mNGS technique is highly sensitive, and it can be used to diagnose CNS infections after allo-HSCT.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection can be diagnosed clinically once classical rash occurs but the diagnosis is challenging when typical rash is absent. We reported a case of fulminant central nervous system (CNS) VZV infection in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient without typical VZV-related rash. CNS VZV infection was unexpected identified by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS). CASE PRESENTATION:A 28-year-old HIV-infected patient presented with neurological symptoms for 3?days. The patient, who was not suspected of VZV infection at admission, quickly progressed to deep coma during the first 24?h of hospitalization. An unbiased mNGS was performed on DNA extract from 300??L cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the BGISEQ-50 platform. The sequencing detection identified 97,248 (out of 38,561,967) sequence reads uniquely aligned to the VZV genome, and these reads covered a high percentage (99.91%) of the VZV. Presence of VZV DNA in CSF was further verified by VZV-specific polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Altogether, those results confirmed CNS VZV infection. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that mNGS may be a useful diagnostic tool for CNS VZV infection. As mNGS could identify all pathogens directly from CSF sample in a single run, it has the promise of strengthening our ability to diagnose CNS infections in HIV-infected patients.
Project description:Background:Improved understanding of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus kinetics after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) would facilitate development of therapeutic strategies. Methods:We tested weekly plasma samples from 404 patients through day 100 after allogeneic HCT for cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus (HHV) 6A and 6B, BK polyomavirus (BKV), adenovirus (AdV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Episodes lasting ?1 week were defined as blips and >1 week as persistent. We described virus-specific kinetics, analyzed the association of virus area under the curve (AUC) with overall mortality, and identified risk factors for persistent episodes. Results:We identified 428 episodes of CMV, 292 of BKV, 224 of HHV-6B, 46 of AdV, and 53 of EBV. CMV and BKV had the highest proportions of persistent episodes (68% and 80%, respectively). Detection and kinetics varied by virus. HHV-6B episodes reached maximum levels fastest and had the shortest intervals between detection and end-organ disease. End-organ disease occurred within 14 days of viremia in 68% of cases, generally during persistent episodes. For all viruses, higher viral load AUC increased risk for overall mortality through day 365, persistent episodes had higher viral load than blips, and higher first positive viral load significantly increased risk for persistent episodes. First viral load >2 log10 copies/mL (range, 2.04-3.06 per virus) had high specificity for persistent episodes. Conclusions:Persistent high viral load dsDNA viremia episodes after allogeneic HCT predict mortality. Virus-specific kinetics can guide timing and thresholds for early intervention in studies of novel agents.
Project description:BK virus (BKV) is associated with kidney and bladder disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) but less is known about the seroprevalence of pre-transplant antibodies to BKV in children. We measured BKV IgG antibody titers in 36 children before HCT. BKV IgG antibodies were detected in all 36 patients, with 28/36 (77.8%) developing BK viremia in the first 100 days. Pre-HCT BKV IgG antibody titers >1:40,960 were protective against later BK viremia ?10,000 copies/ml. The seroprevalence of antibodies to BKV is high in children undergoing HCT and post-transplant BK viremia, which is associated with bladder and kidney injury, is common.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection may induce central nervous system complications in HIV/AIDS patients. However, it is rare to have paraplegia caused by VZV infection but no herpes zoster clinically. Asymptomatic VZV infection in HIV/AIDS patient increased the difficulty of diagnosis.<h4>Case presentation</h4>We reported a 41-year-old male AIDS patient with rare asymptomatic VZV infection-induced paraplegia after his anti-retroviral therapy initiation. MRI of the spinal cord showed the morphology of the thoracic spinal cord was irregular and locally inflated. The patient was confirmed as VZV induced thoracic myelomyelitis by using the cerebrospinal fluid for metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS).<h4>Conclusions</h4>mNGS may contribute to disease diagnosis for asymptomatic VZV infection-induced myelitis.
Project description:Bkv-miR-B1-5p, one of the microRNAs encoded by BK virus, was recently reported to be elevated in the blood among the patients with BK virus nephropathy (BKVN). Urinary exosome was suggested to be a possible source of biomarker for kidney diseases, but it was unknown whether it could contain viral microRNA as well as human microRNAs. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether urinary exosomal BK viral microRNA were expressed during replication and could be used to diagnose BKVN in kidney transplant recipients.In a cross-sectional multicenter study, we collected and analyzed 458 graft biopsies from 385 kidney transplant recipients. Urine samples were collected at the time of graft biopsy, and microRNAs in urinary exosome were measured once. For 13 patients with BKVN and 67 age, sex-matched kidney transplant recipients, we measured BK viral microRNA B1-5p, 3p and human microRNA-16 in urinary exosomal fraction and compared the diagnostic value with BK viral load in plasma and urine.Pathology proven BKVN was diagnosed in 13 patients (2.8%). High levels of bkv-miR-B1-5p and bkv-miR-B1-3p were shown in all patients with BKVN. Meanwhile, plasma BK viral load assay (cut-off value of ? 4.0 log10 copies/mL) showed false negative in 3 cases and urinary BK viral load assay (cut-off value of ? 7.0 log10 copies/mL) showed false negative in 1 case among these 13 patients. The receiver operator characteristics curve analysis for bkv-miR-B1-5p and bkv-miR-B1-5p/miR-16 showed excellent discriminative power for the diagnosis of BKVN, with area under the curve values of 0.989 and 0.985, respectively.This study suggests that urinary exosomal bkv-miR-B1-5p and bkv-miR-B1-5p/miR-16 could be surrogate markers for the diagnosis of BKVN.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Meningoencephalitis is a devastating disease worldwide. Current diagnosis fails to establish the cause in ≥50% of patients. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has emerged as pan-pathogen assays for infectious diseases diagnosis, but few studies have been conducted in resource-limited settings.<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed the performance of mNGS in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 66 consecutively treated adults with meningoencephalitis in a tertiary referral hospital for infectious diseases in Vietnam, a resource-limited setting. All mNGS results were confirmed by viral-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a complementary analysis, 6 viral PCR-positive samples were analyzed using MinION-based metagenomics.<h4>Results</h4>Routine diagnosis could identify a virus in 15 (22.7%) patients, including herpes simplex virus (HSV; n = 7) and varicella zoster virus (VZV; n = 1) by PCR, and mumps virus (n = 4), dengue virus (DENV; n = 2), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV; n = 1) by serological diagnosis. mNGS detected HSV, VZV, and mumps virus in 5/7, 1/1, and 1/4 of the CSF positive by routine assays, respectively, but it detected DENV and JEV in none of the positive CSF. Additionally, mNGS detected enteroviruses in 7 patients of unknown cause. Metagenomic MinION-Nanopore sequencing could detect a virus in 5/6 PCR-positive CSF samples, including HSV in 1 CSF sample that was negative by mNGS, suggesting that the sensitivity of MinION is comparable with that of mNGS/PCR.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a single assay, metagenomics could accurately detect a wide spectrum of neurotropic viruses in the CSF of meningoencephalitis patients. Further studies are needed to determine the value that real-time sequencing may contribute to the diagnosis and management of meningoencephalitis patients, especially in resource-limited settings where pathogen-specific assays are limited in number.
Project description:BK virus (BKV)-associated diseases in transplant recipients are an emerging issue. However, identification of the various BK virus subtypes/subgroups is a long and delicate process on the basis of currently available data. Therefore, we wanted to define a simple and effective one-step strategy for characterizing all BK virus strains from the VP1 gene sequence. Based on the analysis of 199 available complete DNA VP1 sequences, phylogenetic trees, alignments, and isolated polymorphisms were used to define an effective strategy for distinguishing the 12 different BK virus subtypes/subgroups. Based on the 12 subtypes identified from the 199 complete BKV VP1 sequences (1,089 bp), 60 mutations that can be used to differentiate these various subtypes/subgroups were identified. Some genomic areas were more variable and comprised mutational hot spots. From a subregion of only 100 bp in the VP1 region (1977 through 2076), we therefore constructed an algorithm that enabled rapid determination of all BKV subtypes/subgroups with 99% agreement (197/199) relative to the complete VP1 sequence. We called this domain of the BK viral genome the BK typing and grouping region (BKTGR). Finally, we validated our viral subtype identification process in a population of 100 transplant recipients with 100% efficiency. The new simpler method of BKV subtyping/subgrouping reported here constitutes a useful tool for future studies that will help us to more clearly understand the impact of BKV subtypes/subgroups on diagnosis, infection, and BK virus-associated diseases.