Dissecting promoter of InMYB1 gene showing petal-specific expression.
ABSTRACT: We had previously reported that the InMYB1 promoter, the 1023 bp upstream region of InMYB1, works petal-specifically in various dicot plants by recognizing petal identity at a cellular level. To determine the petal-specific region in the InMYB1 promoter, Arabidopsis plants harboring InMYB1_1023b::GUS (?-glucuronidase), InMYB1_713b::GUS, InMYB1_506b::GUS, InMYB1_403b::GUS, InMYB1_332b::GUS, InMYB1_200b::GUS and InMYB1_140b::GUS were produced and confirmed a shortest region, which has the petal-specific promoter activity by using histochemical GUS assay. Petal-specific GUS staining was not observed in the Arabidopsis plants transformed with InMYB1_200b::GUS and InMYB1_140b::GUS, but observed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring from InMYB1_1023b::GUS to InMYB1_332b::GUS. cDNA sequence of InMYB1 shows that 120 bp upstream region of InMYB1 is 5' untranslated region, suggesting that the 332-121 bp upstream region of InMYB1 contains an important element for petal-specific gene expression. In the Arabidopsis harboring the InMYB1_332-121b×3_TATA_?::GUS, petal-specific GUS staining was observed and the staining was stronger than in the Arabidopsis harboring InMYB1_1023b::GUS. This result shows that the 332-121 bp region is enough and essential for the petal specificity and the InMYB1_332-121b×3_TATA_? could be used for the molecular breeding of floricultural crops.
Project description:The MPT transports Pi to synthesize ATP. PsMPT, a chilling-induced gene, was previously reported to promote energy metabolism during bud dormancy release in tree peony. In this study, the regulatory elements of PsMPT promoter involved in chilling response were further analyzed. The PsMPT transcript was detected in different tree peony tissues and was highly expressed in the flower organs, including petal, stigma and stamen. An 1174 bp of the PsMPT promoter was isolated by TAIL-PCR, and the PsMPT promoter::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis was generated and analyzed. GUS staining and qPCR showed that the promoter was active in mainly the flower stigma and stamen. Moreover, it was found that the promoter activity was enhanced by chilling, NaCl, GA, ACC and NAA, but inhibited by ABA, mannitol and PEG. In transgenic plants harboring 421 bp of the PsMPT promoter, the GUS gene expression and the activity were significantly increased by chilling treatment. When the fragment from -421 to -408 containing a MYC cis-element was deleted, the chilling response could not be observed. Further mutation analysis confirmed that the MYC element was one of the key motifs responding to chilling in the PsMPT promoter. The present study provides useful information for further investigation of the regulatory mechanism of PsMPT during the endo-dormancy release.
Project description:BACKGROUND: CBL1 is a calcium sensor that regulates drought, cold and salt signals in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of CBL1 gene in Arabidopsis and in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus showed different tolerant activities. We are interested in understanding the molecular mechanism of the upstream region of the CBL1 gene of A. mongolicus (AmCBL1). We investigated and characterized the promoter of the AmCBL1 gene, for promoters play a very important role in regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. RESULTS: A 1683-bp 5' flanking region was isolated from A. mongolicus. The sequence was identified as AmCBL1 promoter. Analysis of the promoter sequence indicated a 690-bp intron and some basic cis-acting elements were related to various environmental stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region of the AmCBL1 promoter, five plant expression vectors fused with the GUS (beta-glucuronidase) gene, driven by series deleted fragments of AmCBL1 promoter at different lengths from -1659, -1414, -1048, -296 to -167 bp relative to the transcriptional start site were constructed and transformed into Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. 89. Functional properties of each promoter segment were examined by GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses using at least three single-copy PCR-positive plants of transgenic tobacco, treated with various environmental stresses and plant hormones for different times. We demonstrated that the AmCBL1 promoter was a vascular-specific and multiple-stress-inducible promoter. Our results further imply that the promoter fragment B1S3 possessed sufficient essential cis-acting elements, accounting for vascular-specific and stress-induced expression patterns. It may also indicate that for response to some stresses certain cis-elements are required in tissues outside the region of the B1S3 construct. CONCLUSIONS: To help resolve uncertainties about the upstream regulatory mechanism of the CBL1 gene in desert plants, we suggest that the function of the AmCBL1 promoter, particularly under conditions of abiotic stress, to be examined for possible usefulness in molecular breeding. Regardless of the outcome, the allocation and relative quantification of the GUS-fusion AmCBL1 promoter segments at transcriptional levels in different tissues under various stresses across separate promoter segments suggests that the AmCBL1 promoter is a phloem-specific and multiple-stress-inducible promoter. These data coupled with the ongoing AmCBL1 5' UTR intron analyses provide a solid foundation for their future use in molecular breeding as new promoters of stress-resistance genes from desert plants.
Project description:Universal stress proteins (USPs) are known to be expressed in response to various abiotic stresses in a wide variety of organisms, such as bacteria, archaebacteria, protists, algae, fungi, plants, and animals. However, in plants, biological function of most of the USPs still remains obscure. In the present study, Arabidopsis USP gene (AtUSP) showed induction in response to abscisic acid (ABA) and various abiotic stresses viz. heat, dehydration, salt, osmotic, and cold stresses. Additionally, in silico analysis of AtUSP promoter identified several cis-elements responsive to phytohormones and abiotic stresses such as ABRE, ERE, DRE, and HSE, etc. To functionally validate the AtUSP promoter, the 1115 bp region of promoter was characterized under phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. Deletion analysis of promoter was carried out by cloning the full length promoter (D0) and its three 5' deletion derivatives, D1 (964 bp), D2 (660 bp), and D3 (503 bp) upstream of the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, which were then stably transformed in Arabidopsis plants. The AtUSP promoter (D0) showed minimal activity under non-stress conditions which was enhanced in response to phytohormone treatments (ABA and ACC) and abiotic stresses such as dehydration, heat, cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. The seedlings harboring D1 and D2 deletion fragments showed constitutive GUS expression even under control condition with increased activity almost under all the treatments. However, D3 seedlings exhibited complete loss of activity under control condition with induction under ACC treatment, dehydration, heat, oxidative, salt, and osmotic stresses. Thus, present study clearly showed that AtUSP promoter is highly inducible by phytohormones and multiple abiotic stresses and it can be exploited as stress inducible promoter to generate multi-stress tolerant crops with minimal effects on their other important traits.
Project description:A 1149 bp genomic fragment corresponding to the 5' non-coding region of the PgD1 (Picea glauca Defensin 1) gene was cloned, characterized, and compared with all Arabidopsis thaliana defensin promoters. The cloned fragment was found to contain several motifs specific to defence or hormonal response, including a motif involved in the methyl jasmonate reponse, a fungal elicitor responsive element, and TC-rich repeat cis-acting element involved in defence and stress responsiveness. A functional analysis of the PgD1 promoter was performed using the uidA (GUS) reporter system in stably transformed Arabidopsis and white spruce plants. The PgD1 promoter was responsive to jasmonic acid (JA), to infection by fungus and to wounding. In transgenic spruce embryos, GUS staining was clearly restricted to the shoot apical meristem. In Arabidopsis, faint GUS coloration was observed in leaves and flowers and a strong blue colour was observed in guard cells and trichomes. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the PgD1::GUS construct were also infiltrated with the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. It caused a suppression of defensin expression probably resulting from the antagonistic relationship between the pathogen-stimulated salicylic acid pathway and the jasmonic acid pathway. It is therefore concluded that the PgD1 promoter fragment cloned appears to contain most if not all the elements for proper PgD1 expression and that these elements are also recognized in Arabidopsis despite the phylogenetic and evolutionary differences that separates them.
Project description:Following an in-depth transcriptomics-based approach, we first screened out and analyzed (in silico) cis motifs in a group of 63 drought-inducible genes (in soybean). Six novel synthetic promoters (SynP14-SynP19) were designed by concatenating 11 cis motifs, ABF, ABRE, ABRE-Like, CBF, E2F-VARIANT, G-box, GCC-Box, MYB1, MYB4, RAV1-A, and RAV1-B (in multiple copies and various combination) with a minimal 35s core promoter and a 222 bp synthetic intron sequence. In order to validate their drought-inducibility and root-specificity, the designed synthetic assemblies were transformed in soybean hairy roots to drive GUS gene using pCAMBIA3301. Through GUS histochemical assay (after a 72 h 6% PEG6000 treatment), we noticed higher glucuronidase activity in transgenic hairy roots harboring SynP15, SynP16, and SynP18. Further screening through GUS fluorometric assay flaunted SynP16 as the most appropriate combination of efficient drought-responsive cis motifs. Afterwards, we stably transformed SynP15, SynP16, and SynP18 in Arabidopsis and carried out GUS staining as well as fluorometric assays of the transgenic plants treated with simulated drought stress. Consistently, SynP16 retained higher transcriptional activity in Arabidopsis roots in response to drought. Thus the root-specific drought-inducible synthetic promoters designed using stimulus-specific cis motifs in a definite fashion could be exploited in developing drought tolerance in soybean and other crops as well. Moreover, the rationale of design extends our knowledge of trial-and-error based cis engineering to construct synthetic promoters for transcriptional upgradation against other stresses.
Project description:Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants.
Project description:Drought adversely affects crop growth and yields. The cloning and characterization of drought- or abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible promoters is of great significance for their utilization in the genetic improvement of crop resistance. Our previous studies have shown that maize sulfite oxidase (SO) has a sulfite-oxidizing function and is involved in the drought stress response. However, the promoter of the maize SO gene has not yet been characterized. In this study, the promoter (ZmSOPro, 1194 bp upstream region of the translation initiation site) was isolated from the maize genome. The in-silico analysis of the ZmSOPro promoter identified several cis-elements responsive to the phytohormone ABA and drought stress such as ABA-responsive element (ABRE) and MYB binding site (MBS), besides a number of core cis-acting elements, such as TATA-box and CAAT-box. A 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay identified an adenine residue as the transcription start site of the ZmSO. The ZmSOPro activity was detected by ?-glucuronidase (GUS) staining at nearly all developmental stages and in most plant organs, except for the roots in transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, its activity was significantly induced by ABA and drought stress. The 5'-deletion mutant analysis of the ZmSOPro in tobacco plants revealed that a 119-bp fragment in the ZmSOPro (upstream of the transcription start site) is a minimal region, which is required for its high-level expression. Moreover, the minimal ZmSOPro was significantly activated by ABA or drought stress in transgenic plants. Further mutant analysis indicated that the MBS element in the minimal ZmSOPro region (119 bp upstream of the transcription start site) is responsible for ABA and drought-stress induced expression. These results improve our understanding of the transcriptional regulation mechanism of the ZmSO gene, and the characterized 119-bp promoter fragment could be an ideal candidate for drought-tolerant gene engineering in both monocot and dicot crops.
Project description:In Arabidopsis thaliana, acyl-CoA-binding protein 3 (?ACBP3), one of six ACBPs, is unique in terms of the C-terminal location of its acyl-CoA-binding domain. It promotes autophagy-mediated leaf senescence and confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. To understand the regulation of ACBP3, a 1.7 kb 5'-flanking region of ACBP3 and its deletion derivatives were characterized using ?-glucuronidase (GUS) fusions. A 374 bp minimal fragment (-151/+223) could drive GUS expression while a 1698 bp fragment (-1475/+223) conferred maximal activity. Further, histochemical analysis on transgenic Arabidopsis harbouring the largest (1698 bp) ACBP3pro::GUS fusion displayed ubiquitous expression in floral organs and vegetative tissues (vascular bundles of leaves and stems), consistent with previous results showing that extracellularly localized ACBP3 functions in plant defence. A 160 bp region (-434/-274) induced expression in extended darkness and caused down-regulation in extended light. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNase I footprinting assay showed that the DNA-binding with one finger box (Dof-box, -341/-338) interacted specifically with leaf nuclear proteins from dark-treated Arabidopsis, while GT-1 (-406/-401) binds both dark- and light-treated Arabidopsis, suggesting that Dof and GT-1 motifs are required to mediate circadian regulation of ACBP3. Moreover, GUS staining and fluorometric measurements revealed that a 109 bp region (-543/-434) was responsive to phytohormones and pathogens. An S-box of AT-rich sequence (-516/-512) was identified to bind nuclear proteins from pathogen-infected Arabidopsis leaves, providing the basis for pathogen-inducible regulation of ACBP3 expression. Thus, three cis-responsive elements (Dof, GT-1, and the S-box) in the 5'-flanking region of ACBP3 are proven functional in the regulation of ACBP3.
Project description:Deposition of secondary cell wall in the xylem elements is controlled by a subgroup of NAC (NAM, ATAF, CUC) family, known as vascular-related NAC transcription factors (VNDs). In the present study, we analyzed the 5' upstream regulatory region of two banana NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) for tissue specific expression and presence of 19-bp secondary-wall NAC binding element (SNBE)-like motifs. Transgenic banana plants of Musa cultivar Rasthali harboring either PMusaVND7::GUS or PMusaVND6::GUS showed specific GUS (?-D-Glucuronidase) activity in cells of the xylem tissue. Approximately 1.2kb promoter region of either MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 showed presence of at least two SNBE-like motifs. This 1.2kb promoter region was retarded in a gel shift assay by three banana VND protein (VND1,VND2 and VND3). The banana VND1-VND3 could also retard the mobility of isolated SNBE-like motifs of MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 in a gel shift assay. Transcript levels of MusaVND6 and MusaVND7 were elevated in transgenic banana overexpressing either banana VND1, VND2 or VND3. Present study suggested a probable regulation of banana VND6 and VND7 expression through direct interaction of banana VND1- VND3 with SNBE-like motifs. Our study also indicated two promoter elements for possible utilization in cell wall modifications in plants especially banana, which is being recently considered as a potential biofuel crop.
Project description:The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1) several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2) the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3) the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4) the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5) there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6) the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5'-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity.