Case Report: Interdisciplinary management of a complex odontoma with a periapical involvement of superior anterior teeth.
ABSTRACT: This case report aims to describe the management of a complex odontoma with endodontic involvement of surrounding teeth utilizing a new bioceramic cement consisting of five mineral oxides (5MO) as a retro-filling material. The patient presented for routine consultation with slight dental mobility in the antero-superior region. Upon clinical and computed tomography examination, bone rarefaction was observed in the apical region of teeth 11 and 12, external root resorption in the involved teeth and necrotic pulp of tooth 12. Root canal treatment was performed in teeth 11 and 12. Later, local surgical excision of the lesion was carried out, finding a mass with clinical features of complex odontoma, with histopathological examination of the mass confirming this diagnosis. Retro-filling of tooth 12 with 5MO was carried out. No signs and symptoms were observed over twelve-months of follow-up, with bone neoformation observed in the region. Therefore, 5MO appears to be an effective bioceramic cement that has reparative features.
Project description:In common with most mammals, humans form only two dentitions during their lifetime. Occasionally, supernumerary teeth develop in addition to the normal complement. Odontoma represent a small group of malformations containing calcified dental tissues of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin, with varying levels of organization, including tooth-like structures. The specific cell type responsible for the induction of odontoma, which retains the capacity to re-initiate de novo tooth development in postnatal tissues, is not known. Here we demonstrate that aberrant activation of WNT signaling by expression of a non-degradable form of β-catenin specifically in SOX2-positive postnatal dental epithelial stem cells is sufficient to generate odontoma containing multiple tooth-like structures complete with all dental tissue layers. Genetic lineage-tracing confirms that odontoma form in a similar manner to normal teeth, derived from both the mutation-sustaining epithelial stem cells and adjacent mesenchymal tissues. Activation of the WNT pathway in embryonic SOX2-positive progenitors results in ectopic expression of secreted signals that promote odontogenesis throughout the oral cavity. Significantly, the inductive potential of epithelial dental stem cells is retained in postnatal tissues, and up-regulation of WNT signaling specifically in these cells is sufficient to promote generation and growth of ectopic malformations faithfully resembling human odontoma.
Project description:Regenerating human tooth ex vivo and biological repair of dental caries are hampered by non-viable odontogenic stem cells that can regenerate different tooth components. Odontoma is a developmental dental anomaly that may contain putative post-natal stem cells with the ability to differentiate and regenerate in vivo new dental structures that may include enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissues. We evaluated odontoma tissues from 14 patients and further isolated and characterized human odontoma-derived mesenchymal cells (HODCs) with neural stem cell and hard tissue regenerative properties from a group of complex odontoma tissues from 1 of 14 patients. Complex odontoma was more common (9 of 14) than compound type and females (9 of 14) were more affected than males in our set of patients. HODCs were highly proliferative like dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) but demonstrated stronger neural immunophenotype than both DPSCs and mandible bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) by expressing higher levels of nestin, Sox 2 and betaIII-tubulin. When transplanted with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate into immunocompromised mice, HODCs differentiated and regenerated calcified hard tissues in vivo that were morphologically and quantitatively comparable to those generated by DPSCs and BMSCs. When transplanted with polycaprolactone (biodegradable carrier), HODCs differentiated to form new predentin on the surface of a dentin platform. Newly formed predentin contained numerous distinct dentinal tubules and an apparent dentin-pulp arrangement. HODCs represent unique odontogenic progenitors that readily commit to formation of dental hard tissues.
Project description:A new spontaneous mouse mutant (ntl) with autosomal-recessive osteopetrosis was characterized. These mice formed tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts but their osteoclasts had no ruffled border and did not resorb bone. These mice displayed no tooth eruption or tooth root formation. Adult mutant mice developed odontoma-like proliferations near the proximal ends of the incisors. Intraperitoneal injection of progenitor cells from the liver of 16.5 days postcoitum wild-type embryos into newborn mutants rescued the osteopetrosis phenotype, indicating that the defects were intrinsic to the osteoclasts. Our findings not only provide further support for a critical role of osteoclasts in tooth eruption and tooth root development, but also suggest that the perturbation of the homeostasis of the odontogenic precursors of the incisors is primarily responsible for the development of the odontoma-like proliferations in this osteopetrosis mutant. Genetic mapping has narrowed down the location of the mutant allele to a genetic interval of 3.2 cM on mouse chromosome 17.
Project description:Odontomas are considered as benign tumors of odontogenic tissue origin and are more over non-aggressive. They can also be categorized as hamartomas and are a result of developmental malformation of odontogenic tissues. As the name suggests, they are composed of mature tooth substances. They possess limited and slow growth potential and are well differentiated. They can be ectodermal, mesodermal or mixed in origin. Mixed variety may be further divided into compound or complex depending upon their radio-graphical resemblance to the tooth. Compound odontomes are reported to be twice more common than complex odontomes. Among them, complex odontomes are asymptomatic unless they cause bony expansion of the jaws.This paper aims to report and discuss a case of complex odontoma with unusually large size leading to gross facial asymmetry. Further this paper will highlight the important information the general dental practitioner must possess to diagnose such lesions at an early stage.Odontomas are benign odontogenic tumors with unusually large size leading to gross facial asymmetry. The general dental practitioners must possess the knowledge and important information to diagnose such lesions at an early stage.
Project description:A 30-year-old Caucasian man presented with an 18-month history of an asymptomatic calcified mass, located on the buccal side of the alveolar ridge. Medical records did not present any underlying conditions. On intraoral examination, the lesion was located on the right side of the maxilla, showing mucosal fenestration with mineralized tissue measuring approximately 1 cm in diameter. Radiographic examination showed multiple radiopaque masses. Incisional biopsy was performed, and histological analysis revealed a presence of enamel matrix, dentin, and cementum, resembling tooth-like structures. Surgical removal was offered after the diagnostic confirmation of peripheral odontoma, but the patient refused because of the asymptomatic nature of the lesion.
Project description:Supernumerary teeth are teeth that are present in addition to normal teeth. Although several hypotheses and some molecular signalling pathways explain the formation of supernumerary teeth, but their exact disease pathogenesis is unknown. To study the molecular mechanisms of supernumerary tooth-related syndrome (Gardner syndrome), a deeper understanding of the aetiology of supernumerary teeth and the associated syndrome is needed, with the goal of inhibiting disease inheritance via prenatal diagnosis. We recruited a Chinese family with Gardner syndrome. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of supernumerary teeth and colonic polyp lesion biopsies revealed that these patients exhibited significant pathological characteristics. APC gene mutations were detected by PCR and direct sequencing. We revealed the pathological pathway involved in human supernumerary tooth development and the mouse tooth germ development expression profile by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Sequencing analysis revealed that an APC gene mutation in exon 15, namely 4292-4293-Del GA, caused Gardner syndrome in this family. This mutation not only initiated the various manifestations typical of Gardner syndrome but also resulted in odontoma and supernumerary teeth in this case. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of human supernumerary teeth suggests that the APC gene is the key gene involved in the development of supernumerary teeth in humans. The mouse tooth germ development expression profile shows that the APC gene plays an important role in tooth germ development. We identified a new mutation in the APC gene that results in supernumerary teeth in association with Gardner syndrome. This information may shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of supernumerary teeth. Gene-based diagnosis and gene therapy for supernumerary teeth may become available in the future, and our study provides a high-resolution reference for treating other syndromes associated with supernumerary teeth.
Project description:Odontomas are the most common odontogenic hamartomas worldwide. Depending on the level of organisation of the tissues inside, these can be differentiated into compound type or complex type. As these are asymptomatic and do not cause any changes in the bone, they are often diagnosed during the routine dental examination. Complex odontomas are commonly found to occur in posterior mandible while compound odontomas are found in the anterior maxilla. A nine-year-old female child reported for a routine dental check-up, when a missing left permanent mandibular lateral incisor  was noticed. Further investigations revealed compound odontoma and unerupted 32, which is an unusual location. Early detection of these tumours is essential to avoid lengthy corrective treatments.
Project description:The root canal system must be obturated using a hermetic seal to prevent the penetration of microorganisms and bacterial toxins into the endodontic system. The principles of adhesive dentistry have been increasingly used in endodontics. In fact, resin-based sealers are increasingly used. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the sealing ability of resin cement in comparison with calcium hydroxide-based cement. Materials and Methods. Eighty root canals were prepared with the Tilos system and were randomly divided into four groups according to the filling material. The best combination was evaluated on the basis of its sealing ability. The dye infiltration degree was evaluated using both a stereomicroscope after diaphanization and the dye rise test. Results. A significant difference was observed between the four obturation systems with regard to the number of infiltrated walls (p=0.014) and the infiltration depth (p=0.025). The group of teeth obturated with EndoREZ® and EndoREZ® gutta cones differ significantly from the group obturated with EndoREZ® cement and gutta-percha cones in terms of apical sealing (p=0.011). A significant difference was also observed between the group of teeth obturated using EndoREZ® gutta cones and EndoREZ® cement and the group of teeth obturated with EndoREZ® cement (p=0.026). Conclusion. When used with EndoREZ® gutta cones, EndoREZ® cement showed the best sealing ability, particularly in the apical region. When used with gutta-percha cones, Acroseal and EndoREZ® cements exhibited similar sealing abilities.
Project description:PURPOSE:Continuation of root development following revitalisation endodontics (RET) has been shown to be unpredictable with lower success rates in traumatised teeth. This study reports the outcomes for RET in traumatised teeth over a review period of 4 years. METHODS:A prospective uncontrolled study, where RET was performed on traumatised upper immature anterior teeth with necrotic pulps in 15 children (mean age?=?8.3 years), was conducted. Patients were reviewed at 3, 9, 12, 24, and 48 months, where clinical and radiographic assessments were performed. At the last review appointment, patients and parents answered questions assessing their perception and acceptance of tooth colour change over time. McNemar's Exact test and linear mixed model assessment were used to assess changes in pulpal electrical response and radiographic evidence of continuation of root development over time, respectively. RESULTS:There was 83.3% healing with no significant changes in EPT responses, and no significant changes in root lengths, while significant changes in root widths (p?<?0.05) and root apex widths (p?<?0.001) were found over time. Twenty-five percent of patients and 33% of parents felt that there were changes in tooth colour following RET over time. CONCLUSION:Within the limitations of this study, traumatised teeth treated using RET showed no significant root lengthening, however, acceptable periapical healing, slow thickening of root dentinal walls, and rapid development of apical closure were evident over a period of 43 months. Using Portland cement and omitting minocycline, did not eliminate crown colour change following RET.
Project description:Shark jaws exhibit teeth that are arranged into distinct series and files and display great diversities in shapes and structures, which not only is related to their function (grasping, cutting, crushing) during feeding, but also bear a strong phylogenetic signal. So far, most research on the relationship between shark teeth and feeding ecology and systematics focused on the external tooth morphology only. Although the tooth histology of sharks has been examined since the early 19th century, its functional and systematic implications are still ambiguous. Shark teeth normally consist of either a porous, cellular dentine, osteodentine (in lamniform sharks and some batoids) or a dense layer of orthodentine (known from different sharks). Sharks of the order Carcharhiniformes, comprising ca. 60% of all extant shark species, are known to have orthodont teeth, with a single exception-the snaggletooth shark, Hemipristis elongata. High resolution micro-CT images of jaws and teeth from selected carcharhiniform sharks (including extant and fossil snaggletooth sharks) and tooth sections of teeth of Hemipristis, other carcharhiniform and lamniform sharks, have revealed that (1) Hemipristis is indeed the only carcharhiniform shark filling its pulp cavity with osteodentine in addition to orthodentine, (2) the tooth histology of Hemipristis elongata differs from the osteodont histotype, which evolved in lamniform sharks and conversely represents a modified orthodonty, and (3) this modified orthodonty was already present in extinct Hemipristis species but the mineralization sequence has changed over time. Our results clearly show the presence of a third tooth histotype-the pseudoosteodont histotype, which is present in Hemipristis. The unique tooth histology of lamniform sharks might provide a phylogenetic signal for this group, but more research is necessary to understand the phylogenetic importance of tooth histology in sharks in general.