Downregulation of microRNA-30a-5p contributes to the replication of duck enteritis virus by regulating Beclin-1-mediated autophagy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is increasingly recognized as an important element in regulating virus-host interactions. Our previous results showed that cellular miR-30a-5p was significantly downregulated after duck enteritis virus (DEV) infection cell. However, whehter or not the miR-30a-5p is involved in DEV infection has not been known. METHODS:Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression levels of miRNAs(miR-30a-5p) and Beclin-1 mRNA. The miR-30a-5p - Beclin-1 target interactions were determined by Dual luciferase reporter assay (DLRA). Western blotting was utilized to analyze Beclin-1-mediated duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells autophagy activity. DEV titers were estimated by the median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). RESULTS:The miR-30a-5p was significantly downregulated and the Beclin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated in DEV-infected DEF cells. DLRA confirmed that miR-30a-5p directly targeted the 3'- UTR of the Beclin-1 gene. Overexpression of miR-30a-5p significantly reduced the expression level of Beclin-1protein (p?
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is a large, complex double-stranded DNA virus that induces duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells autophagy, which is beneficial to its own replication, but the mechanism has not been described. In this study, we showed that impaired cell energy metabolism is involved in DEV-induced autophagy, whereby ATP synthesis is disrupted in cells after DEV infection, which causes metabolic stress and activation of autophagy. Methyl pyruvate (MP) inhibited conversion of LC3I to LC3II and accumulation of GFP-LC3, which could reverse the energy loss caused by DEV infection. Inhibition of DEV replication by MP confirmed the above view. We found that infection with DEV activated the metabolic regulator 5' AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and inhibited activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). In the cases where AMPK expression was inhibited, the LC3-I conversion to LC3-II ratio was decreased, as was GFP-LC3 point and DEV replication; in addition, inhibition of p-mTOR showed a reverse trend. We also found that tuberous sclerosis (TSC) 2 was a key mediator between AMPK and mTOR through activation by phosphorylation. siRNA targeting TSC2 was transfected to reverse the inhibition of mTOR, and down-regulate autophagy level and DEV replication, but AMPK expression was not changed, while siRNA targeting AMPK inhibited activation of TSC2. In conclusion, our findings indicate that energy metabolism in cell damage induced by DEV contributes to autophagy via the AMPK-TSC2-MTOR signaling pathway, which provides a new perspective for DEV and host interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The results of our previous study showed that impaired cellular energy metabolism contributes to duck enteritis virus-induced autophagy via the 5`-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. However, it remains unknown whether any other underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation are involved in autophagy induction. METHODS:The activity of CaMKKβ and AMPK in DEF cells infected with DEV were evaluated.The Effect of inhibitory activity of CaMKKβ on DEV-induced autophagy was investigated. In addtion to, the cytosolic calcium level in DEF cells infected with DEV were evaluated.The Effect of inhibitory cytosolic calcium level on DEV-induced autophagy was investigated. RESULTS:In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV) infection activated CaMKKβ and its substrate molecule AMPK at 36, 48, and 60 h post-infection (hpi). STO-609, a CaMKKβ inhibitor, or CaMKKβ siRNA significantly inhibited the activation of DEV to AMPK, LC3I to LC3II transformation, and GFP-LC3 puncta distribution. In addition, inhibition of CaMKKβ activity also significantly reduced progeny DEV titer and gB protein expression. Besides, cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) was higher in DEV-infected cells than mock controls at 36, 48, and 60 hpi, respectively. Treatment of DEV-infected cells with 1,2-Bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N, N, N', N-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM) significantly reduced intracellular Ca2+ ion concentrations, as well as CaMKKβ and AMPK activities, and subsequent autophagy, in addition to viral protein synthesis and viral titer. CONCLUSIONS:These results showed that elevated [Ca2+]cyto-mediated activation of CaMKKβ managed the activation of AMPK, which then positively regulated autophagy, thereby providing further insight into DEV-host interactions.
Project description:Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a serious abdominal disease associated with increased morbidity and high mortality rates. The initial pancreatic injury and inflammatory response, which begins within acinar cells, play vital roles in promoting SAP severity. Previous studies have indicated that overactivated autophagy in acinar cells increases the risk of SAP. Autophagy is affected by various signaling pathways, partially through long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-PVT1. However, few studies have focused on the effect of lncRNA on autophagy in pancreatitis. Our results demonstrate that sodium taurocholate (STC) induces abnormal activation of the autophagic response in pancreatic acinar cells in vitro and in vivo. The lncRNA-PVT1 level was significantly upregulated in this process and was capable of targeting the miR-30a-5p/Beclin-1-mediated autophagy signaling pathway. Additionally, STC-induced pancreatic acinar cells injury and autophagy activation were all abrogated with the downregulation of lncRNA-PVT1 by shRNAs in vitro. Furthermore, we confirmed that the lncRNA-PVT1/miR-30a-5p/Beclin-1 axis induces abnormal autophagy in the pancreas of SAP rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the lncRNA-PVT1/miR-30a-5p/Beclin-1 axis is a potential target for improving SAP, thus providing a foundation for further development of therapeutics in the future.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) can infect ducks, geese, and many other poultry species and leads to acute, septic and highly fatal infectious disease. Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient pathway that plays an important role in many viral infections. We previously reported that DEV infection induces autophagy for its own benefit, but how this occurs remains unclear. In this study, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was triggered by DEV infection, as demonstrated by the increased expression of the ER stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and the dilated morphology of the ER. Pathways associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR), including the PKR-like ER protein kinase (PERK) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathways, but not the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) pathway, were activated in DEV-infected duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. In addition, the knockdown of both PERK and IRE1 by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) reduced the level of LC3-II and viral yields, which suggested that the PERK-eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) and IRE1-x-box protein1 (XBP1) pathways may contribute to DEV-induced autophagy. Collectively, these data offer new insight into the mechanisms of DEV -induced autophagy through activation of the ER stress-related UPR pathway.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae and is an important epornitic agent that causes economic losses in the waterfowl industry. The Chinese virulent (CHv) and attenuate vaccines (VAC) are two different pathogenic DEV strains. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in viral infection. Nonetheless, there is little information on virulent duck enteritis virus (DEV)-encoded miRNAs.Using high-throughput sequencing, we identified 39 mature viral miRNAs from CHv-infected duck embryo fibroblasts cells. Compared with the reported 33 VAC-encoded miRNAs, only 13 miRNA sequences and 22 "seed sequences" of miRNA were identical, and 8 novel viral miRNAs were detected and confirmed by stem-loop RT-qPCR in this study. Using RNAhybrid and PITA software, 38 CHv-encoded miRNAs were predicted to target 41 viral genes and formed a complex regulatory network. Dual luciferase reporter assay (DLRA) confirmed that viral dev-miR-D8-3p can directly target the 3'-UTR of CHv US1 gene (p < 0.05). Gene Ontology analysis on host target genes of viral miRNAs were mainly involved in biological regulation, cellular and metabolic processes. In addition, 598 novel duck-encoded miRNAs were detected in this study. Thirty-eight host miRNAs showed significant differential expression after CHv infection: 13 miRNAs were up-regulated, and 25 miRNAs were down-regulated, which may affect viral replication in the host cell.These data suggested that CHv encoded a different set of microRNAs and formed a unique regulatory network compared with VAC. This is the first report of DEF miRNAs expression profile and an analysis of these miRNAs regulatory mechanisms during DEV infection. These data provide a basis for further exploring miRNA regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of DEV infection and contribute to the understanding of the CHv-host interaction at the miRNA level.
Project description:Autophagy is activated in cancer cells during chemotherapy and often contributes to tumor chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we characterized the role of microRNA-30a (miR-30a) in the coordination of cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy, which determines the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapy. First, the autophagy activity in cancer cells increased after cis-dichloro-diamine platinum (cis-DDP) or Taxol treatment, as indicated by the enhanced expression of beclin 1, a key regulator of autophagy, and increased number of LC3-positive autophagosomes. Second, miRNA screening using a TaqMan probe-based quantitative RT-PCR assay identified that miR-30a, a miRNA that targets beclin 1, was significantly reduced in tumor cells by cis-DDP treatment. Forced expression of miR-30a significantly reduced beclin 1 and the autophagy activity of tumor cells induced by cis-DDP. Third, the blockade of tumor cell autophagy activity by miR-30a expression or 3-methyladenine significantly increased tumor cell apoptosis induced by cis-DDP treatment. Finally, an in vivo tumor implantation mouse model clearly showed that elevation of miR-30a in implanted tumor cells by administration of the recombinant lentivirus expressing miR-30a strongly enhanced cis-DDP-induced apoptosis of tumor cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that miR-30a can sensitize tumor cells to cis-DDP via reducing beclin 1-mediated autophagy and that increasing miR-30a level in tumor cells represents a novel approach to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy during cancer treatment.
Project description:beclin 1, the mammalian homologue of the yeast Atg6, is a key autophagy-promoting gene that plays a critical role in the regulation of cell death and survival of various types of cells. However, recent studies have observed that the expression of beclin 1 is altered in certain diseases including cancers. The causes underlying the aberrant expression of beclin 1 remain largely unknown. We report here that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous, 22-24 nucleotide noncoding RNA molecules able to affect stability and translation of mRNA, may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism for regulating beclin 1 expression and autophagy. We demonstrated that beclin 1 is a potential target for miRNA miR-30a, and this miRNA could negatively regulate beclin 1 expression resulting in decreased autophagic activity. Treatment of tumor cells with the miR-30a mimic decreased, and with the antagomir increased, the expression of beclin 1 mRNA and protein. Dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the miR-30a binding sequences in the 3'-UTR of beclin 1 contribute to the modulation of beclin 1 expression by miR-30a. Furthermore, inhibition of beclin 1 expression by the miR-30a mimic blunted activation of autophagy induced by rapamycin. Our study of the role of miR-30a in regulating beclin 1 expression and autophagy reveals a novel function for miRNA in a critical cellular event with significant impacts in cancer development, progression and treatment, and in other diseases.
Project description:Lethal Duck Enteritis Virus (DEV) infection can cause high morbidity and mortality of many species of waterfowl within the order Anseriformes. However, little is known about the function of viral genes including the conserved UL55 gene among alpha herpes virus due to the obstacles in maintenance and manipulation of DEV genome in host cells.In this paper, we constructed an infectious bacteria artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of the lethal clinical isolate duck enteritis virus Chinese virulent strain (DEV CHv) by inserting a transfer vector containing BAC mini-F sequence and selection marker EGFP into UL23 gene using homologous recombination. UL55 deletion and its revertant mutant were generated by two-step RED recombination in E. coli on basis of rescued recombinant virus. The function of UL55 gene in DEV replication and its effect on distribution of UL26.5 protein were carried out by growth characteristics and co-localization analysis.The complete genome of DEV CHv can be stably maintained in E. coli as a BAC clone and reconstituted again in DEF cells. The generated UL55 deletion mutant based on DEV CHv-BAC-G displayed similar growth curves, plaque morphology and virus titer of its parental virus in infected Duck Embryo Fibroblast (DEF) cells. Immunofluorescence assay indicated that the loss of UL55 gene do not affect the distribution of UL26.5 protein in intracellular. These data also suggest infectious BAC clone of DEV CHv will facilitate the gene function studies of DEV genome.We have successfully developed an infectious BAC clone of lethal clinical isolate DEV CHv for the first time. The generated UL55 gene mutant based on that demonstrated this platform would be a very useful tool for functional study of DEV genes. We found the least known DEV UL55 is dispensable for virus replication and UL26.5 distribution, and it could be a very promise candidate locus for developing bivalent vaccine. Experiment are now in progress for testifying the possibility of UL55 gene locus as an exogenous gene insertion site for developing DEV vectored vaccine.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the clinical treatment of glioblastomas. However, it has been reported that treatment with TMZ can induce autophagy, which leads to tumor resistance and increases the survival of tumor cells. MicroRNA-30a (miR-30a) has been found to have inhibitory effects on autophagy by directly targeting beclin 1. However, the exact role of miR-30a in TMZ-treated glioblastoma cells has not been studied previously. The present study aimed to investigate whether miR-30a increased the cytotoxicity of TMZ to glioblastoma U251 cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. MTT and flow cytometry assay results showed that treatment with TMZ inhibited the proliferation of U251 cells while inducing cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting data showed that the expression levels of LC3-II and beclin 1 as well as the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I were markedly increased in TMZ-treated U251 cells compared with the untreated control cells, indicating that treatment with TMZ induced autophagy. Moreover, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction data showed that treatment with TMZ led to a significant reduction in miR-30a levels in a dose-dependent manner in U251 cells. Elevation of the miR-30a level significantly inhibited TMZ-induced autophagy, demonstrated by the decreased LC3-II and beclin 1 levels and ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I, accompanied by the reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in TMZ-treated U251 cells. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay data indicated that beclin 1 was a direct target of miR-30a in U251 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that miR-30a increases the chemosensitivity of glioblastoma U251 cells to temozolomide by directly targeting beclin 1 and inhibiting autophagy. Therefore, autophagy may be a promising target for the treatment of TMZ-resistant tumors.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has recently appeared in ducks in China and the key cellular determiners for DTMUV replication in host cells remain unknown. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process that has been reported to facilitate flavivirus replication. In this study, we utilized primary duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) as the cell model and found that DTMUV infection triggered LC3-II increase and polyubiquitin-binding protein sequestosome 1 (p62) decrease, confirming that complete autophagy occurred in DEF cells. The induction of autophagy by pharmacological treatment increased DTMUV replication in DEF cells, whereas the inhibition of autophagy with pharmacological treatments or RNA interference decreased DTMUV replication. Inhibiting autophagy enhanced the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) pathways and increased the p62 protein level in DTMUV-infected cells. We further found that the overexpression of p62 decreased DTMUV replication and inhibited the activation of the NF-?B and IRF7 pathways, and changes in the NF-?B and IRF7 pathways were consistent with the level of phosphorylated TANK-binding kinase 1 (p-TBK1). Opposite results were found in p62 knockdown cells. In summary, we found that autophagy-mediated p62 degradation acted as a new strategy for DTMUV to evade host innate immunity.