Nanoscale coupling of endocytic pit growth and stability.
ABSTRACT: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, an essential process for plasma membrane homeostasis and cell signaling, is characterized by stunning heterogeneity in the size and lifetime of clathrin-coated endocytic pits (CCPs). If and how CCP growth and lifetime are coupled and how this relates to their physiological function are unknown. We combine computational modeling, automated tracking of CCP dynamics, electron microscopy, and functional rescue experiments to demonstrate that CCP growth and lifetime are closely correlated and mechanistically linked by the early-acting endocytic F-BAR protein FCHo2. FCHo2 assembles at the rim of CCPs to control CCP growth and lifetime by coupling the invagination of early endocytic intermediates to clathrin lattice assembly. Our data suggest a mechanism for the nanoscale control of CCP growth and stability that may similarly apply to other metastable structures in cells.
Project description:In recent years, fluorescence microscopy has enabled researchers to observe the dynamics of clathrin-coated pit (CCP) assembly in real time. The assembly dynamics of CCPs shows striking heterogeneity. Some CCPs are long-lived (productive CCPs); they bind cargo and grow in size to form clathrin-coated vesicles. In contrast, other CCPs (abortive CCPs) are relatively short-lived and disassemble well before reaching vesicle size. Within both populations there is significant variance in CCP lifetime. We propose a stochastic biophysical model that links these observations with the energetics of CCPs and kinetics of their assembly. We show that without cargo, CCP assembly faces a high energy barrier that is difficult to overcome. As a consequence, CCPs without cargo are almost always abortive. We suggest a mechanism by which cargo binding stabilizes CCPs and facilitates their growth. The lifetime distribution of abortive pits calculated from our model agrees well with published experimental data. We also estimate the lifetimes of productive CCPs and show that the stochastic nature of CCP assembly plays a crucial role in causing their observed wide distribution.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis takes place through the recruitment of cargo molecules into a growing clathrin-coated pit (CCP). Despite the importance of this process to all mammalian cells, little is yet known about the interaction dynamics between cargo and CCPs. These interactions are difficult to study because CCPs display a large degree of lifetime heterogeneity and the interactions with cargo molecules are time dependent. We use single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, in combination with automatic detection and tracking algorithms, to directly visualize the recruitment of individual voltage-gated potassium channels into forming CCPs in living cells. We observe association and dissociation of individual channels with a CCP and, occasionally, their internalization. Contrary to widespread ideas, cargo often escapes from a pit before abortive CCP termination or endocytic vesicle production. Thus, the binding times of cargo molecules associating to CCPs are much shorter than the overall endocytic process. By measuring tens of thousands of capturing events, we build the distribution of capture times and the times that cargo remains confined to a CCP. An analytical stochastic model is developed and compared with the measured distributions. Due to the dynamic nature of the pit, the model is non-Markovian and it displays long-tail power law statistics. The measured distributions and model predictions are in excellent agreement over more than five orders of magnitude. Our findings identify one source of the large heterogeneities in CCP dynamics and provide a mechanism for the anomalous diffusion of proteins in the plasma membrane.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major mechanism for internalization in mammalian cells. CME initiates by recruitment of adaptors and clathrin to form clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Nearly half of nascent CCPs abort, whereas others are stabilized by unknown mechanisms and undergo further maturation before pinching off to form clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). Phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), the main lipid binding partner of endocytic proteins, is required for CCP assembly, but little is currently known about its contribution(s) to later events in CCV formation. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown and overexpression, we have analyzed the effects of manipulating PIP(2) synthesis and turnover on CME by quantitative total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and computational analysis. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase cannot be detected within CCPs but functions in initiation and controls the rate and extent of CCP growth. In contrast, the 5'-inositol phosphatase synaptojanin 1 localizes to CCPs and controls early stabilization and maturation efficiency. Together these results suggest that the balance of PIP(2) synthesis in the bulk plasma membrane and its local turnover within CCPs control multiple stages of CCV formation.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the most characterized pathway for the endocytic entry of proteins and lipids at the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. Numerous studies have probed the roles of different endocytic accessory proteins in regulating the dynamics of clathrin-coated pit (CCP) assembly. However, it is not completely clear how physical cues regulate CCP dynamics. Here we employ microcontact printing to control cell shape and examine CCP dynamics as a function of cell spreading area for three differently sized cells. Cells with a large spreading area had more short-lived CCPs but a higher CCP initiation rate. Interestingly, we found that fluorescence intensity of CCPs decreased with increasing cell spreading area in a manner that was dependent on the cortical actin network. Our results point to another facet of the regulation of CCP dynamics, suggesting that CME may be modulated while cells change their mechanical state and remodel their actin cytoskeleton during various processes.
Project description:Clathrin light chains (CLCs) control selective uptake of a range of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although the mechanism by which this occurs has remained elusive thus far. In particular, site-specific phosphorylation of CLCb controls the uptake of the purinergic GPCR P2Y12, but it is dispensable for the constitutive uptake of the transferrin receptor (TfR). We demonstrate that phosphorylation of CLCb is required for the maturation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) through the transition of flat lattices into invaginated buds. This transition is dependent on efficient clathrin exchange regulated by CLCb phosphorylation and mediated through auxilin. Strikingly, this rearrangement is required for the uptake of P2Y12 but not TfR. These findings link auxilin-mediated clathrin exchange to early stages of CCP invagination in a cargo-specific manner. This supports a model in which CCPs invaginate with variable modes of curvature depending on the cargo they incorporate.
Project description:Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM) has become a powerful tool for studying clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, due to difficulties in tracking and quantifying their heterogeneous dynamic behavior, detailed analyses have been restricted to a limited number of selected clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). To identify intermediates in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles and factors that regulate progression through these stages, we used particle-tracking software and statistical methods to establish an unbiased and complete inventory of all visible CCP trajectories. We identified three dynamically distinct CCP subpopulations: two short-lived subpopulations corresponding to aborted intermediates, and one longer-lived productive subpopulation. In a manner dependent on AP2 adaptor complexes, increasing cargo concentration significantly enhances the maturation efficiency of productive CCPs, but has only minor effects on their lifetimes. In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion of dynamin-2 GTPase and reintroduction of wild-type or mutant dynamin-1 revealed dynamin's role in controlling the turnover of abortive intermediates and the rate of CCP maturation. From these data, we infer the existence of an endocytic restriction or checkpoint, responsive to cargo and regulated by dynamin.
Project description:A well-orchestrated hierarchy of molecular events is required for successful initiation and maturation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Nevertheless, CCPs display a broad range of lifetimes. This dynamic heterogeneity could either reflect differences in the temporal hierarchy of molecular events, or similar CCP maturation processes with variable kinetics. To address this question, we have used multi-channel image acquisition and automated analysis of CCP dynamics in combination with a new method to quantify the time courses of recruitment of endocytic factors to CCPs of different lifetimes. Using this approach we have extracted the kinetics of recruitment and disassembly of fluorescently labeled clathrin and/or AP-2 throughout the entire lifetime of temporally defined CCP cohorts. On the basis of these analyses, we can (i) directly correlate recruitment profiles of these two proteins; (ii) define five distinct CCP maturation phases, i.e. initiation, growth, maturation, separation and departure; (iii) distinguish events with absolute versus fractional timing and (iv) provide information on the spatial distribution of fluorophores during CCP maturation. Emerging from these analyses is a more clearly defined role for AP-2 in determining the temporal hierarchy for clathrin recruitment and CCP maturation. This method provides a new means to identify other such hierarchies during CCP maturation.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis has long been viewed as a process driven by core endocytic proteins, with internalized cargo proteins being passive. In contrast, an emerging view suggests that signaling receptor cargo may actively control its fate by regulating the dynamics of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) that mediate their internalization. Despite its physiological implications, very little is known about such "cargo-mediated regulation" of CCPs by signaling receptors. Here, using multicolor total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging and quantitative analysis in live cells, we show that the ?-opioid receptor, a physiologically relevant G protein-coupled signaling receptor, delays the dynamics of CCPs in which it is localized. This delay is mediated by the interactions of two critical leucines on the receptor cytoplasmic tail. Unlike the previously known mechanism of cargo-mediated regulation, these residues regulate the lifetimes of dynamin, a key component of CCP scission. These results identify a novel means for selectively controlling the endocytosis of distinct cargo that share common trafficking components and indicate that CCP regulation by signaling receptors can operate via divergent modes.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is key to maintaining the transmembrane protein composition of cells' limiting membranes. During mammalian CME, a reversible phosphorylation event occurs on Thr156 of the ?2 subunit of the main endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We show that this phosphorylation event starts during clathrin-coated pit (CCP) initiation and increases throughout CCP lifetime. ?2Thr156 phosphorylation favors a new, cargo-bound conformation of AP2 and simultaneously creates a binding platform for the endocytic NECAP proteins but without significantly altering AP2's cargo affinity in vitro. We describe the structural bases of both. NECAP arrival at CCPs parallels that of clathrin and increases with ?2Thr156 phosphorylation. In turn, NECAP recruits drivers of late stages of CCP formation, including SNX9, via a site distinct from where NECAP binds AP2. Disruption of the different modules of this phosphorylation-based temporal regulatory system results in CCP maturation being delayed and/or stalled, hence impairing global rates of CME.
Project description:Phosphoinositides are thought to play an important role in clathrin-coated pit (CCP) dynamics. Biochemical and structural studies have shown a direct interaction of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] with endocytic clathrin adaptors, whereas functional studies using cell-free systems or intact cells have demonstrated the importance of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and dephosphorylation in clathrin coating and uncoating, respectively. Furthermore, genetic manipulations of kinases and phosphatases involved in PI(4,5)P2 metabolism result in major defects in synaptic vesicle recycling and other forms of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, live imaging studies of these enzymes at CCPs have not been conducted. We have used multicolor total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to visualize the spatial-temporal recruitment of synaptojanin 1 (SJ1), a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase, and its binding partner endophilin to CCPs. Strikingly, we observed differential temporal recruitment of the two major SJ1 splice variants to CCPs. The 145-kDa isoform, the predominant isoform expressed in the brain, was rapidly recruited as a "burst," together with endophilin, at a late stage of CCP formation. In contrast, the nonneuronal ubiquitously expressed 170-kDa isoform of SJ1 was present at all stages of CCP formation. These results raise the possibility that dynamic phosphoinositide metabolism may occur throughout the lifetime of a CCP.