Comparative case studies in integrated care implementation from across the globe: a quest for action.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Integrated care is the coordination of general and behavioral health and is a highly promising and practical approach to improving healthcare delivery and patient outcomes. While there is growing interest and investment in integrated care implementation internationally, there are no formal guidelines for integrated care implementation applicable to diverse healthcare systems. Furthermore, there is a complex interplay of factors at multiple levels of influence that are necessary for successful implementation of integrated care in health systems. METHODS:Guided by the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework (Aarons et al., 2011), a multiple case study design was used to address two research objectives: 1) To highlight current integrated care implementation efforts through seven international case studies that target a range of healthcare systems, patient populations and implementation strategies and outcomes, and 2) To synthesize the shared and unique challenges and successes across studies using the EPIS framework. RESULTS:The seven reported case studies represent integrated care implementation efforts from five countries and continents (United States, United Kingdom, Vietnam, Israel, and Nigeria), target a range of clinical populations and care settings, and span all phases of the EPIS framework. Qualitative synthesis of these case studies illuminated common outer context, inner context, bridging and innovation factors that were key drivers of implementation. CONCLUSIONS:We propose an agenda that outlines priority goals and related strategies to advance integrated care implementation research. These goals relate to: 1) the role of funding at multiple levels of implementation, 2) meaningful collaboration with stakeholders across phases of implementation and 3) clear communication to stakeholders about integrated care implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Not applicable.
Project description:Introduction:Integrated care models for older adults are increasingly utilised in healthcare systems to overcome fragmentations. Several groups of stakeholders are involved in the implementation of integrated care. The aim of this study is to identify the main concerns, convergences and divergences in perspectives of stakeholders involved in the implementation of a centralised system-wide integrated care model for older adults in Quebec. Theory and methods:Qualitative multiple-case study. Semi-structured interviews of key stakeholders: policymakers (n = 11), providers (n = 29), managers (n = 34), older adult patients (n = 14) and caregivers (n = 9), including document analysis. Thematic analysis of the views of stakeholders along the lines of the six dimensions of the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care. Results:While patients/caregivers were mostly concerned by their unmet individual needs, policymakers, managers and providers were concerned by structural barriers to integrating care. Stakeholders' diverse perspectives indicated implementation gaps in a top-down implementation context. Conclusion:Mandated system-wide integration appears to have structural, organizational, functional, and normative transformations, but its clinical changes are more uncertain in view of the observed divergent perspectives of actors. It will be interesting to explore if the systemic changes are precursors of clinical changes or, on the contrary, explains the lack of clinical changes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To improve their quality, healthcare systems are increasingly focused on value delivered to patients. For perinatal care, the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) proposed a patient-centred outcome set with both clinical and patient-reported measures for pregnancy and childbirth (PCB set). This study aimed to identify factors that affect the implementation of the PCB set at the pre-implementation stage, using the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR).<h4>Methods</h4>In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews amongst a purposive sample of key stakeholders within an obstetric care network (OCN): 1) patients, 2) perinatal care professionals involved in the full cycle of perinatal care, and 3) policy makers, including hospital managers, administrative staff and health care insurers. While the CFIR guided data capture and structuring, thematic analysis revealed overarching themes that best reflected the barriers and facilitators from different stakeholder perspectives. Within these overarching themes, the CFIR constructs were maintained.<h4>Results</h4>Interviews were conducted with 6 patients, 16 professionals and 5 policy makers. Thematic analysis supported by the CFIR framework identified four main themes: the instrument and its implementation process, use in individual patient care, use in quality improvement, and the context of the OCN. Important barriers included professional workload, data reliability, and interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration. Potential facilitators were the PCB set's direct value in individual care, interprofessional feedback and education, and aligning with existing systems. Prominent variations between stakeholder groups included the expected patient burden, the level of use, transparency of outcomes and the degree of integrated care.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study clarified critical factors that affect successful implementation of the PCB set in perinatal care. Practice recommendations, suggested at multiple levels, can enable structural patient-centred care improvement and may unite stakeholders towards integrated birth care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Advanced Geriatric Nurse role recently has been introduced into Norway's primary healthcare system, and our study's purpose was to examine the implementation of models of care developed for Advanced Geriatric Nurse in primary care. With a structure evaluation, we tried to identify conditions that affect the implementation of different models of care and understand how these conditions affected the realisation of each model's intentions and goals. METHODS:An embedded multiple-case study was used that included five Norwegian municipalities and seven AGNs. The study included data from August 2014 through September 2018. We used data from 25 semi-structured face-to-face interviews with AGNs and stakeholders, documents and statistical information. We used a cross-case procedure with an emphasis on case findings for the analysis of the multiple case study. RESULTS:We analysed the structure-related conditions on two levels: the meso-level and the micro-level. On the meso-level, we found that the conditions that affected the implementation of the different models of care were related to each municipality's structure characteristics, stakeholders' involvement in the design of the models of care, the clarity of the models and their goals, the evaluation of the models and their adaptation. At the micro-level, we found that the conditions that affected the models' implementation were related to the collaboration within the implemented models of care, the role clarity of Advanced Geriatric Nurses themselves and adjustments within the models. CONCLUSIONS:The implementation of the AGN role in Norway seems to have been implemented in ways that can impact patients and municipalities positively. Potential improvements include extensive stakeholder involvement, improved roles, goal clarity and better documentation of structures and outcomes. The models' dynamic nature seemed to be a beneficial characteristic, but adaptation should be systematic and a necessary time should be considered for a new model of care to be integrated and produce results.
Project description:Introduction:Benefits of integrated care include improved health outcomes and more satisfaction with experiences of care for consumers. For children and young people with chronic and complex health conditions, their care may be fragmented due to the multitude of healthcare providers involved. This paper describes the experiences of integrated care in a paediatric tertiary hospital. Theory and methods:Using an Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with children and young people, their parents and healthcare providers to explore stakeholders' integrated care experiences. Results:Nineteen interviews were completed (6 children and young people, 7 parents and 6 healthcare providers) and transcribed verbatim. Two recurrent themes were applicable across the three cohorts: 'agency and empowerment' and 'impact of organisational systems, supports and structures'. Discussion and conclusion:Stakeholders' experiences of integrated care highlighted the need to examine the discrepancies between healthcare strategies, policies and service delivery within a complex, and often inflexible organisational structure. Power imbalance and family agency (including directly with children and young people) needs to be addressed to support the implementation of integrated care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Systematic screening of all colorectal tumors for Lynch Syndrome (LS) has been recommended since 2009. Currently, implementation of LS screening in healthcare systems remains variable, likely because LS screening involves the complex coordination of multiple departments and individuals across the healthcare system. Our specific aims are to (1) describe variation in LS screening implementation across multiple healthcare systems; (2) identify conditions associated with both practice variation and optimal implementation; (3) determine the relative effectiveness, efficiency, and costs of different LS screening protocols by healthcare system; and (4) develop and test in a real-world setting an organizational toolkit for LS screening program implementation and improvement. This toolkit will promote effective implementation of LS screening in various complex health systems. METHODS:This study includes eight healthcare systems with 22 clinical sites at varied stages of implementing LS screening programs. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), we will conduct in-depth semi-structured interviews with patients and organizational stakeholders and perform economic evaluation of site-specific implementation costs. These processes will result in a comprehensive cross-case analysis of different organizational contexts. We will utilize qualitative data analysis and configurational comparative methodology to identify facilitators and barriers at the organizational level that are minimally sufficient and necessary for optimal LS screening implementation. DISCUSSION:The overarching goal of this project is to combine our data with theories and tools from implementation science to create an organizational toolkit to facilitate implementation of LS screening in various real-world settings. Our organizational toolkit will account for issues of complex coordination of care involving multiple stakeholders to enhance implementation, sustainability, and ongoing improvement of evidence-based LS screening programs. Successful implementation of such programs will ultimately reduce suffering of patients and their family members from preventable cancers, decrease waste in healthcare system costs, and inform strategies to facilitate the promise of precision medicine. TRIAL REGISTRATION:N/A.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Participatory research approaches improve the use of evidence in policy, programmes and practice. Few studies have addressed ways to scale up participatory research for wider system improvement or the intensity of effort required. We used the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework to analyse implementation of an interactive dissemination process engaging stakeholders with continuous quality improvement (CQI) data from Australian Indigenous primary healthcare centres. This paper reports lessons learnt about scaling knowledge translation research, facilitating engagement at a system level and applying the i-PARIHS framework to a system-level intervention. METHODS:Drawing on a developmental evaluation of our dissemination process, we conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from project records and interviews with 30 stakeholders working in Indigenous health in different roles, organisation types and settings in one Australian jurisdiction and with national participants. Content-analysed data were mapped onto the i-PARIHS framework constructs to examine factors contributing to the success (or otherwise) of the process. RESULTS:The dissemination process achieved wide reach, with stakeholders using aggregated CQI data to identify system-wide priority evidence-practice gaps, barriers and strategies for improvement across the scope of care. Innovation characteristics influencing success were credible data, online dissemination and recruitment through established networks, research goals aligned with stakeholders' interest in knowledge-sharing and motivation to improve care, and iterative phases of reporting and feedback. The policy environment and infrastructure for CQI, as well as manager support, influenced participation. Stakeholders who actively facilitated organisational- and local-level engagement were important for connecting others with the data and with the externally located research team. Developmental evaluation was facilitative in that it supported real-time adaptation and tailoring to stakeholders and context. CONCLUSIONS:A participatory research process was successfully implemented at scale without intense facilitation efforts. These findings broaden the notion of facilitation and support the utility of the i-PARIHS framework for planning participatory knowledge translation research at a system level. Researchers planning similar interventions should work through established networks and identify organisational- or local-level facilitators within the research design. Further research exploring facilitation in system-level interventions and the use of interactive dissemination processes in other settings is needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthcare organisations are complex social entities, comprising of multiple stakeholders with differing priorities, roles, and expectations about how care should be delivered. To reach agreement among these diverse interest groups and achieve safe, cost-effective patient care, healthcare staff must navigate the micropolitical context of the health service. Micropolitics in this study refers to the use of power, authority, and influence to affect team goals, vision, and decision-making processes. Although these concepts are influential when cultivating change, there is a dearth of literature examining the mechanisms through which micropolitics influences implementation processes among teams. This paper addresses this gap by exploring the role of power, authority, and influence when implementing a collective leadership intervention in two multidisciplinary healthcare teams. METHODS:The multiple case study design adopted employed a triangulation of qualitative research methods. Over thirty hours of observations (Case A?=?16, Case B?=?15) and twenty-five interviews (Case A?=?13, Case B?=?12) were completed. An in-depth thematic analysis of the data using an inductive coding approach was completed to understand the mechanisms through which contextual factors influenced implementation success. A context coding framework was also employed throughout implementation to succinctly collate the data into a visual display and to provide a high-level overview of implementation effect (i.e. the positive, neutral, or negative impact of contextual determinants on implementation). RESULTS:The findings emphasised that implementing change in healthcare teams is an inherently political process influenced by prevailing power structures. Two key themes were generated which revealed the dynamic role of these concepts throughout implementation: 1) Exerting hierarchical influence for implementation; and 2) Traditional power structures constraining implementation. Gaining support across multiple levels of leadership was influential to implementation success as the influence exercised by these individuals persuaded follower engagement. However, the historical dynamics of each team determined how this influence was exerted and perceived, which negatively impacted some participants' experiences of the implementation process. CONCLUSION:To date, micropolitics has received scant attention in implementation science literature. This study introduces the micropolitical concepts of power, authority and influence as essential contextual determinants and outlines the mechanisms through which these concepts influence implementation processes.
Project description:Summary Combining thematic analysis and a human–computer persuasive systems framework suggests that hip fracture recovery among older people can be enhanced through person-centered digital health hub models of care focused on behavior change education and integrated care. The findings intend to guide settings involving comorbid conditions and low- and middle-income countries in developing innovative digital health solutions. <h4>Purpose</h4> The purpose of this study was to understand stakeholders’ perspectives on the development of a digital health-enabled model of care for fragility hip fractures and to map out factors that could influence the design and implementation of such a model. <h4>Methods</h4> Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from various clinical disciplines, allied health, and computer science. A hybrid process involving thematic analysis of the raw data using inductive coding was the first step. In the second step, the tenets of a theoretical framework (health behavior change supporting systems) were deductively applied to the thematic constructs generated as part of the first step of the analysis. <h4>Results</h4> In total, 24 in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders. We identified 18 thematic constructs presented under the categories of context, content, and system. Context covered patient characteristics such as frailty, digital literacy, and patient or carer participation, whereas healthcare delivery aspects included the structure and culture of existing practice and the need for innovative holistic models of care. Content outlines the active ingredients and approach in developing a digital health hub, and it highlights the importance of targeted education and behavior change. The system is a complicated matrix crossing different aspects of healthcare and offering a value proposition design through personalization across modes of content delivery. This must foster trust, ensure adequate financing, and support ownership and privacy by establishing appropriate mechanisms for embedding change. <h4>Conclusion</h4> The findings from this study provide insights around potential factors related to patients, community support, and healthcare delivery influencing the design and next-stage implementation of a digital health hub model of care for fragility hip fractures. <h4>Supplementary Information</h4> The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11657-021-01031-3.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This paper describes the means by which a United States National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded cooperative, Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS), utilized an established implementation science framework in conducting a multi-site, multi-research center implementation intervention initiative. The initiative aimed to bolster the ability of juvenile justice agencies to address unmet client needs related to substance use while enhancing inter-organizational relationships between juvenile justice and local behavioral health partners. METHODS:The EPIS (Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment) framework was selected and utilized as the guiding model from inception through project completion; including the mapping of implementation strategies to EPIS stages, articulation of research questions, and selection, content, and timing of measurement protocols. Among other key developments, the project led to a reconceptualization of its governing implementation science framework into cyclical form as the EPIS Wheel. The EPIS Wheel is more consistent with rapid-cycle testing principles and permits researchers to track both progressive and recursive movement through EPIS. Moreover, because this randomized controlled trial was predicated on a bundled strategy method, JJ-TRIALS was designed to rigorously test progress through the EPIS stages as promoted by facilitation of data-driven decision making principles. The project extended EPIS by (1) elucidating the role and nature of recursive activity in promoting change (yielding the circular EPIS Wheel), (2) by expanding the applicability of the EPIS framework beyond a single evidence-based practice (EBP) to address varying process improvement efforts (representing varying EBPs), and (3) by disentangling outcome measures of progression through EPIS stages from the a priori established study timeline. DISCUSSION:The utilization of EPIS in JJ-TRIALS provides a model for practical and applied use of implementation frameworks in real-world settings that span outer service system and inner organizational contexts in improving care for vulnerable populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02672150 . Retrospectively registered on 22 January 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Improving the extent to which evidence-based practices (EBPs)-treatments that have been empirically shown to be efficacious or effective-are integrated within routine practice is a well-documented challenge across numerous areas of health. In 2014, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the substance abuse treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI) for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS service organizations (ASOs) as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the ISF Experiment. METHODS:Using a cluster randomized design, case management and leadership staff from 39 ASOs across the United States were randomized to receive either the ATTC strategy (control condition) or the ATTC + ISF strategy (experimental condition). The ATTC strategy is staff-focused and includes 10 discrete strategies (e.g., provide centralized technical assistance, conduct educational meetings, provide ongoing consultation). The ISF strategy is organization-focused and includes seven discrete strategies (e.g., use an implementation advisor, organize implementation team meetings, conduct cyclical small tests of change). Building upon the exploration-preparation-implementation-sustainment (EPIS) framework, the effectiveness of the ISF strategy is examined via three staff-level measures: (1) time-to-proficiency (i.e., preparation phase outcome), (2) implementation effectiveness (i.e., implementation phase outcome), and (3) level of sustainment (i.e., sustainment phase outcome). DISCUSSION:Although not without limitations, the ISF experiment has several strengths: a highly rigorous design (randomized, hypothesis-driven), high-need setting (ASOs), large sample size (39 ASOs), large geographic representation (23 states and the District of Columbia), and testing along multiple phases of the EPIS continuum (preparation, implementation, and sustainment). Thus, study findings will significantly improve generalizable knowledge regarding the best preparation, implementation, and sustainment strategies for advancing EBPs along the EPIS continuum. Moreover, increasing ASO's capacity to address substance use may improve the HIV Care Continuum. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03120598.