Metagenomic identification of severe pneumonia pathogens in mechanically-ventilated patients: a feasibility and clinical validity study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Metagenomic sequencing of respiratory microbial communities for pathogen identification in pneumonia may help overcome the limitations of culture-based methods. We examined the feasibility and clinical validity of rapid-turnaround metagenomics with Nanopore™ sequencing of clinical respiratory specimens. METHODS:We conducted a case-control study of mechanically-ventilated patients with pneumonia (nine culture-positive and five culture-negative) and without pneumonia (eight controls). We collected endotracheal aspirates and applied a microbial DNA enrichment method prior to metagenomic sequencing with the Oxford Nanopore MinION device. For reference, we compared Nanopore results against clinical microbiologic cultures and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS:Human DNA depletion enabled in depth sequencing of microbial communities. In culture-positive cases, Nanopore revealed communities with high abundance of the bacterial or fungal species isolated by cultures. In four cases with resistant clinical isolates, Nanopore detected antibiotic resistance genes corresponding to the phenotypic resistance in antibiograms. In culture-negative pneumonia, Nanopore revealed probable bacterial pathogens in 1/5 cases and Candida colonization in 3/5 cases. In controls, Nanopore showed high abundance of oral bacteria in 5/8 subjects, and identified colonizing respiratory pathogens in other subjects. Nanopore and 16S sequencing showed excellent concordance for the most abundant bacterial taxa. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated technical feasibility and proof-of-concept clinical validity of Nanopore metagenomics for severe pneumonia diagnosis, with striking concordance with positive microbiologic cultures, and clinically actionable information obtained from sequencing in culture-negative samples. Prospective studies with real-time metagenomics are warranted to examine the impact on antimicrobial decision-making and clinical outcomes.
Project description:Illumina and nanopore sequencing technologies are powerful tools that can be used to determine the bacterial composition of complex microbial communities. In this study, we compared nasal microbiota results at genus level using both Illumina and nanopore 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We also monitored the progression of nanopore sequencing in the accurate identification of species, using pure, single species cultures, and evaluated the performance of the nanopore EPI2ME 16S data analysis pipeline. Fifty-nine nasal swabs were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore 16S rRNA gene sequencing technologies. In addition, five pure cultures of relevant bacterial species were sequenced with the nanopore sequencing technology. The Illumina MiSeq sequence data were processed using bioinformatics modules present in the Mothur software package. Albacore and Guppy base calling, a workflow in nanopore EPI2ME (Oxford Nanopore Technologies-ONT, Oxford, UK) and an in-house developed bioinformatics script were used to analyze the nanopore data. At genus level, similar bacterial diversity profiles were found, and five main and established genera were identified by both platforms. However, probably due to mismatching of the nanopore sequence primers, the nanopore sequencing platform identified Corynebacterium in much lower abundance compared to Illumina sequencing. Further, when using default settings in the EPI2ME workflow, almost all sequence reads that seem to belong to the bacterial genus Dolosigranulum and a considerable part to the genus Haemophilus were only identified at family level. Nanopore sequencing of single species cultures demonstrated at least 88% accurate identification of the species at genus and species level for 4/5 strains tested, including improvements in accurate sequence read identification when the basecaller Guppy and Albacore, and when flowcell versions R9.4 (Oxford Nanopore Technologies-ONT, Oxford, UK) and R9.2 (Oxford Nanopore Technologies-ONT, Oxford, UK) were compared. In conclusion, the current study shows that the nanopore sequencing platform is comparable with the Illumina platform in detection bacterial genera of the nasal microbiota, but the nanopore platform does have problems in detecting bacteria within the genus Corynebacterium. Although advances are being made, thorough validation of the nanopore platform is still recommendable.
Project description:Etiologic diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia relies on identification of causative pathogens by cultures, which require extended incubation periods and have limited sensitivity. Next-generation sequencing of microbial DNA directly from patient samples may improve diagnostic accuracy for guiding antibiotic prescriptions. In this study, we hypothesized that enhanced pathogen detection using sequencing can improve upon culture-based diagnosis and that certain sequencing profiles correlate with host response. We prospectively collected endotracheal aspirates and plasma within 72 h of intubation from patients with acute respiratory failure. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine pathogen abundance in lung samples and measured plasma biomarkers to assess host responses to detected pathogens. Among 56 patients, 12 patients (21%) had positive respiratory cultures. Sequencing revealed lung communities with low diversity (p < 0.02) dominated by taxa (>50% relative abundance) corresponding to clinically isolated pathogens (concordance p = 0.009). Importantly, sequencing detected dominant pathogens in 20% of the culture-negative patients exposed to broad-spectrum empiric antibiotics. Regardless of culture results, pathogen dominance correlated with increased plasma markers of host injury (receptor of advanced glycation end-products-RAGE) and inflammation (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-TNFR1) (p < 0.05), compared to subjects without dominant pathogens in their lung communities. Machine-learning algorithms identified pathogen abundance by sequencing as the most informative predictor of culture positivity. Thus, enhanced detection of pathogenic bacteria by sequencing improves etiologic diagnosis of pneumonia, correlates with host responses, and offers substantial opportunity for individualized therapeutic targeting and antimicrobial stewardship. Clinical translation will require validation with rapid whole meta-genome sequencing approaches to guide real-time antibiotic prescriptions.
Project description:It is unknown how the respiratory microbiome influences and is influenced by bacterial pneumonia in dogs, as culture of lung samples and not microbial sequencing guides clinical practice. While accurate identification of pathogens are essential for treatment, not all bacteria are cultivable and the impact of respiratory dysbiosis on development of pneumonia is unclear. The study purposes were to (1) characterize the lung microbiome in canine bacterial pneumonia and compare deviations in dominant microbial populations with historical healthy controls, (2) compare bacteria identified by culture vs. 16S rDNA sequencing from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) culture-, and (3) evaluate similarities in lung and oropharyngeal (OP) microbial communities in community-acquired and secondary bacterial pneumonia. Twenty BALF samples from 15 client-owned dogs diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia were enrolled. From a subset of dogs, OP swabs were collected. Extracted DNA underwent PCR of the 16S rRNA gene. Relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were determined. The relative abundance of bacterial community members found in health was decreased in dogs with pneumonia. Taxa identified via culture were not always the dominant phylotype identified with sequencing. Dogs with community-acquired pneumonia were more likely to have overgrowth of a single organism suggesting loss of dominant species associated with health. Dogs with secondary bacterial pneumonia had a greater regional continuity between the upper and lower airways. Collectively, these data suggest that dysbiosis occurs in canine bacterial pneumonia, and culture-independent techniques may provide greater depth of understanding of the changes in bacterial community composition that occur in disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of the Enterobacter nimipressuralis as human pathogens remains unclear. CASE PRESENTATIONS: The microbiologic culture monitoring system of sterile body fluids revealed on an episode of Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter amnigenus in blood culture results on the same day; the antibiotic sensitivity and MIC were nearly the same for both species. First patient was a healthy woman with postmenopausal syndrome, while second patient with herpes zoster. Both patients had febrile sensations without signs of bacteremia. E. amnigenus was also cultured from the unused package of salined cotton in the container through epidemiologic investigation. The cultured Enterobacter species were all identified as E. nimipressuralis through hsp60 gene sequencing and infrequent-restriction-site PCR (IRS-PCR). CONCLUSION: When an unusual microorganisms such as E. nimipressuralis is isolated from blood of a patient with no clinical signs of sepsis, a pseudobacteremia should be suspected. When the antibiogram and MIC test results of bacterial cultures from two or more patients are nearly the same, although the species involved may appear different, it may be necessary to prove that they are the same species through molecular methods. The microbiologic cultures monitoring system will probably help to detect pseudobacteremia and other pseudo infections through reliable and fast identification.
Project description:Infectious disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and diagnosis of polymicrobial and fungal infections is increasingly challenging in the clinical setting. Conventionally, molecular detection is still the best method of species identification in clinical samples. However, the limitations of Sanger sequencing make diagnosis of polymicrobial infections one of the biggest hurdles in treatment. The development of massively parallel sequencing or next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the field of metagenomics, with wide application of the technology in identification of microbial communities in environmental sources, human gut and others. However, to date there has been no commercial application of this technology in infectious disease diagnostic settings.Credence Genomics Rapid Infection Detection™ test, is a molecular based diagnostic test that uses next generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS1 gene region to provide accurate identification of species within a clinical sample. Here we present a study comparing 16S and ITS1 metagenomic identification against conventional culture for clinical samples. Using culture results as gold standard, a comparison was conducted using patient specimens from a clinical microbiology lab.Metagenomics based results show a 91.8% concordance rate for culture positive specimens and 52.8% concordance rate with culture negative samples. 10.3% of specimens were also positive for fungal species which was not investigated by culture. Specificity and sensitivity for metagenomics analysis is 91.8 and 52.7% respectively.16S based metagenomic identification of bacterial species within a clinical specimen is on par with conventional culture based techniques and when coupled with clinical information can lead to an accurate diagnostic tool for infectious disease diagnosis.
Project description:Bloodstream infections (BSI) and sepsis are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Blood culture-based diagnostics usually requires 1-2 days for identification of bacterial agent and an additional 2-3 days for phenotypic determination of antibiotic susceptibility pattern. With the escalating burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) rapid diagnostics becomes increasingly important to secure adequate antibiotic therapy. Real-time whole genome sequencing represents a genotypic diagnostic approach with the ability to rapidly identify pathogens and AMR-encoding genes. Here we have used nanopore sequencing of bacterial DNA extracted from positive blood cultures for identification of pathogens, detection of plasmids and AMR-encoding genes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to gather the above-mentioned information from nanopore sequencing and conduct a comprehensive analysis for diagnostic purposes in real-time. Identification of pathogens was possible after 10?minutes of sequencing and all predefined AMR-encoding genes and plasmids from monoculture experiments were detected within one hour using raw nanopore sequencing data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the correct identification of plasmids and blaCTX-M subtypes using de novo assembled nanopore contigs. Results from this study hold great promise for future applications in clinical microbiology and for health care surveillance purposes.
Project description:Intra-abdominal abscesses are localized collections of pus, which generally arise from a breach in the normal mucosal defense barrier that allows bacteria from gastrointestinal tract, and less commonly from the gynecologic or urinary tract, to induce inflammation, resulting in an infection. The microbiology of these abscesses is usually polymicrobial, associated with the primary disease process. However, the microbial identity, diversity and richness in intra-abdominal abscesses have not been well characterized, due in part to the difficulty in cultivating commensal organisms using standard culture-based techniques.We used culture-independent 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing to characterize bacterial communities in intra-abdominal abscesses collected by percutaneous drainage. A total of 43 abscess samples, including 19 (44.2%) Gram stain and culture-negative specimens, were analyzed and compared with results from conventional microbiologic cultures.Microbial composition was determined in 8 of 19 culture-negative samples and 18 of 24 culture-positive samples, identifying a total of 221 bacterial taxa or operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and averaging 13.1 OTUs per sample (interquartile range, 8-16.5 OTUs). Microbial richness for monomicrobial and polymicrobial samples was significantly higher than culture-negative samples (17 and 15.2 OTUs vs 8 OTUs, respectively), with a trend toward a higher microbial diversity (Shannon diversity index of 0.87 and 1.18 vs 0.58, respectively).The bacterial consortia identified by cultures correlated poorly with the microbial composition determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, and in most cases, the cultured isolates were minority constituents of the overall abscess microbiome. Intra-abdominal abscesses were generally polymicrobial with a surprisingly high microbial diversity, but standard culture-based techniques failed to reveal this diversity. These data suggest that molecular-based approaches may be helpful for documenting the presence of bacteria in intra-abdominal abscesses where standard cultures are unrevealing, particularly in the setting of prior antibiotic exposure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Complete and contiguous genome assemblies greatly improve the quality of subsequent systems-wide functional profiling studies and the ability to gain novel biological insights. While a de novo genome assembly of an isolated bacterial strain is in most cases straightforward, more informative data about co-existing bacteria as well as synergistic and antagonistic effects can be obtained from a direct analysis of microbial communities. However, the complexity of metagenomic samples represents a major challenge. While third generation sequencing technologies have been suggested to enable finished metagenome-assembled genomes, to our knowledge, the complete genome assembly of all dominant strains in a microbiome sample has not been demonstrated. Natural whey starter cultures (NWCs) are used in cheese production and represent low-complexity microbiomes. Previous studies of Swiss Gruyère and selected Italian hard cheeses, mostly based on amplicon metagenomics, concurred that three species generally pre-dominate: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. RESULTS:Two NWCs from Swiss Gruyère producers were subjected to whole metagenome shotgun sequencing using the Pacific Biosciences Sequel and Illumina MiSeq platforms. In addition, longer Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION reads had to be generated for one to resolve repeat regions. Thereby, we achieved the complete assembly of all dominant bacterial genomes from these low-complexity NWCs, which was corroborated by a 16S rRNA amplicon survey. Moreover, two distinct L. helveticus strains were successfully co-assembled from the same sample. Besides bacterial chromosomes, we could also assemble several bacterial plasmids and phages and a corresponding prophage. Biologically relevant insights were uncovered by linking the plasmids and phages to their respective host genomes using DNA methylation motifs on the plasmids and by matching prokaryotic CRISPR spacers with the corresponding protospacers on the phages. These results could only be achieved by employing long-read sequencing data able to span intragenomic as well as intergenomic repeats. CONCLUSIONS:Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of complete de novo genome assembly of all dominant strains from low-complexity NWCs based on whole metagenomics shotgun sequencing data. This allowed to gain novel biological insights and is a fundamental basis for subsequent systems-wide omics analyses, functional profiling and phenotype to genotype analysis of specific microbial communities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pathogens identification is critical for the proper diagnosis and precise treatment of infective endocarditis (IE). Although blood and valve cultures are the gold standard for IE pathogens detection, many cases are culture-negative, especially in patients who had received long-term antibiotic treatment, and precise diagnosis has therefore become a major challenge in the clinic. Metagenomic sequencing can provide both information on the pathogenic strain and the antibiotic susceptibility profile of patient samples without culturing, offering a powerful method to deal with culture-negative cases. METHODS:To assess the feasibility of a metagenomic approach to detect the causative pathogens in resected valves from IE patients, we employed both next-generation sequencing and Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION nanopore sequencing for pathogens and antimicrobial resistance detection in seven culture-negative IE patients. Using our in-house developed bioinformatics pipeline, we analyzed the sequencing results generated from both platforms for the direct identification of pathogens from the resected valves of seven clinically culture-negative IE patients according to the modified Duke criteria. RESULTS:Our results showed both metagenomics methods can be applied for the causative pathogen detection in all IE samples. Moreover, we were able to simultaneously characterize respective antimicrobial resistance features. CONCLUSION:Metagenomic methods for IE detection can provide clinicians with valuable information to diagnose and treat IE patients after valve replacement surgery. However, more efforts should be made to optimize protocols for sample processing, sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.
Project description:Brain abscess is a severe infectious disease with high mortality and mobility. Although culture-based techniques have been widely used for the investigation of microbial composition of brain abscess, these approaches are inherent biased. Recent studies using 16S ribosomal sequencing approaches revealed high complexity of the bacterial community involved in brain abscess but fail to detect fungal and viral composition. In the study, both culture-independent nanopore metagenomic sequencing and culture-based whole-genome sequencing using both the Illumina and the Nanopore platforms were conducted to investigate the microbial composition and genomic characterization in brain abscess. Culture-independent metagenomic sequencing revealed not only a larger taxonomic diversity of bacteria but also the presence of fungi and virus communities. The culture-based whole-genome sequencing identified a novel species in Prevotella and reconstructs a Streptococcus constellatus with a high GC-skew genome. Antibiotic-resistance genes CfxA and ErmF associated with resistance to penicillin and clindamycin were also identified in culture-based and culture-free sequencing. This study implies current understanding of brain abscess need to consider the broader diversity of microorganisms.