Trichopolydesmidae from Cameroon, 2: A species-level reclassification of Afrotropical trichopolydesmids (Diplopoda, Polydesmida), with two new species and two new records from Cameroon, and two new species from the Nimba Mountains, Guinea.
ABSTRACT: A revised classification of Afrotropical Trichopolydesmidae is presented. The fauna presently contains as many as 52 species in six recognized genera, with numerous new transfers/combinations involved: Bactrodesmus Cook, 1896 (3 species, including B. grandis sp. nov. from the Nimba Mountains, Guinea), Eburodesmus Schubart, 1955 (2 species), Hemisphaeroparia Schubart, 1955 (26 species, including one old species, Polydesmus parvulus Porat, 1894, revised from type material and provisionally assigned to Hemisphaeroparia, as well as two new records and two new species from Cameroon: H. longibrachiata sp. nov. and H. avis sp. nov.), Mecistoparia Brolemann, 1926 (3 species), Physetoparia Brolemann, 1920 (12 species, including P. complexa sp. nov. from the Nimba Mountains, Guinea), and Sphaeroparia Attems, 1909 (6 species). The hitherto enigmatic genus Bactrodesmus is redefined, but the monotypic Trichozonus Carl, 1905 still remains dubious.
Project description:In addition to one of the two species of Trichopolydesmidae hitherto recorded from Cameroon, Polydesmusintegratus Porat, 1894, which is revised based on type material and shown to represent the genus Hemisphaeroparia Schubart, 1955, comb. n., 12 new species from the same genus are described from that country: H.zamakoe sp. n., H.bangoulap sp. n., H.spiniger sp. n., H.ongot sp. n., H.digitifer sp. n., H.parva sp. n., H.fusca sp. n., H.bonakanda sp. n., H.bamboutos sp. n., H.subfalcata sp. n., H.falcata sp. n. and H.mouanko sp. n. A key to all 13 species (of Hemisphaeroparia) known to occur in Cameroon is presented, and their distributions are mapped. All ten recognizable (but excluding two dubious) Afrotropical genera or subgenera of Trichopolydesmidae are rediagnosed and reclassified, based both on their type species and a presumed scenario of gonopodal evolution. As a result, the number of accepted genera is reduced to five: Sphaeroparia Attems, 1909 (= Megaloparia Brolemann, 1920), Physetoparia Brolemann, 1920 (= Elgonicola Attems, 1939, syn. n., = Mabocus Chamberlin, 1951, syn. n., = Heterosphaeroparia Schubart, 1955, syn. n.}, Eburodesmus Schubart, 1955, Mecistoparia Brolemann, 1926 (= Dendrobrachypus Verhoeff, 1941, syn. n.), and Hemisphaeroparia.
Project description:Five species of Scutellathous Kishii, 1955 are recognized from China, of which three are new. Scutellathoushabenularis sp. nov., S.nanlingensis sp. nov., and S.quadrata sp. nov. are described and illustrated. A key to species from China, a checklist, and a distribution map are provided. The relationships and comparisons among genera Athous Eschscholtz, 1829, Ohirathous Han & Park, 2012, Parathous Fleutiaux, 1918, and Scutellathous Kishii, 1955 are discussed.
Project description:<i>Polydesmus biscayensis</i> <b>sp. nov.</b> and <i>P. asturiensis</i> <b>sp. nov.</b> are described and figured based on material housed in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid. The specimens were collected in six localities in the Asturias and Cantabria provinces, including four caves. In addition, <i>Polydesmus haroi</i> Mauriès & Vicente, 1977 and <i>Polydesmus racovitzai</i> Brolemann, 1910 are transferred from <i>Propolydesmus</i> Verhoeff, 1895 to <i>Polydesmus</i> Latreille, 1802/1803 after examining the gonopod morphology. A key to the Iberian <i>Polydesmus</i> species is presented.
Project description:The Cameroon Volcanic Line, a mountain chain located between West and Central Africa, is a region of numerous endemic diversifications, including of puddle frogs (Phrynobatrachus). This study reviews the phylogeny and taxonomy of puddle frogs of the "Cameroon radiation," which is a clade containing mainly montane but also at least three lowland species. Molecular data revealed a novel evolutionary lineage from high altitudes in the northern part of the mountains. Puddle frogs from the new, minute-sized (SVL < 20 mm) lineage are identified using molecular, morphological and acoustic data and described as two new species, Phrynobatrachus arcanus sp. nov. (Gotel Mountains, Cameroon-Nigeria) and P. mbabo sp. nov. (Tchabal Mbabo, Cameroon). The tadpole of the first species is also described. Phylogenetic analyses placed the new lineage to the proximity of the recently described lowland small-sized taxa (P. horsti, P. ruthbeateae). Based on the inferred phylogeny, we propose five species groups within the Cameroon radiation: P. arcanus, P. chukuchuku, P. ruthbeateae, P. steindachneri, and P. werneri. The taxonomically enigmatic P. hylaios is proposed to be a member of the P. ruthbeateae species group. The basal radiation evolved during the late Miocene with subsequent diversifications occurring during the Pliocene, while closely related terminal taxa originated during the Pleistocene. We recommend that the newly described species are categorized as Critically Endangered due to their limited ranges and because recent surveys did not identify any individuals at the type localities. This further supports the need for conservation interventions in the mountains of Cameroon and Nigeria.
Project description:A new species of semi-terrestrial sesarmid crab of the genus <i>Geosesarma</i> De Man, 1892, is described from central Taiwan. <i>Geosesarmamirum</i> <b>sp. nov.</b> is distinct in possessing a strong transverse crest on the inner surface of the male chela and a diagnostic male first gonopod which is relatively long and stout, with the distal chitinous part broad and spatuliform. Like most <i>Geosesarma</i> species, <i>G.mirum</i> <b>sp. nov.</b> has large eggs and direct development, contrasting with the only other species known from Taiwan, <i>G.hednon</i> Ng, Liu and Schubart, 2004, which has small eggs and planktotrophic larvae.
Project description:A new gamasid mite species belonging to the genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 is described from Russia. Arctoseius koltschaki sp. n. is distributed in the plain and mountain tundras from Khibiny Mountains to Chukotka on the north and to West Sayan Mountains on the south. A diagnosis and a key for identification of species comprising the multidentatus species-group (Arctoseius multidentatus Evans, 1955; Arctoseius wisniewskii Gwiazdowicz & Kamczyc, 2009; Arctoseius sexsetus Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; Arctoseius haarlovi Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; and Arctoseius koltschaki sp. n.) are given.
Project description:Seven species of <i>Neotrichoporoides</i> Girault from China are reviewed, including two new species: <i>N. basiflavus</i> <b>sp. nov.</b>, <i>N. flavothorax</i> <b>sp. nov.</b> and two new country record species: <i>N. cavigena</i> Graham, 1991, <i>N. szelenyii</i> (Erdös, 1951). New distributional data for <i>N. mediterraneus</i> Graham, 1986, <i>N. nyemitawus</i> (Rohwer, 1921) and <i>N. viridimaculatus</i> (Fullaway, 1955) are provided and a key to Chinese species is given based on females.
Project description:The sequestrate false truffles Elaphomyces favosus, E. iuppitercellus, and E. labyrinthinus spp. nov. are described as new to science from the Dja Biosphere Reserve, Cameroon. Elaphomyces adamizans sp. nov. is described as new from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. The Cameroonian species are the first Elaphomyces taxa to be formally described from Africa, occurring in lowland Guineo-Congolian tropical rainforests dominated by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) canopy tree Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae). The Guyanese species is the third to be discovered in lowland tropical South America, occurring in forests dominated by the ECM trees Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea (Dipterocarpaceae) and Dicymbe jenmanii (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae). Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat, and DNA sequence data are provided for each new species. Molecular and morphological data place these fungi in Elaphomycetaceae (Eurotiales, Ascomycota). Unique morphological features are congruent with molecular delimitation of each of the new species based on a phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA ITS and 28S loci across the Elaphomycetaceae. The phylogenetic analysis also suggests that a common ancestor is shared between some Elaphomyces species from Africa and South America, and that species of the stalked, volvate genus Pseudotulostoma may be nested in Elaphomyces.
Project description:The genus Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae) of Madagascar is revised in two parts. This review is restricted to the Copelatus species that have fewer than ten elytral + one submarginal stria, including all species except those of the erichsonii species group. Both morphological and molecular (mitochondrial COI) data are used in an integrative taxonomic approach. Thirteen species are recognised, of which five are described as new: Copelatus ankaratra sp. nov., Copelatus kely sp. nov., Copelatus pseudostriatus sp. nov., Copelatus safiotra sp. nov. and Copelatus vokoka sp. nov. Copelatus unguicularis Régimbart, 1903 and Copelatus apicalis Fairmaire, 1898 are both transferred to the genus Madaglymbus Shaverdo & Balke, 2008 (comb. nov.). Copelatus mimetesGuignot 1957 is a junior synonym of the widespread Afrotropical-Arabian Copelatus pulchellus (Klug, 1834) (syn. nov.). Copelatus marginipennis (Laporte, 1835) is reinstated (stat. nov.) as a valid species with Copelatus aldabricus Balfour-Browne, 1950 and Copelatus aldabricus var. simplex Guignot, 1952 as junior synonyms (syn. nov.). We designate lectotypes for Colymbetes marginipennis Laporte, 1835 and Copelatus obtusus Boheman, 1848. Copelatus peridinus Guignot, 1955 is recorded for Madagascar for the first time and Copelatus nodieri Régimbart, 1895 is rejected as a species present in Madagascar.
Project description:Despite 250 years of taxonomic classification and over 1.2 million species already catalogued, known species diversity is only a small part of true species diversity on Earth, and thus, the known species are only the tip of iceberg. Here, we investigated the genus <i>Pholcus</i> Walckenaer, 1805 of the family Pholcidae C. L. Koch, 1850 in the Changbai Mountains, Northeast China, which provides an excellent case of high species diversity. Previously, only 14 endemic <i>Pholcus</i> spiders, all belonging to the <i>P. phungiformes</i> species group, and two introduced species <i>P. manueli</i> Gertsch, 1937 and <i>P. zichyi</i> Kulczyński, 1901 from the <i>P. crypticolens</i> species group, have been recorded from this area. Our study confirmed 11 new species of the <i>P. phungiformes</i> species group based on morphology and three methods of molecular species delimitation: <i>P. gaizhou</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b>, <i>P. guanshui</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b>, <i>P. jiguanshan</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b>, <i>P. longxigu</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b>, <i>P. luoquanbei</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b>, <i>P. shenshi</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b>, <i>P. tianmenshan</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b>, <i>P. wangjiang</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b>, <i>P. xingqi</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b>, <i>P. yaoshan</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b>, and <i>P. yuhuangshan</i> Yao & Li, <b>sp. nov.</b> This study brings the fauna of the <i>P. phungiformes</i> species group from the Changbai Mountains to 25 species, approximately two times more than previously known, which could indicate that species diversity in the area is underestimated for all arthropod fauna.