Absolute Quantification of Apolipoproteins Following Treatment with Omega-3 Carboxylic Acids and Fenofibrate Using a High Precision Stable Isotope-labeled Recombinant Protein Fragments Based SRM Assay.
ABSTRACT: Stable isotope-labeled standard (SIS) peptides are used as internal standards in targeted proteomics to provide robust protein quantification, which is required in clinical settings. However, SIS peptides are typically added post trypsin digestion and, as the digestion efficiency can vary significantly between peptides within a protein, the accuracy and precision of the assay may be compromised. These drawbacks can be remedied by a new class of internal standards introduced by the Human Protein Atlas project, which are based on SIS recombinant protein fragments called SIS PrESTs. SIS PrESTs are added initially to the sample and SIS peptides are released on trypsin digestion. The SIS PrEST technology is promising for absolute quantification of protein biomarkers but has not previously been evaluated in a clinical setting. An automated and scalable solid phase extraction workflow for desalting and enrichment of plasma digests was established enabling simultaneous preparation of up to 96 samples. Robust high-precision quantification of 13 apolipoproteins was achieved using a novel multiplex SIS PrEST-based LC-SRM/MS Tier 2 assay in non-depleted human plasma. The assay exhibited inter-day coefficients of variation between 1.5% and 14.5% (median = 3.5%) and was subsequently used to investigate the effects of omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) and fenofibrate on these 13 apolipoproteins in human plasma samples from a randomized placebo-controlled trial, EFFECT I (NCT02354976). No significant changes were observed in the OM3-CA arm, whereas treatment with fenofibrate significantly increased apoAII and reduced apoB, apoCI, apoE and apoCIV levels. The reduction in apoCIV following fenofibrate treatment is a novel finding. The study demonstrates that SIS PrESTs can facilitate the generation of robust multiplexed biomarker Tier 2 assays for absolute quantification of proteins in clinical studies.
Project description:Affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) has become the method of choice for discovering protein-protein interactions (PPIs) under native conditions. The success of AP-MS depends on the efficiency of trypsin digestion and the recovery of the tryptic peptides for MS analysis. Several different protocols have been used for trypsin digestion of protein complexes in AP-MS studies, but no systematic studies have been conducted on the impact of trypsin digestion conditions on the identification of PPIs. Here, we used NF?B/RelA and Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) as baits and test five distinct trypsin digestion methods (two using "on-beads," three using "elution-digestion" protocols). Although the performance of the trypsin digestion protocols change slightly depending on the different baits, antibodies and cell lines used, we found that elution-digestion methods consistently outperformed on-beads digestion methods. The high-abundance interactors can be identified universally by all five methods, but the identification of low-abundance RelA interactors is significantly affected by the choice of trypsin digestion method. We also found that different digestion protocols influence the selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-MS quantification of PPIs, suggesting that optimization of trypsin digestion conditions may be required for robust targeted analysis of PPIs.
Project description:The majority of mass spectrometry-based protein quantification studies uses peptide-centric analytical methods and thus strongly relies on efficient and unbiased protein digestion protocols for sample preparation. We present a novel objective approach to assess protein digestion efficiency using a combination of qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein fractions. We evaluated nine trypsin-based digestion protocols, based on standard in-solution or on spin filter-aided digestion, including new optimized protocols. We investigated various reagents for protein solubilization and denaturation (dodecyl sulfate, deoxycholate, urea), several trypsin digestion conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents before analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows for efficient, unbiased generation and recovery of peptides from all protein classes, including membrane proteins. This deoxycholate-assisted protocol was also optimal for spin filter-aided digestions as compared with existing methods.
Project description:The study of isolated protein complexes has greatly benefited from recent advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation and quantitative, isotope labeling techniques. The comprehensive characterization of protein complex components and quantification of their relative abundance relies heavily upon maximizing protein and peptide sequence information obtained from MS and tandem MS studies. Recent work has shown that using a metalloendopeptidase, Lys-N, for proteomic analysis of biological protein mixtures produces complementary protein sequence information compared with trypsin digestion alone. Here, we have investigated the suitability of Lys-N proteolysis for use with MALDI mass spectrometry to characterize the yeast Arp2 complex and E. coli PAP I protein interactions. Although Lys-N digestion resulted in an average decrease in protein sequence coverage of approximately 30% compared with trypsin digestion, CID analysis of singly-charged Lys-N peptides yielded a more extensive b-ions series compared with complementary tryptic peptides. Taking advantage of this improved fragmentation pattern, we utilized differential (15)N/(14)N guanidination of Lys-N peptides and MALDI-MS/MS analysis to relatively quantify the changes in PAP I associations due to deletion of sprE, previously shown to regulate PAP I-dependent polyadenylation. Overall, this Lys-N/guanidination integrative approach is applicable for functional proteomic studies utilizing MALDI mass spectrometry analysis, as it provides an effective and economical mean for relative quantification of proteins in conjunction with increased sensitivity of detection and fragmentation efficiency.
Project description:Aldehyde- and NHS-activated magnetic microspheres were used to immobilize trypsin (CHO-trypsin and NHS-trypsin), and their performance for protein digestion was evaluated by reversed phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos instrument. NHS-trypsin provided greater sequence coverage and identified more peptides for the digestion of bovine serum albumin. A 1-min digestion at room temperature using the immobilized trypsin also identified more peptides (96±6 vs. 48±1) and produced higher sequence coverage (90±2% vs. 75±2%) than traditional free trypsin digestion for 12h at 37 °C. Analysis of 15 nM (0.001 mg/mL) BSA digested by NHS-trypsin in 1 min at room temperature consistently yielded one detected peptide; 150 nM BSA generated 22 peptides. Peptide intensity and protein spectral count were used to evaluate the run-to-run digestion reproducibility of NHS-trypsin with a three-protein-mixture. Three high intensity peptides for each protein generated intensity ratios from 0.70 to 1.09 and spectral count ratios from 0.78 to 1.18. Finally, RAW 264.7 cell lysates were digested by NHS-trypsin for 10 min and 30 min at room temperature, 604 and 697 protein groups, respectively, were identified by RPLC-ESI-MS/MS, with a peptide false discovery rate of less than 1%. Digestion by solution phase trypsin for 12h at 37 °C resulted in identification of 878 protein groups.
Project description:Sample preparation for protein quantification by mass spectrometry requires multiple processing steps including denaturation, reduction, alkylation, protease digestion, and peptide cleanup. Scaling these procedures for the analysis of numerous complex biological samples can be tedious and time-consuming, as there are many liquid transfer steps and timed reactions where technical variations can be introduced and propagated. We established an automated sample preparation workflow with a total processing time for 96 samples of 5 h, including a 2 h incubation with trypsin. Peptide cleanup is accomplished by online diversion during the LC/MS/MS analysis. In a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assay targeting 6 plasma biomarkers and spiked ?-galactosidase, mean intraday and interday cyclic voltammograms (CVs) for 5 serum and 5 plasma samples over 5 days were <20%. In a highly multiplexed SRM assay targeting more than 70 proteins, 90% of the transitions from 6 plasma samples repeated on 3 separate days had total CVs below 20%. Similar results were obtained when the workflow was transferred to a second site: 93% of peptides had CVs below 20%. An automated trypsin digestion workflow yields uniformly processed samples in less than 5 h. Reproducible quantification of peptides was observed across replicates, days, instruments, and laboratory sites, demonstrating the broad applicability of this approach.
Project description:Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) coupled with stable isotope standards (SIS) has been used to quantify native peptides. This peptide quantification by MALDI-TOF approach has difficulties quantifying samples containing peptides with ion currents in overlapping spectra. In these overlapping spectra the currents sum together, which modify the peak heights and make normal SIS estimation problematic. An approach using Gaussian mixtures based on known physical constants to model the isotopic cluster of a known compound is proposed here. The characteristics of this approach are examined for single and overlapping compounds. The approach is compared to two commonly used SIS quantification methods for single compound, namely Peak Intensity method and Riemann sum area under the curve (AUC) method. For studying the characteristics of the Gaussian mixture method, Angiotensin II, Angiotensin-2-10, and Angiotenisn-1-9 and their associated SIS peptides were used. The findings suggest, Gaussian mixture method has similar characteristics as the two methods compared for estimating the quantity of isolated isotopic clusters for single compounds. All three methods were tested using MALDI-TOF mass spectra collected for peptides of the renin-angiotensin system. The Gaussian mixture method accurately estimated the native to labeled ratio of several isolated angiotensin peptides (5.2% error in ratio estimation) with similar estimation errors to those calculated using peak intensity and Riemann sum AUC methods (5.9% and 7.7%, respectively). For overlapping angiotensin peptides, (where the other two methods are not applicable) the estimation error of the Gaussian mixture was 6.8%, which is within the acceptable range. In summary, for single compounds the Gaussian mixture method is equivalent or marginally superior compared to the existing methods of peptide quantification and is capable of quantifying overlapping (convolved) peptides within the acceptable margin of error.
Project description:Immobilized trypsin produces very fast protein digestion, which is attractive for application to high throughput bottom-up proteomics. While there is a rich literature on the preparation of immobilized trypsin, there are very few studies that investigate its application to complex proteomic samples. In this work, we compared solution-phase trypsin with trypsin immobilized on magnetic microspheres for digestion of two complex proteomes, Escherichia coli and the MCF7 cell line. The digests were separated by HPLC, and detected with a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer, which generated high resolution and high quality parent- and fragment-ion mass spectra. The data were analyzed using MaxQuant. We make several conclusions about the features of immobilized trypsin digestion of complex proteomes. First, both immobilized and solution-phase trypsin generate peptides that sample the same protein pool. Second, immobilized trypsin can digest complex proteomes two orders of magnitude faster than solution-phase trypsin while retaining similar numbers of protein identifications and proteome depth. Digestion using immobilized trypsin for 5-min produces a similar number of missed cleavages as solution-based trypsin digestion for 4-h; digestion using immobilized trypsin for 20-min produces a similar number of missed cleavages as solution-based trypsin digestion for 12-h. Third, immobilized trypsin produces quantitatively reproducible digestion of complex proteomes. Finally, there is small but measurable loss of peptide due to non-specific adsorption to the immobilization matrix. This adsorption generates a bias against detection of basic peptides.
Project description:Absolute quantification of protein targets using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a key component of candidate biomarker validation. One popular method combines multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a triple quadrupole instrument with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS) for absolute quantification (AQUA). LC-MRM AQUA assays are sensitive and specific, but they are also expensive because of the cost of synthesizing stable isotope peptide standards. While the chemical modification approach using mass differential tags for relative and absolute quantification (mTRAQ) represents a more economical approach when quantifying large numbers of peptides, these reagents are costly and still suffer from lower throughput because only two concentration values per peptide can be obtained in a single LC-MS run. Here, we have developed and applied a set of five novel mass difference reagents, isotopic N,N-dimethyl leucine (iDiLeu). These labels contain an amine reactive group, triazine ester, are cost effective because of their synthetic simplicity, and have increased throughput compared with previous LC-MS quantification methods by allowing construction of a four-point standard curve in one run. iDiLeu-labeled peptides show remarkably similar retention time shifts, slightly lower energy thresholds for higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation, and high quantification accuracy for trypsin-digested protein samples (median errors <15%). By spiking in an iDiLeu-labeled neuropeptide, allatostatin, into mouse urine matrix, two quantification methods are validated. The first uses one labeled peptide as an internal standard to normalize labeled peptide peak areas across runs (<19% error), whereas the second enables standard curve creation and analyte quantification in one run (<8% error).
Project description:Mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic technologies enable the identification and quantification of membrane proteins as well as their post-translational modifications. A prerequisite for their quantitative and reliable MS-based bottom-up analysis is the efficient digestion into peptides by proteases, though digestion of membrane proteins is typically challenging due to their inherent properties such as hydrophobicity. Here, we investigated the effect of eight commercially available MS-compatible surfactants, two organic solvents, and two chaotropes on the enzymatic digestion efficiency of membrane protein-enriched complex mixtures in a multiphase study using a gelfree approach. Multiple parameters, including the number of peptides and proteins identified, total protein sequence coverage, and digestion specificity were used to evaluate transmembrane protein digestion performance. A new open-source software tool was developed to allow for the specific assessment of transmembrane domain sequence coverage. Results demonstrate that while Progenta anionic surfactants outperform other surfactants when tested alone, combinations of guanidine and acetonitrile improve performance of all surfactants to near similar levels as well as enhance trypsin specificity to >90%, which has critical implications for future quantitative and qualitative proteomic studies.
Project description:Antibodies were raised in rabbits by injection of cartilage proteoglycan monomers, isolated hyaluronic acid-binding region, polysaccharide-peptides prepared by trypsin digestion of proteoglycans and link-protein. The rabbits injected with the proteoglycan monomers made antibodies reacting with the intact proteoglycan. The antiserum contained antibodies specific for, and also reacting with, the isolated hyaluronic acid-binding region and the keratan sulphate-rich region. In addition there were probably antibodies reacting with other structures of the proteoglycan monomer. When isolated hyaluronic acid-binding region was used for immunization the antibodies obtained reacted specifically with the hyaluronic acid-binding region. The antibodies obtained from rabbits immunized with the polysaccharide-peptides reacted with the proteoglycan monomers and showed a reaction identical with that of the chondroitin sulphate-peptides isolated after trypsin digestion of proteoglycans. The antibodies prepared with the link-protein as the antigen reacted only with the link-protein and not with any preparation from the proteoglycan monomer. Neither did any of the antisera raised against the proteoglycan monomer or its substructures react with the link-protein. Separately it was shown that the peptide 'maps' prepared from trypsin digests of the link-protein and the hyaluronic acid-binding region were different. Therefore it appears that the link-protein is not structurally related to the proteoglycan or the hyaluronic acid-binding region. Digestion of proteoglycan monomers or isolated hyaluronic acid-binding region with trypsin did not destroy the antigenic sites of the hyaluronic acid-binding region. In contrast trypsin digests of previously reduced and alkylated preparations did not react with the anti-(hyaluronic acid-binding region). The trypsin digests, however, reacted with both the antibodies directed against the chondroitin sulphate-peptides and those against the keratan sulphate-peptides. Trypsin digestion of the link-proteins destroyed the antigenic site and the reactivity with the antibodies. By combining immunoassay of proteoglycan preparations before and after trypsin digestion it is feasible to quantitatively determine its substructures by using the antisera described above.