A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Uncomplicated skin abscesses are common, yet the appropriate management of the condition in the era of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is unclear. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter, prospective, double-blind trial involving outpatient adults and children. Patients were stratified according to the presence of a surgically drainable abscess, abscess size, the number of sites of skin infection, and the presence of nonpurulent cellulitis. Participants with a skin abscess 5 cm or smaller in diameter were enrolled. After abscess incision and drainage, participants were randomly assigned to receive clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), or placebo for 10 days. The primary outcome was clinical cure 7 to 10 days after the end of treatment. RESULTS:We enrolled 786 participants: 505 (64.2%) were adults and 281 (35.8%) were children. A total of 448 (57.0%) of the participants were male. S. aureus was isolated from 527 participants (67.0%), and MRSA was isolated from 388 (49.4%). Ten days after therapy in the intention-to-treat population, the cure rate among participants in the clindamycin group was similar to that in the TMP-SMX group (221 of 266 participants [83.1%] and 215 of 263 participants [81.7%], respectively; P=0.73), and the cure rate in each active-treatment group was higher than that in the placebo group (177 of 257 participants [68.9%], P<0.001 for both comparisons). The results in the population of patients who could be evaluated were similar. This beneficial effect was restricted to participants with S. aureus infection. Among the participants who were initially cured, new infections at 1 month of follow-up were less common in the clindamycin group (15 of 221, 6.8%) than in the TMP-SMX group (29 of 215 [13.5%], P=0.03) or the placebo group (22 of 177 [12.4%], P=0.06). Adverse events were more frequent with clindamycin (58 of 265 [21.9%]) than with TMP-SMX (29 of 261 [11.1%]) or placebo (32 of 255 [12.5%]); all adverse events resolved without sequelae. One participant who received TMP-SMX had a hypersensitivity reaction. CONCLUSIONS:As compared with incision and drainage alone, clindamycin or TMP-SMX in conjunction with incision and drainage improves short-term outcomes in patients who have a simple abscess. This benefit must be weighed against the known side-effect profile of these antimicrobials. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00730028 .).
Project description:Skin and skin-structure infections are common in ambulatory settings. However, the efficacy of various antibiotic regimens in the era of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is unclear.We enrolled outpatients with uncomplicated skin infections who had cellulitis, abscesses larger than 5 cm in diameter (smaller for younger children), or both. Patients were enrolled at four study sites. All abscesses underwent incision and drainage. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either clindamycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for 10 days. Patients and investigators were unaware of the treatment assignments and microbiologic test results. The primary outcome was clinical cure 7 to 10 days after the end of treatment.A total of 524 patients were enrolled (264 in the clindamycin group and 260 in the TMP-SMX group), including 155 children (29.6%). One hundred sixty patients (30.5%) had an abscess, 280 (53.4%) had cellulitis, and 82 (15.6%) had mixed infection, defined as at least one abscess lesion and one cellulitis lesion. S. aureus was isolated from the lesions of 217 patients (41.4%); the isolates in 167 (77.0%) of these patients were MRSA. The proportion of patients cured was similar in the two treatment groups in the intention-to-treat population (80.3% in the clindamycin group and 77.7% in the TMP-SMX group; difference, -2.6 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -10.2 to 4.9; P=0.52) and in the populations of patients who could be evaluated (466 patients; 89.5% in the clindamycin group and 88.2% in the TMP-SMX group; difference, -1.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -7.6 to 5.1; P=0.77). Cure rates did not differ significantly between the two treatments in the subgroups of children, adults, and patients with abscess versus cellulitis. The proportion of patients with adverse events was similar in the two groups.We found no significant difference between clindamycin and TMP-SMX, with respect to either efficacy or side-effect profile, for the treatment of uncomplicated skin infections, including both cellulitis and abscesses. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00730028.).
Project description:With the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the United States, visits for skin infections greatly increased. Staphylococci and streptococci are considered predominant causes of wound infections. Clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) are commonly prescribed, but the efficacy of TMP-SMX has been questioned.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, superiority trial at 5 US emergency departments. Patients >12 years of age with an uncomplicated wound infection received oral clindamycin 300 mg 4 times daily or TMP-SMX 320 mg/1600 mg twice daily, each for 7 days. We compared the primary outcome, wound infection cure at 7-14 days, and secondary outcomes through 6-8 weeks after treatment, in the per-protocol population.Subjects had a median age of 40 years (range, 14-76 years); 40.1% of wound specimens grew MRSA, 25.7% methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and 5.0% streptococci. The wound infection was cured at 7-14 days in 187 of 203 (92.1%) clindamycin-treated and 182 of 198 (91.9%) TMP-SMX-treated subjects (difference, 0.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.8% to 6.2%; P = not significant). The clindamycin group had a significantly lower rate of recurrence at 7-14 days (1.5% vs 6.6%; difference, -5.1%; 95% CI, -9.4% to -.8%) and through 6-8 weeks following treatment (2.0% vs 7.1%; difference, -5.1%; 95% CI, -9.7% to -.6%). Other secondary outcomes were statistically similar between groups but tended to favor clindamycin. Adverse event rates were similar.In settings where MRSA is prevalent, clindamycin and TMP-SMX produce similar cure and adverse event rates among patients with an uncomplicated wound infection. Further study evaluating differential effects of antibiotics on recurrent infection may be warranted.NCT00729937.
Project description:Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei, is difficult to cure. Antimicrobial treatment comprises intravenous drugs for at least 10 days, followed by oral drugs for at least 12 weeks. The standard oral regimen based on trial evidence is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxaxole (TMP-SMX) plus doxycycline. This regimen is used in Thailand but is associated with side-effects and poor adherence by patients, and TMP-SMX alone is recommended in Australia. We compared the efficacy and side-effects of TMP-SMX with TMP-SMX plus doxycycline for the oral phase of melioidosis treatment.For this multi-centre, double-blind, non-inferiority, randomised placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled patients (aged ?15 years) from five centres in northeast Thailand with culture-confirmed melioidosis who had received a course of parenteral antimicrobial drugs. Using a computer-generated sequence, we randomly assigned patients to receive TMP-SMX plus placebo or TMP-SMX plus doxycycline for 20 weeks (1:1; block size of ten, stratified by study site). We followed patients up every 4 months for 1 year and annually thereafter to the end of the study. The primary endpoint was culture-confirmed recurrent melioidosis, and the non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.7. This study is registered with www.controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN86140460.We enrolled and randomly assigned 626 patients: 311 to TMP-SMX plus placebo and 315 to TMP-SMX plus doxycycline. 16 patients (5%) in the TMP-SMX plus placebo group and 21 patients (7%) in the TMP-SMX plus doxycycline group developed culture-confirmed recurrent melioidosis (HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.42-1.55). The criterion for non-inferiority was met (p=0.01). Adverse drug reactions were less common in the TMP-SMX plus placebo group than in the TMP-SMX plus doxycycline group (122 [39%] vs 167 [53%]).Our findings suggest that TMP-SMX is not inferior to TMP-SMX plus doxycycline for the oral phase of melioidosis treatment, and is preferable on the basis of safety and tolerance by patients.Thailand Research Fund, the Melioidosis Research Center, the Center of Excellence in Specific Health Problems in Greater Mekong Sub-region cluster, and the Wellcome Trust.
Project description:Empirical use of beta-lactam antibiotics, the preferred agents for treating uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections, may no longer be appropriate for these infections because of the increasing prevalence of community strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Retrospective studies, however, suggest that outcomes are good even when beta-lactams are used. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of 166 outpatient subjects comparing placebo to cephalexin at 500 mg orally four times for 7 days after incision and drainage of skin and soft tissue abscesses. The primary outcome was clinical cure or failure 7 days after incision and drainage. S. aureus was isolated from 70.4% of abscess cultures. Of the isolates tested 87.8% were MRSA, 93% of which were positive for Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes. Clinical cure rates were 90.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.96) in the 84 placebo recipients and 84.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 0.91) in the 82 cephalexin recipients (difference in the two proportions, 0.0006; 95% confidence interval, -0.0461 to 0.0472; P = 0.25). The 90.5% cure rate observed in the placebo arm and 84.1% cure rate observed in the cephalexin arm provide strong evidence that antibiotics may be unnecessary after surgical drainage of uncomplicated skin and soft tissue abscesses caused by community strains of MRSA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:U.S. emergency department visits for cutaneous abscess have increased with the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The role of antibiotics for patients with a drained abscess is unclear. METHODS:We conducted a randomized trial at five U.S. emergency departments to determine whether trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (at doses of 320 mg and 1600 mg, respectively, twice daily, for 7 days) would be superior to placebo in outpatients older than 12 years of age who had an uncomplicated abscess that was being treated with drainage. The primary outcome was clinical cure of the abscess, assessed 7 to 14 days after the end of the treatment period. RESULTS:The median age of the participants was 35 years (range, 14 to 73); 45.3% of the participants had wound cultures that were positive for MRSA. In the modified intention-to-treat population, clinical cure of the abscess occurred in 507 of 630 participants (80.5%) in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group versus 454 of 617 participants (73.6%) in the placebo group (difference, 6.9 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 11.7; P=0.005). In the per-protocol population, clinical cure occurred in 487 of 524 participants (92.9%) in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group versus 457 of 533 participants (85.7%) in the placebo group (difference, 7.2 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.2 to 11.2; P<0.001). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was superior to placebo with respect to most secondary outcomes in the per-protocol population, resulting in lower rates of subsequent surgical drainage procedures (3.4% vs. 8.6%; difference, -5.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.2 to -2.2), skin infections at new sites (3.1% vs. 10.3%; difference, -7.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -10.4 to -4.1), and infections in household members (1.7% vs. 4.1%; difference, -2.4 percentage points; 95% CI, -4.6 to -0.2) 7 to 14 days after the treatment period. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with slightly more gastrointestinal side effects (mostly mild) than placebo. At 7 to 14 days after the treatment period, invasive infections had developed in 2 of 524 participants (0.4%) in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and in 2 of 533 participants (0.4%) in the placebo group; at 42 to 56 days after the treatment period, an invasive infection had developed in 1 participant (0.2%) in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group. CONCLUSIONS:In settings in which MRSA was prevalent, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment resulted in a higher cure rate among patients with a drained cutaneous abscess than placebo. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00729937.).
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Stenotrophomonas Malthophilia (SM) is generally considered a nosocomial pathogen but it has also been reported as a cause of community-acquired systemic infection. We reported a rare case of SM multi-organ infection involving the liver and the left ocular region.<h4>Presentation of the case</h4>A 64 years old man presented with fever for 4 days and acute blindness of the left eye. We performed an abdomen and head CT scan that identified respectively a liver lesion in central region, likely a hepatic abscess, and inflammation process involving the left eye. After 5 days of antibiotic therapy, no improvement of the clinical condition was noted. A CT guided drainage of the hepatic abscess was performed. SM was identified in the content of the drain and selected antibiotic therapy with combination of tygecycline and TMP-SMX was immediately initiated.After 15 days of the selected therapy, the hepatic abscess and the left eye infection were completely resolved but unfortunately the patient reported permanent blindness.<h4>Discussion</h4>Several studies identified most of the SM infections as nosocomial, however that can be excluded in this case because the patient presented signs of severe systemic infection 72 h before the hospitalization. The conservative treatment, with a combination of CT guided drainage and selected antibiotic therapy, gave good results.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Although SM is thought to be a nosocomial pathogen, it can be involved in severe systemic sepsis affecting different organs outside the hospital setting. Fortunately, the combination of tigecycline with TMP-SMX seems to be the best therapeutic option.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of adjunctive antibiotic therapy on uncomplicated skin abscesses. DESIGN:Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION:A BMJ Rapid Recommendation panel provided input on design, important outcomes and the interpretation of the results. Eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) included a comparison of antibiotics against no antibiotics or a comparison of different antibiotics in patients with uncomplicated skin abscesses, and reported outcomes prespecified by the linked guideline panel. REVIEW METHODS:Reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts for eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We performed random-effects meta-analyses that compared antibiotics with no antibiotics, along with a limited number of prespecified subgroup hypotheses. We also performed network meta-analysis with a Bayesian framework to compare effects of different antibiotics. Quality of evidence was assessed with The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS:Fourteen RCTs including 4198 patients proved eligible. Compared with no antibiotics, antibiotics probably lower the risk of treatment failure (OR 0.58, 95%?CI 0.37 to 0.90; low quality), recurrence within 1 month (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.77; moderate quality), hospitalisation (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.94; moderate quality) and late recurrence (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.85; moderate quality). However, relative to no use, antibiotics probably increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX): OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.58; moderate quality; clindamycin: OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.35 to 3.88; high quality) and diarrhoea (clindamycin: OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.50 to 4.89; high quality). Cephalosporins did not reduce the risk of treatment failure compared with placebo (moderate quality). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with uncomplicated skin abscesses, moderate-to-high quality evidence suggests TMP-SMX or clindamycin confer a modest benefit for several important outcomes, but this is offset by a similar risk of adverse effects. Clindamycin has a substantially higher risk of diarrhoea than TMP-SMX. Cephalosporins are probably not effective.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial found that recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) with resistant organisms were more common in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis (TSP) arm. We describe factors associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) resistance of rUTIs in RIVUR. METHODS:Children aged 2 to 71 months with first or second UTI (index UTI) and grade I to IV vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) were randomized to TSP or placebo and followed for 2 years. Factors associated with TMP-SMX-resistant rUTI were evaluated. RESULTS:Among 571 included children, 48% were <12 months old, 43% had grade II VUR, and 38% had grade III VUR. Recurrent UTI occurred in 34 of 278 children receiving TSP versus 67 of 293 children receiving placebo. Among those with rUTI, 76% (26/34) of subjects receiving TSP had TMP-SMX-resistant organisms versus 28% (19/67) of subjects receiving placebo (P < .001). The proportion of TMP-SMX-resistant rUTI decreased over time: in the TSP arm, 96% were resistant during the initial 6 months versus 38% resistant during the final 6 months; corresponding proportions for the placebo arm were 32% and 11%. Among children receiving TSP, 7 (13%) of 55 with TMP-SMX-resistant index UTI had rUTI, whereas 27 (12%) of 223 with TMP-SMX-susceptible index UTI had rUTI (adjusted hazard ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 0.54-3.56). Corresponding proportions in placebo arm were 17 (26%) of 65 and 50 (22%) of 228 (adjusted hazard ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 0.74-2.38). CONCLUSIONS:Although TMP-SMX resistance is more common among children treated with TSP versus placebo, resistance decreased over time. Among children treated with TSP, there was no significant difference in UTI recurrence between those with TMP-SMX-resistant index UTI versus TMP-SMX-susceptible UTI.
Project description:Importance:Oral ?-lactam antibiotics are traditionally not recommended to treat Enterobacterales bacteremia because of concerns over subtherapeutic serum concentrations, but there is a lack of outcomes data, specifically after initial treatment with parenteral antibiotics. Given the limited data and increasing limitations of fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), oral ?-lactam antibiotics may be a valuable additional treatment option. Objective:To compare definitive therapy with oral ?-lactam antibiotics vs fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX for Enterobacterales bacteremia from a suspected urine source. Design, Setting, and Participants:A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2007, to September 30, 2015, at 114 Veterans Affairs hospitals among 4089 adults with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, or Proteus spp bacteremia and matching urine culture results. Additional inclusion criteria were receipt of active parenteral antibiotic(s) followed by conversion to an oral antibiotic. Exclusion criteria were previous Enterobacterales bacteremia, urologic abscess, or chronic prostatitis. Data were analyzed from April 15, 2019, to July 26, 2020. Exposures:Conversion of therapy to an oral ?-lactam antibiotic vs fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX after 1 to 5 days of parenteral antibiotics. Main Outcomes and Measures:The main outcome was a composite of either 30-day all-cause mortality or 30-day recurrent bacteremia. Propensity-based overlap weights were used to adjust for differences between groups. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (aRRs) and adjusted risk differences (aRDs). Results:Of the 4089 eligible patients (3731 men [91.2%]; median age, 71 years [interquartile range, 63-81 years]), 955 received an oral ?-lactam antibiotic, and 3134 received fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX. The primary outcome occurred for 42 patients (4.4%) who received ?-lactam antibiotics and 94 patients (3.0%) who received fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX (aRD, 0.99% [95% CI, -0.42% to 2.40%]; aRR, 1.31 [95% CI, 0.87-1.95]). Mortality rates were 3.0% (n?=?29) for patients receiving ?-lactam antibiotics vs 2.6% (n?=?82) for those receiving fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX (aRD, 0.06% [95% CI, -1.13% to 1.26%]; aRR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.67-1.56]). Recurrent bacteremia rates were 1.5% (n?=?14) among those receiving ?-lactam antibiotics vs 0.4% (n?=?12) among those receiving fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX (aRD, 1.03% [95% CI, 0.24%-1.82%]; aRR, 3.43 [95% CI, 0.42-27.90]). Conclusions and Relevance:In this cohort study of adults with E coli, Klebsiella spp, or Proteus spp bacteremia from a suspected urine source, the relative risk of recurrent bacteremia was not significantly higher with ?-lactam antibiotics compared with fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX, and the absolute risk and risk difference were small (ie, <3%). No significant difference in mortality was observed. Oral ?-lactam antibiotics may be a reasonable step-down treatment option, primarily when alternative options are limited by resistance or adverse effects. Further study is needed because statistical power was limited owing to a low number of recurrent bacteremia events.
Project description:No effective drug and definitive "gold standard" treatment for Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection has been available so far, though some medicines have been commonly used in the treatment of T. gondii infection, such as spiramycin, azithromycin, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), pyrimethamine- sulfadiazine (P-S), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), and pyrimethamine-clindamycin (P-C). A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare the efficacies of these conventional medicines in the treatment. Cohort studies for the treatment of acute T. gondii infection were searched from PubMed, Google Scholar, ect. All the cases number for different group extracted from each included literature were input to meta-analysis 3.13 software to calculate the pooled negative conversion rate (NCR), cure rate (CR) or vertical transmission rate based on their sample size and weight. The pooled NCR with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used to evaluate the overall rate of a diagnosis positive result conversion to a negative result after treatment, which of spiramycin, azithromycin and TCM were 83.4% (95%CI, 72.1%-90.8%), 82.5% (95%CI, 75.9%-87.6%), and 85.5% (95%CI, 71.3%-93.3%) respectively, with no statistical difference between them. The pooled CR with 95% CI was used to evaluate the overall rate of complete disappearance of clinical symptoms for toxoplasmic encephalitis after therapy, which of P-S, TMP-SMX, and P-C were 49.8% (95%CI, 38. 8% -60.8%), 59.9% (95%CI, 48.9%-70.0%), and 47.6% (95%CI, 24.8%-71.4%) respectively, with no statistical difference between them. Primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy was treated mainly with spiramycin alone or combined with other drugs, and the pooled rate of vertical transmission was about 9.9% (95%CI, 5.9%-16.2%) after therapy. Toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients was usually treated with sulfonamides combined with other drugs and the pooled CR was 49.4% (95%CI, 37.9%-60.9%).