Central Blood Pressure Responses to Dietary Sodium and Potassium Interventions.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:To explore how central hemodynamics respond to dietary sodium and potassium interventions, and whether the responses are associated with metabolic traits. METHODS:We conducted a dietary intervention study including a 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day) intervention, a 7-day high-sodium (307.8 mmol sodium/day) intervention, and a 7-day high-sodium with potassium supplementation (60.0 mmol potassium/day) intervention among 99 northern Chinese subjects aged 18-60 years. Five metabolic traits included abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, raised blood pressure (BP), and high glucose. Central hemodynamics were measured at baseline and during each intervention. RESULTS:Central systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and augmentation index (AIx@75) significantly decreased during low-sodium intervention, increased during high-sodium intervention, and then decreased during potassium supplementation. We observed potential linear trends toward significance of central SBP and PP responses to low-sodium intervention, and significant linear trends of responses to high-sodium intervention as the number of metabolic traits grows. For example, among participants with 0 or 1, 2 or 3, and 4 or 5 metabolic traits, central SBP responses to high-sodium intervention were 8.8 [95% confidence interval (5.8, 11.8)], 9.3 (7.1, 11.6), and 14.0 (11.6, 16.3) mmHg, respectively (P for trend = 0.009). Significant linear trends of central SBP and DBP responses to potassium supplementation were also observed. CONCLUSIONS:Central BP and AIx@75 were lowered by sodium reduction and potassium supplementation, and elevated by sodium-loading. The responses of central BP were pronounced among individuals with metabolic traits clustering. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:Trial Number NCT00721721 (The current study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov; https://clinicaltrials.gov).
Project description:We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) for blood pressure (BP), based on single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in previous BP genome-wide association study meta-analyses, and salt and potassium sensitivity of BP among participants of the GenSalt study (Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity). The GenSalt study was conducted among 1906 participants who underwent a 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/d), 7-day high-sodium (307.8 mmol sodium/d), and 7-day high-sodium plus potassium (60 mmol potassium/d) intervention. BP was measured 9× at baseline and at the end of each intervention period using a random zero sphygmomanometer. Associations between systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure GRS and respective SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure responses to the dietary interventions were assessed using mixed linear regression models that accounted for familial dependencies and adjusted for age, sex, field center, body mass index, and baseline BP. As expected, baseline SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure significantly increased per quartile increase in GRS (P=2.7×10-8, 9.8×10-8, and 6.4×10-6, respectively). In contrast, increasing GRS quartile conferred smaller SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure responses to the low-sodium intervention (P=1.4×10-3, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively) and smaller SBP responses to the high-sodium and potassium interventions (P=0.10 and 0.05). In addition, overall findings were similar when examining GRS as a continuous measure. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, we identified an inverse relationship between BP GRS and salt and potassium sensitivity of BP. These data may provide novel implications on the relationship between BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium and hypertension.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that genetic factors might have an important role in blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary salt or potassium intake. The aim of this study was to assess the association of common genetic variants of the adiponectin gene with BP responses to controlled dietary sodium or potassium interventions. Subjects (n=334) from 124 families in rural areas of Northern China were recruited. After a 3-day baseline observation, participants sequentially maintained a 7-day low-sodium diet (NaCl, 3?g per day; or sodium, 51.3?mmol per day), followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (NaCl, 18?g per day; or sodium, 307.8?mmol per day) and a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium supplementation intervention (KCl, 4.5?g per day; or potassium, 60?mmol per day). A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene were selected as the study sites. After adjustment for multiple testing, the adiponectin SNP rs16861205 was significantly associated with the diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-salt intervention, and the DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to high-salt intervention (P=0.028, 0.023 and 0.027, respectively). SNP rs822394 was associated with the DBP and MAP responses to low-salt intervention and the DBP response to high-salt intervention (P=0.023, 0.030 and 0.033 respectively). Meanwhile, significant association also existed between SNP rs16861194 and the systolic BP response to potassium supplementation intervention (P=0.026). In addition, SNP rs822394 was significantly associated with basal DBP after adjustment for multiple testing (P=0.033). Our study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake.
Project description:In the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study, we observed that blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions and the cold pressor test (CPT) varied greatly among individuals. We conducted a replication study to confirm our previous findings among 695 study participants.The dietary intervention included a 7-day low sodium (51.3 mmol/day), a 7-day high sodium (307.8 mmol/day), and a 7-day high sodium with potassium supplementation (307.8 mmol sodium and 60 mmol potassium/day). BP measurements were obtained during the baseline and each intervention phase. During the CPT, BP was measured before and at 0, 1, 2, and 4 minutes after the participants immersed their right hand in ice water for 1 minute.Systolic and diastolic BP responses (mean ± SD (range), mm Hg) were 8.1±8.4 (-39.1 to 18.2) and -3.5±5.1 (-25.1 to 11.1) to low sodium, 9.1±8.4 (-13.3 to 33.1) and 4.0±5.4 (-16.0 to 20.7) to high sodium, and -4.6±5.8 (-31.8 to 11.6) and -1.9±4.3 (-16.9 to 14.2) to potassium supplementation, respectively (all P < 0.0001 for comparison with each former phase). The mean maximum systolic and diastolic BP responses to the CPT were 16.5±10.5 (-15.3 to 63.3) and 7.6±6.1 (-8.7 to 39.3), respectively (all P < 0.0001).Our study indicates that there are large variations in BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions and to the CPT among individuals.
Project description:Blood pressure (BP) responses to the cold pressor test (CPT) and to dietary sodium intake might be related to the risk of hypertension. We examined the association between BP responses to the CPT and to dietary sodium and potassium interventions.The CPT and dietary intervention were conducted among 1906 study participants in rural China. The dietary intervention included three 7-day periods of low sodium intake (3 g/d of salt [sodium chloride] [51.3 mmol/d of sodium]), high sodium intake (18 g/d of salt [307.8 mmol/d of sodium]), and high sodium intake plus potassium chloride supplementation (60 mmol/d). A total of 9 BP measurements were obtained during the 3-day baseline observation and the last 3 days of each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer.Blood pressure response to the CPT was significantly associated with BP changes during the sodium and potassium interventions (all P < .001). Compared with the lowest quartile of BP response to the CPT (quartile 1), systolic BP changes (95% confidence intervals) for the quartiles 2, 3, and 4 were -2.02 (-2.87 to -1.16) mm Hg, -3.17 (-4.05 to -2.28) mm Hg, and -5.98 (-6.89 to -5.08) mm Hg, respectively, during the low-sodium intervention. Corresponding systolic BP changes during the high-sodium intervention were 0.40 (-0.36 to 1.16) mm Hg, 0.44 (-0.35 to 1.22) mm Hg, and 2.30 (1.50 to 3.10) mm Hg, respectively, and during the high-sodium plus potassium supplementation intervention were -0.26 (-0.99 to 0.46) mm Hg, -0.95 (-1.70 to -0.20) mm Hg, and -1.59 (-2.36 to -0.83) mm Hg, respectively.These results indicate that BP response to the CPT was associated with salt sensitivity and potassium sensitivity. Furthermore, a low-sodium or high-potassium diet might be more effective to lower BP among individuals with high responses to the CPT.
Project description:Genetic factors may influence blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary potassium intake. We examined the association of genetic variants in the apelin-APJ system and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with BP responses to potassium supplementation.We conducted a 7-day potassium supplementation (60 mmol/day) intervention among 1,906 Chinese adults who participated in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt-Sensitivity (GenSalt) study. Tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on HapMap data and potential functional SNPs were selected in the APLN, APLNR, and ACE2 genes. Because the ACE2 and APLN genes are located on the X chromosome, men and women were analyzed separately.In women, SNP rs2235306 in the APLN gene was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP) response to potassium supplementation (P = 0.0009). The DBP responses (95% confidence interval (CI)) among those with genotypes T/T, T/C, and C/C were -2.22 (-2.74, -1.70), -1.69 (-2.20, -1.19), and -0.81 (-1.54, -0.09) mm Hg, respectively. In men, SNP rs4646174 of the ACE2 gene was significantly associated with systolic BP (SBP), DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to potassium supplementation (P = 0.0001, P = 0.001, and P = 3.0 x 10(-6), respectively). The SBP, DBP, and MAP responses (95% CI) were -0.79 (-2.27, 0.69) vs. -3.53 (-3.94, -3.12), 1.07 (-0.34, 2.49) vs. -1.06 (-1.43, -0.69), and 0.44 (-0.60, 1.48) vs. -1.89 (-2.22, -1.55) mm Hg among men with minor G allele compared to those with major C allele of rs4646174, respectively.Our study indicates that genetic variation of APLN and ACE2 may influence BP response to potassium intake.
Project description:Blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium and potassium intervention and cold pressor test vary considerably among individuals. We aimed to identify novel genetic variants influencing individuals' BP responses to dietary intervention and cold pressor test.We conducted a genome-wide association study of BP responses in 1881 Han Chinese and de novo genotyped top findings in 698 Han Chinese. Diet-feeding study included a 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol/d), a 7-day high-sodium (307.8 mmol/d), and a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium supplementation (60 mmol/d). Nine BP measurements were obtained during baseline observation and each intervention period. The meta-analyses identified 8 novel loci for BP phenotypes, which physically mapped in or near PRMT6 (P=7.29 × 10(-9)), CDCA7 (P=3.57 × 10(-8)), PIBF1 (P=1.78 × 10(-9)), ARL4C (P=1.86 × 10(-8)), IRAK1BP1 (P=1.44 × 10(-10)), SALL1 (P=7.01 × 10(-13)), TRPM8 (P=2.68 × 10(-8)), and FBXL13 (P=3.74 × 10(-9)). There was a strong dose-response relationship between the number of risk alleles of these independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the risk of developing hypertension during the 7.5-year follow-up in the study participants. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of risk alleles, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for those in the second, third, and fourth quartiles were 1.39 (0.97, 1.99), 1.72 (1.19, 2.47), and 1.84 (1.29, 2.62), respectively (P=0.0003 for trend).Our study identified 8 novel loci for BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium intervention and cold pressor test. The effect size of these novel loci on BP phenotypes is much larger than those reported by the previously published studies. Furthermore, these variants predict the risk of developing hypertension among individuals with normal BP at baseline.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to comprehensively test the associations of genetic variants of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-related genes with blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium intervention in a Chinese population. METHODS:We conducted a 7-day low-sodium intervention followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention among 1,906 participants in rural China. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each dietary intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the additive associations of 63 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 NADPH oxidase-related genes with BP responses to dietary sodium intervention. Gene-based analyses were conducted using the truncated product method. The Bonferroni method was used to adjust for multiple testing in all analyses. RESULTS:Systolic BP (SBP) response to high-sodium intervention significantly decreased with the number of minor T allele of marker rs6967221 in RAC1 (P = 4.51 × 10-4). SBP responses (95% confidence interval) for genotypes CC, CT, and TT were 5.03 (4.71, 5.36), 4.20 (3.54, 4.85), and 0.56 (-1.08, 2.20) mm Hg, respectively, during the high-sodium intervention. Gene-based analyses revealed that RAC1 was significantly associated with SBP response to high-sodium intervention (P = 1.00 × 10-6) and diastolic BP response to low-sodium intervention (P = 9.80 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggested that genetic variants of NADPH oxidase-related genes may contribute to the variation of BP responses to sodium intervention in Chinese population. Further replication of these findings is warranted.
Project description:We examined the association between genetic variants in the apelin system and blood pressure (BP) responses to low-sodium and high-sodium interventions in the GenSalt Study.A 7-day low-sodium intervention (51.3 mmol sodium per day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium per day) was conducted among 1906 participants from 637 Han Chinese families. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and following each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including both tag and functional SNPs, were selected from three candidate genes (APLN, APLNR, and ACE2). Single marker and haplotype analyses were conducted using the Family Based Association Test program. The false discovery rate method was used to correct for multiple testing.SNPs rs2282623 and rs746886 of the APLNR gene were significantly associated with DBP (both P = 0.002) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P = 0.001 and 0.005, respectively) responses to low-sodium intervention. Six SNPs of the ACE2 gene were significantly associated with SBP, DBP, or MAP responses to low-sodium intervention. Three of them, rs1514283, rs1514282, and rs4646176, were also significantly associated with MAP response to high-sodium intervention (all P <or= 0.006). Haplotype analysis indicated the A-T-T haplotype of APLNR SNPs rs721608-rs2282623-rs746886 was associated with decreased DBP and MAP responses to low-sodium intervention (P = 0.001 and 0.003, respectively), whereas G-C-C was associated with increased SBP and MAP responses to high-sodium intervention (P = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively).This large family-based study indicates that genetic variants in the APLNR and ACE2 genes are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium intervention.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Increased dietary potassium intake is thought to be associated with low blood pressure (BP). Whether potassium supplementation may be used as an antihypertensive agent is a question that should be answered.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the effect of oral potassium supplementation on blood pressure in patients with primary hypertension.<h4>Search methods</h4>We searched Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until October 2016. We also screened reference lists of articles and previous reviews. We applied no language restrictions.<h4>Selection criteria</h4>We included randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials addressing the effect of potassium supplementation on primary hypertension for a minimum of 4 weeks.<h4>Data collection and analysis</h4>We extracted data on systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) at the final follow-up. We explored the heterogeneity across studies using Cochran's test and I2 statistic and assessed the probability of publication bias using Begg's and Egger's tests. We reported the mean difference (MD) of SBP and DBP in a random-effects model.<h4>Results</h4>We found a total of 9059 articles and included 23 trials with 1213 participants. Compared to placebo, potassium supplementation resulted in modest but significant reductions in both SBP (MD -4.25 mmHg; 95% CI: -5.96 to -2.53; I2 = 41%) and DBP (MD -2.53 mmHg; 95% CI: -4.05 to -1.02; I2 = 65%). According to the change-score analysis, based on 8 out of 23 trials, compared to baseline, the mean changes in SBP (MD -8.89 mmHg; 95% CI: -13.67 to -4.11) and DBP (MD -6.42 mmHg; 95% CI: -10.99 to -1.84) was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings indicated that potassium supplementation is a safe medication with no important adverse effects that has a modest but significant impact BP and may be recommended as an adjuvant antihypertensive agent for patients with essential hypertension.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase (SGK) plays a critical role in the regulation of renal sodium transport. We examined the association between SGK genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) using single-marker and gene-based association analysis. METHODS:A 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day) was conducted among 1,906 Chinese participants. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Additive associations between each SNP and salt-sensitivity phenotypes were assessed using a mixed linear regression model to account for family dependencies. Gene-based analyses were conducted using the truncated p-value method. The Bonferroni-method was used to adjust for multiple testing in all analyses. RESULTS:In single-marker association analyses, SGK1 marker rs2758151 was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP) response to high-sodium intervention (P = 0.0010). DBP responses (95% confidence interval) to high-sodium intervention for genotypes C/C, C/T, and T/T were 2.04 (1.57 to 2.52), 1.79 (1.42 to 2.16), and 0.85 (0.30 to 1.41) mmHg, respectively. Similar trends were observed for SBP and MAP responses although not significant (P = 0.15 and 0.0026, respectively). In addition, gene-based analyses demonstrated significant associations between SGK1 and SBP, DBP and MAP responses to high sodium intervention (P = 0.0002, 0.0076, and 0.00001, respectively). Neither SGK2 nor SGK3 were associated with the salt-sensitivity phenotypes in single-maker or gene-based analyses. CONCLUSIONS:The current study identified association of the SGK1 gene and BP salt-sensitivity in the Han Chinese population. Further studies are warranted to identify causal SGK1 gene variants.