Tricellulin Effect on Paracellular Water Transport.
ABSTRACT: In epithelia, large amounts of water pass by transcellular and paracellular pathways, driven by the osmotic gradient built up by the movement of solutes. The transcellular pathway has been molecularly characterized by the discovery of aquaporin membrane channels. Unlike this, the existence of a paracellular pathway for water through the tight junctions (TJ) was discussed controversially for many years until two molecular components of paracellular water transport, claudin-2 and claudin-15, were identified. A main protein of the tricellular TJ (tTJ), tricellulin, was shown to be downregulated in ulcerative colitis leading to increased permeability to macromolecules. Whether or not tricellulin also regulates water transport is unknown yet. To this end, an epithelial cell line featuring properties of a tight epithelium, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells clone 7 (MDCK C7), was stably transfected with small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting tricellulin, a protein of the tTJ essential for the barrier against passage of solutes up to 10 kDa. Water flux was induced by osmotic gradients using mannitol or 4 and 40 kDa-dextran. Water flux in tricellulin knockdown (KD) cells was higher compared to that of vector controls, indicating a direct role of tricellulin in regulating water permeability in a tight epithelial cell line. We conclude that tricellulin increases water permeability at reduced expression.
Project description:Tricellulin is a tight junction protein localized in tricellular tight junctions (tTJs), the meeting points of three cells, but also in bicellular tight junctions (bTJs). To investigate its specific barrier functions in bTJs and tTJs, TRIC-a was expressed in low-level tricellulin-expressing cells, and MDCK II, either in all TJs or only in tTJs. When expressed in all TJs, tricellulin increased paracellular electrical resistance and decreased permeability to ions and larger solutes, which are associated with enhanced ultrastructural integrity of bTJs toward enhanced strand linearity. In tTJs in contrast, ultrastructure was unchanged and tricellulin minimized permeability to macromolecules but not to ions. This paradox is explained by properties of the tTJ central tube which is wide enough for passage of macromolecules, but too rare to contribute significantly to ion permeability. In conclusion, at low tricellulin expression the tTJ central tube forms a pathway for macromolecules. At higher expression, tricellulin forms a barrier in tTJs effective only for macromolecules and in bTJs for solutes of all sizes.
Project description:The tricellular tight junction (tTJ) forms at the convergence of bicellular tight junctions (bTJs) where three epithelial cells meet in polarized epithelia, and it is required for the maintenance of the transepithelial barrier. Tricellulin is a four transmembrane domain protein recently identified as the first marker of tTJ, but little is known about how tricellulin is localized at tTJs. As for the molecular mechanism of association of tricellulin with tight junctions (TJs), we found that tricellulin was incorporated into claudin-based TJs independently of binding to zona occludens-1. Unexpectedly, exogenous expression of tricellulin increased cross-links of TJ strands in the plasma membrane. As for the molecular mechanisms for localization of tricellulin at tricellular junctions, we found that knockdown of occludin caused mislocalization of tricellulin to bTJs, implying that occludin supports tricellular localization of tricellulin by excluding tricellulin from bTJs.
Project description:The apical-most region of cell-to-cell contact in a vertebrate epithelium is the tight junction (TJ) complex. It is composed of bicellular TJs (bTJs) that bridge two adjacent epithelial cells and tricellular TJs (tTJs) that are points of contact between three adjoining epithelial cells. Tricellulin (TRIC) is a transmembrane TJ protein of vertebrates that is found in the tTJ complex. Full-length cDNA encoding rainbow trout TRIC was cloned and sequenced. In silico analysis of rainbow trout TRIC revealed a tetraspannin protein with several putative posttranslational modification sites. TRIC mRNA was broadly expressed in rainbow trout tissues and exhibited moderately greater abundance in the gill. In a primary cultured gill epithelium, TRIC localized to tTJs and TRIC protein abundance increased in association with corticosteroid-induced reductions in paracellular permeability. Sodium caprate was used to compromise cultured gill epithelium integrity by disrupting the tTJ complex. Sodium caprate treatment caused a reversible reduction in transepithelial resistance, caused an increase in paracellular permeability (as measured by [³H]PEG-4000 flux), and displaced TRIC from tTJs while leaving bTJs intact. Data from this study support the view that tTJs and the TJ protein TRIC 1) play a role in maintaining gill epithelium integrity and 2) contribute to the regulation of gill epithelium permeability.
Project description:Kidney cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) undergo progressive enlargement together with luminal fluid secretion. This involves active, uphill transcellular Cl(-) transport which drives passive Na(+) and water secretion. Implicit in this mechanism is the assumption that the paracellular permeability of the cyst epithelium to Cl(-) must be very low. Claudins are tight junction (TJ) transmembrane proteins that determine the ion selectivity of paracellular barriers. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of claudins within renal cysts in a mouse hypomorphic model of ADPKD and in human patients. We found that the majority of cysts were of collecting duct origin. Claudins normally expressed in collecting duct (3, 4, 7, 8, and 10) were found in small cysts. However, only claudin-7 persisted at substantive levels in the dedifferentiated epithelium of large, presumably late-stage cysts, where it was localized both at the TJ and basolaterally. The constitutively expressed TJ proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, were also abundantly expressed and correctly localized, suggesting that the basic infrastructure of the TJ is preserved. A previous study suggested that claudin-7 may function as a paracellular Cl(-) barrier. We postulate that the role of claudin-7 in ADPKD is to seal the paracellular route in Cl(-)-secreting cyst epithelium, preventing backleak of Cl(-), and that it thereby plays a permissive role in fluid secretion and cyst growth.
Project description:The tight junction (TJ) is an intercellular sealing component found in epithelial and endothelial tissues that regulates the passage of solutes across the paracellular space. Research examining the biology of TJs has revealed that they are complex biochemical structures constructed from a range of proteins including claudins, occludin, tricellulin, angulins and junctional adhesion molecules. The transient disruption of the barrier function of TJs to open the paracellular space is one means of enhancing mucosal and transdermal drug absorption and to deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier. However, the disruption of TJs can also open the paracellular space to harmful xenobiotics and pathogens. To address this issue, the strategies targeting TJ proteins have been developed to loosen TJs in a size- or tissue-dependent manner rather than to disrupt them. As several TJ proteins are overexpressed in malignant tumors and in the inflamed intestinal tract, and are present in cells and epithelia conjoined with the mucosa-associated lymphoid immune tissue, these TJ-protein-targeted strategies may also provide platforms for the development of novel therapies and vaccines. Here, this paper reviews two TJ-protein-targeted technologies, claudin binders and an angulin binder, and their applications in drug development.
Project description:The juxtacanalicular connective tissue of the trabecular meshwork together with inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC) provide the bulk of resistance to aqueous outflow from the anterior chamber. Endothelial cells lining SC elaborate tight junctions (TJs), down-regulation of which may widen paracellular spaces between cells, allowing greater fluid outflow. We observed significant increase in paracellular permeability following siRNA-mediated suppression of TJ transcripts, claudin-11, zonula-occludens-1 (ZO-1) and tricellulin in human SC endothelial monolayers. In mice claudin-11 was not detected, but intracameral injection of siRNAs targeting ZO-1 and tricellulin increased outflow facility significantly. Structural qualitative and quantitative analysis of SC inner wall by transmission electron microscopy revealed significantly more open clefts between endothelial cells treated with targeting, as opposed to non-targeting siRNA. These data substantiate the concept that the continuity of SC endothelium is an important determinant of outflow resistance, and suggest that SC endothelial TJs represent a specific target for enhancement of aqueous movement through the conventional outflow system.
Project description:To investigate potential physiological interactions between the transcellular and paracellular pathways of water transport, we asked whether targeted deletion of Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), the major transcellular water transporter in salivary acinar cells, affected paracellular transport of 4-kDa FITC-labeled dextran (FITC-D), which is transported through the paracellular but not the transcellular route. After i.v. injection of FITC-D into either AQP5 wild-type or AQP5-/- mice and saliva collection for fixed time intervals, we show that the relative amount of FITC-D transported in the saliva of AQP5-/- mice is half that in matched AQP5+/+ mice, indicating a 2-fold decrease in permeability of the paracellular barrier in mice lacking AQP5. We also found a significant difference in the proportion of transcellular vs. paracellular transport between male and female mice. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed an increase in the number of tight junction strands of both AQP5+/+ and AQP5-/- male mice after pilocarpine stimulation but no change in strand number in female mice. Average acinar cell volume was increased by approximately 1.4-fold in glands from AQP5-/- mice, suggesting an alteration in the volume-sensing machinery of the cell. Western blots revealed that expression of Claudin-7, Claudin-3, and Occludin, critical proteins that regulate the permeability of the tight junction barrier, were significantly decreased in AQP5-/- compared with AQP5+/+ salivary glands. These findings reveal the existence of a gender-influenced molecular mechanism involving AQP5 that allows transcellular and paracellular routes of water transport to act in conjunction.
Project description:Mammalian small intestinal tight junctions (TJ) link epithelial cells to one another and function as a permselective barrier, strictly modulating the passage of ions and macromolecules through the pore and leak pathways, respectively, thereby preventing the absorption of harmful compounds and microbes while allowing regulated transport of nutrients and electrolytes. Small intestinal epithelial permeability is ascribed primarily to the properties of TJs between adjoining enterocytes (ENTs), because there is almost no information on TJ composition and the paracellular permeability of nonenterocyte cell types that constitute a small but significant fraction of the intestinal epithelia.Here we directed murine intestinal crypts to form specialized organoids highly enriched in intestinal stem cells (ISCs), absorptive ENTs, secretory goblet cells, or Paneth cells. The morphological and morphometric characteristics of these cells in organoids were similar to those in vivo. The expression of certain TJ proteins varied with cell type: occludin and tricellulin levels were high in both ISCs and Paneth cells, while claudin-1, -2, and -7 expression was greatest in Paneth cells, ISCs, and ENTs, respectively. In contrast, the distribution of claudin-15, zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), and E-cadherin was relatively homogeneous. E-cadherin and claudin-7 marked mainly the basolateral membrane, while claudin-2, ZO-1, and occludin resided in the apical membrane. Remarkably, organoids enriched in ENTs or goblet cells were over threefold more permeable to 4 and 10 kDa dextran compared to those containing stem and Paneth cells. The TJ-regulator larazotide prevented the approximately tenfold increases in dextran flux induced by the TJ-disrupter AT1002 into organoids of different cell types, indicating that this ZO toxin nonselectively increases permeability. Forced dedifferentiation of mature ENTs results in the reacquisition of ISC-like characteristics in TJ composition and dextran permeability, suggesting that the post-differentiation properties of TJs are not hardwired.Differentiation of adult intestinal stem cells into mature secretory and absorptive cell types causes marked, but potentially reversible, changes in TJ composition, resulting in enhanced macromolecular permeability of the TJ leak pathway between ENTs and between goblet cells. This work advances our understanding of how cell differentiation affects the paracellular pathway of epithelia.
Project description:The tight junction (TJ) has a key role in regulating paracellular permeability to water and solutes in the kidney. However, the functional role of the TJ in the glomerular podocyte is unclear. In diabetic nephropathy, the gene expression of claudins, in particular claudin-1, is markedly upregulated in the podocyte, accompanied by a tighter filtration slit and the appearance of TJ-like structures between the foot processes. However, there is no definitive evidence to show slit diaphragm (SD) to TJ transition in vivo Here, we report the generation of a claudin-1 transgenic mouse model with doxycycline-inducible transgene expression specifically in the glomerular podocyte. We found that induction of claudin-1 gene expression in mature podocytes caused profound proteinuria, and with deep-etching freeze-fracture electron microscopy, we resolved the ultrastructural change in the claudin-1-induced SD-TJ transition. Notably, immunolabeling of kidney proteins revealed that claudin-1 induction destabilized the SD protein complex in podocytes, with significantly reduced expression and altered localization of nephrin and podocin proteins. Mechanistically, claudin-1 interacted with both nephrin and podocin through cis- and trans-associations in cultured cells. Furthermore, the rat puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis model, previously suspected of undergoing SD-TJ transition, exhibited upregulated expression levels of claudin-1 mRNA and protein in podocytes. Together, our data attest to the novel concept that claudins and the TJ have essential roles in podocyte pathophysiology and that claudin interactions with SD components may facilitate SD-TJ transition that appears to be common to many nephrotic conditions.
Project description:Claudin proteins are major constituents of epithelial and endothelial tight junctions (TJ), where they serve as regulators of paracellular permeability to ions and solutes. Claudin-18, a member of the large claudin family, is highly expressed in lung epithelium. To elucidate the role of claudin-18 in alveolar epithelial barrier function and fluid homeostasis, we generated claudin-18 knockout (C18 KO) mice. Increased alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) observed in C18 KO mice may have accounted for absence of lung edema despite increased alveolar solute permeability compared to wild type (WT) controls. Higher AFC in C18 KO mice was associated with higher Na-K-ATPase activity and increased expression of the Na-K-ATPase β1 subunit compared to WT controls. Consistent with in vivo findings, alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) monolayers derived from C18 KO mice exhibited lower transepithelial electrical resistance (RT) accompanied by increased solute and ion permeability without changes in ion selectivity. Expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 was markedly increased in whole lung and in freshly isolated AEC from C18 KO mice, while claudin-5 was unchanged. In contrast, occludin, another major component of the TJ complex, was significantly decreased in C18 KO lung. Further analysis revealed rearrangements in the F-actin cytoskeleton in C18 KO MAECM. These findings demonstrate a crucial non-redundant role for claudin-18 in regulation of alveolar epithelial tight junction composition and permeability to ions and solutes. Importantly, increased AFC in C18 KO mice identifies additional roles for claudin-18 in alveolar fluid homeostasis beyond its direct contributions to barrier properties of the alveolar epithelium. Animals with a ubiquitous knockout (C18 KO) were obtained by crossing mice harboring a conditional (floxed) allele of claudin-18 (Cldn18F/F) with CMV-cre deleter mice to delete exons 2 and 3 by Cre/loxP recombination.