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Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Hyperuricemic Functions of Two Synthetic Hybrid Drugs with Dual Biological Active Sites.


ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to test the anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of two synthesized molecules and compare them to routinely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as diclofenac and the serum urate-lowering drug, allopurinol. The anti-inflammatory effects of the designed compounds (A and B) were evaluated in carrageenan (CAR)-induced paw edema in mice. The levels of nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase activity were measured in paw skin using biochemical methods. Additionally, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), C-reactive protein (CRP), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2 and IL-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of inflammation-related genes was confirmed by real-time qPCR. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) were estimated using immunohistochemistry, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay. The results revealed that compounds A and B decreased inflammation, as was observed by a reduction in the elevation of all the tested markers. In addition, the tested compounds markedly decreased paw swelling, mobilization of inflammatory cells, iNOS-, and NF-?B-immunoreactive cells in a mouse model of paw edema. Interestingly, both compounds were potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors as well as Cox inhibitors with higher activity in favor of compound B providing potential dual acting series of anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.

SUBMITTER: Almeer RS 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6888696 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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