FXYD5 (Dysadherin) upregulation predicts shorter survival and reveals platinum resistance in high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is generally associated with a very dismal prognosis. Nevertheless, patients with similar clinicopathological characteristics can have markedly different clinical outcomes. Our aim was the identification of novel molecular determinants influencing survival. METHODS:Gene expression profiles of extreme HGSOC survivors (training set) were obtained by microarray. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and enriched signalling pathways were determined. A prognostic signature was generated and validated on curatedOvarianData database through a meta-analysis approach. The best prognostic biomarker from the signature was confirmed by RT-qPCR and by immunohistochemistry on an independent validation set. Cox regression model was chosen for survival analysis. RESULTS:Eighty DEGs and the extracellular matrix-receptor (ECM-receptor) interaction pathway were associated to extreme survival. A 10-gene prognostic signature able to correctly classify patients with 98% of accuracy was identified. By an 'in-silico' meta-analysis, overexpression of FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 5 (FXYD5), also known as dysadherin, was confirmed in HGSOC short-term survivors compared to long-term ones. Its prognostic and predictive power was then successfully validated, both at mRNA and protein level, first on training than on validation sample set. CONCLUSION:We demonstrated the possible involvement of FXYD5 and ECM-receptor interaction signal pathway in HCSOC survival and prognosis.
Project description:High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is generally associated with a very dismal prognosis. Nevertheless, patients with similar clinicopathological characteristics can have markedly different clinical outcomes. Our aim was the identification of novel molecular determinants influencing survival. Gene expression profiles of 12 HGSOC long-term and 27 short-term survivors (training set) were generated by microarray, and a prognostic signature was identified and further evaluated on an independent extensive HGSOC dataset through a meta-analysis approach. Overall design: Snap-frozen tumor biopsies were obtained at primary surgery from 39 HGSOC patients: 27 short-term survivors, who lived less than 3 years after initial diagnosis, and 12 long-term survivors, who lived more than 7 years. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray chips. On the basis of their Platinum Free Interval (PFI), defined as the time between the last dose of first-line carboplatin-based chemotherapy and the date of tumor progression, HGSOC patients were defined as “resistant” (PFI<6 months), “partially sensitive” (PFI 6-12 months), and “sensitive” (PFI>12 months).
Project description:Objective: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the second most common gynecological cancer worldwide. Myometrial invasion (MI) is a key event in EC dissemination. This study aimed to evaluate FXYD5/dysadherin (FXYD5/Dys) expression in EC tissue and uterine aspirate (UA) biopsies and to assess molecular/functional changes associated with its expression in cellular models. Methods: FXYD5/Dys messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined in EC tissue and UA biopsies. FXYD5/Dys expression was evaluated in EC RNAseq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and GENEVESTIGATOR tools. FXYD5/Dys impact on E-cadherin expression and cell behavior was assessed in EC Hec1a cells treated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, stably transfected with ETV5, and transiently transfected with FXYD5/Dys small interfering RNA (siRNA) or pcDNA3-FXYD5/Dys plasmid. Results: FXYD5/Dys was associated with EC aggressiveness, finding high mRNA levels in tumors depicting MI > 50%, Grade 3, and intermediate/high risk of recurrence. FXYD5/Dys was highly expressed at the tumor invasive front compared to the superficial area. Most results were recapitulated in UA biopsies. FXYD5/Dys modulation in Hec1a cells altered cell migration/adhesion and E-cadherin expression. TGF-?1 treatment of Hec1a cells induced FXYD5/Dys expression. TCGA-UCEC RNAseq analysis revealed a positive correlation between FXYD5/Dys, TGF-?1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 mRNA levels. FXYD5/Dys induced nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathway activation in Hec1a cells. FXYD5/Dys mRNA levels positively correlated with transcriptional activation of NF-?B p65-regulated genes. Survival analysis revealed patient segregation into low- and high-risk groups, the latter depicting the highest FXYD5/Dys, PAI-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and TGF-?1 mRNA levels and shorter survival rates. Conclusion: FXYD5/Dys is a novel biomarker of EC progression related to TGF-?1 and NF-?B pathways that collectively promote tumor dissemination and result in poor patient prognosis.
Project description:Most high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients develop resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy and recur. Many biomarkers related to the survival and prognosis of drug-resistant patients have been delved by mining databases; however, the prediction effect of single-gene biomarker is not specific and sensitive enough. The present study aimed to develop a novel prognostic gene signature of platinum-based resistance for patients with HGSOC. The gene expression profiles were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas database. A total of 269 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with platinum resistance were identified (P < .05, fold change >1.5). Functional analysis revealed that these DEGs were mainly involved in apoptosis process, PI3K-Akt pathway. Furthermore, we established a set of seven-gene signature that was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) in the test series. Compared with the low-risk score group, patients with a high-risk score suffered poorer OS (P < .001). The area under the curve (AUC) was found to be 0.710, which means the risk score had a certain accuracy on predicting OS in HGSOC (AUC > 0.7). Surprisingly, the risk score was identified as an independent prognostic indicator for HGSOC (P < .001). Subgroup analyses suggested that the risk score had a greater prognostic value for patients with grade 3-4, stage III-IV, venous invasion and objective response. In conclusion, we developed a seven-gene signature relating to platinum resistance, which can predict survival for HGSOC and provide novel insights into understanding of platinum resistance mechanisms and identification of HGSOC patients with poor prognosis.
Project description:The alveolar epithelium secretes cytokines and chemokines that recruit immune cells to the lungs, which is essential for fighting infections but in excess can promote lung injury. Overexpression of FXYD5, a tissue-specific regulator of the Na,K-ATPase, in mice, impairs the alveolo-epithelial barrier, and FXYD5 overexpression in renal cells increases C-C chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2) secretion in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim of this study was to determine whether FXYD5 contributes to the lung inflammation and injury. Exposure of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) to LPS increased FXYD5 levels at the plasma membrane, and FXYD5 silencing prevented both the activation of NF-κB and the secretion of cytokines in response to LPS. Intratracheal instillation of LPS into mice increased FXYD5 levels in the lung. FXYD5 overexpression increased the recruitment of interstitial macrophages and classical monocytes to the lung in response to LPS. FXYD5 silencing decreased CCL2 levels, number of cells, and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after LPS treatment, indicating that FXYD5 is required for the NF-κB-stimulated epithelial production of CCL2, the influx of immune cells, and the increase in alveolo-epithelial permeability in response to LPS. Silencing of FXYD5 also prevented the activation of NF-κB and cytokine secretion in response to interferon α and TNF-α, suggesting that pro-inflammatory effects of FXYD5 are not limited to the LPS-induced pathway. Furthermore, in the absence of other stimuli, FXYD5 overexpression in AEC activated NF-κB and increased cytokine production, while FXYD5 overexpression in mice increased cytokine levels in BALF, indicating that FXYD5 is sufficient to induce the NF-κB-stimulated cytokine secretion by the alveolar epithelium. The FXYD5 overexpression also increased cell counts in BALF, which was prevented by silencing the CCL2 receptor (CCR2), or by treating mice with a CCR2-blocking antibody, confirming that FXYD5-induced CCL2 production leads to the recruitment of monocytes to the lung. Taken together, the data demonstrate that FXYD5 is a key contributor to inflammatory lung injury.
Project description:The FXYD family, which contains seven members, are tissue specific regulators of the Na,K-ATPase. Increased expression of FXYD5, a cancer-cell-associated membrane glycoprotein, has been associated with increased cell motility and metastatic potential. To better understand how FXYD5 may modulate cell motility, we analyzed S163, a conserved residue in all FXYD family members located in the C-terminus. Ectopic expression of human FXYD5 S163 mutants in HEK 293 cells showed that negative charge at S163 (S163D) decreased membrane localization, assessed by immunofluorescence. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed decreased FXYD5/Na,K-ATPase interaction for S163D compared with wild-type or S163A mutants. Interestingly, FXYD5 overexpression induced expression of vimentin, a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in murine airway epithelial cells. Because Na,K-ATPase expression is decreased in some forms of cancer and is critical for establishing cell polarity and suppressing cell motility, we analyzed S163 mutants in an epithelial cell scratch-wound model as a measure of cell migration. Wild-type FXYD5 overexpression increased reepithelialization (p<0.0001), which was further increased in S163D mutants (p<0.005). However, S163A mutants inhibited epithelial cell migration compared with wild-type FXYD5 overexpression (p<0.0001). We conclude that negative charge at S163 regulates FXYD5/Na,K-ATPase interaction and that this interaction modulates cell migration across a wound in airway epithelial cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most malignant gynecologic tumor. This study reveals biomarkers related to HGSOC incidence and progression using the bioinformatics method. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five gene expression profiles were downloaded from GEO. Differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in HGSOC and normal ovarian tissue samples were screened using limma and the function of DEGs was annotated by KEGG and GO analysis using clusterProfiler. A co-expression network utilizing the WGCNA package was established to define several hub genes from the key module. Furthermore, survival analysis was performed, followed by expression validation with datasets from TCGA and GTEx. Finally, we used single-gene GSEA to detect the function of prognostic hub genes. RESULTS Out of the 1874 DEGs detected from 114 HGSOC versus 49 normal tissue samples, 956 were upregulated and 919 were downregulated. The functional annotation indicated that upregulated DEGs were mostly enriched in cell cycle, whereas the downregulated DEGs were enriched in the MAPK or Ras signaling pathway. Two modules significantly associated with HGSOC were excavated through WGCNA. After survival analysis and expression validation of hub genes, we found that 2 upregulated genes (MAD2L1 and PKD2) and 3 downregulated genes (DOCK5, FANCD2 and TBRG1) were positively correlated with HGSOC prognosis. GSEA for single-hub genes revealed that MAD2L1 and PKD2 were associated with proliferation, while DOCK5, FANCD2, and TBRG1 were associated with immune response. CONCLUSIONS We found that FANCD2, PKD2, TBRG1, and DOCK5 had prognostic value and could be used as potential biomarkers for HGSOC treatment.
Project description:About a third of patients with kidney cancer experience recurrence or cancer-related progression. Clinically, kidney cancer prognoses may be quite different, even in patients with kidney cancer at the same clinical stage. Therefore, there is an urgent need to screen for kidney cancer prognosis biomarkers. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using kidney cancer RNA sequencing data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Biomarkers were screened using random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) models, and a multigene signature was constructed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to explore the relationships between clinical features and prognosis. Finally, the reliability and clinical applicability of the model were validated, and relationships with biological pathways were identified. Western blots were also performed to evaluate gene expression. A total of 50 DEGs were obtained by intersecting the RF and SVM models. A seven-gene signature (RNASET2, EZH2, FXYD5, KIF18A, NAT8, CDCA7, and WNT7B) was constructed by LASSO regression. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that the seven-gene signature was an independent prognostic factor for kidney cancer. Finally, a predictive nomogram was established in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort and validated internally. In tumor tissue, RNASET2 and FXYD5 were highly expressed and NAT8 was lowly expressed at the protein and transcription levels. This model could complement the clinicopathological characteristics of kidney cancer and promote the personalized management of patients with kidney cancer.
Project description:The objective of this research was to develop a robust gene expression-based prognostic signature and scoring system for predicting overall survival (OS) of patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Transcriptomic data of HGSOC patients were obtained from six independent studies in the NCBI GEO database. Genes significantly deregulated and associated with OS in HGSOCs were selected using GEO2R and Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank testing, respectively. Enrichment analysis for biological processes and pathways was performed using Gene Ontology analysis. A resampling/cross-validation method with Cox regression analysis was used to identify a novel gene expression-based signature associated with OS, and a prognostic scoring system was developed and further validated in nine independent HGSOC datasets. We first identified 488 significantly deregulated genes in HGSOC patients, of which 232 were found to be significantly associated with their OS. These genes were significantly enriched for cell cycle division, epithelial cell differentiation, p53 signaling pathway, vasculature development, and other processes. A novel 11-gene prognostic signature was identified and a prognostic scoring system was developed, which robustly predicted OS in HGSOC patients in 100 sampling test sets. The scoring system was further validated successfully in nine additional HGSOC public datasets. In conclusion, our integrative bioinformatics study combining transcriptomic and clinical data established an 11-gene prognostic signature for robust and reproducible prediction of OS in HGSOC patients. This signature could be of clinical value for guiding therapeutic selection and individualized treatment.
Project description:FXYD5 (also known as dysadherin), a regulatory subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, impairs intercellular adhesion by a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we determined whether FXYD5 disrupts the trans-dimerization of Na,K-ATPase molecules located in neighboring cells. Mutagenesis of the Na,K-ATPase ?1 subunit identified four conserved residues, including Y199, that are crucial for the intercellular Na,K-ATPase trans-dimerization and adhesion. Modulation of expression of FXYD5 or of the ?1 subunit with intact or mutated ?1-?1 binding sites demonstrated that the anti-adhesive effect of FXYD5 depends on the presence of Y199 in the ?1 subunit. Immunodetection of the plasma membrane FXYD5 was prevented by the presence of O-glycans. Partial FXYD5 deglycosylation enabled antibody binding and showed that the protein level and the degree of O-glycosylation were greater in cancer than in normal cells. FXYD5-induced impairment of adhesion was abolished by both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of FXYD5 O-glycosylation. Therefore, the extracellular O-glycosylated domain of FXYD5 impairs adhesion by interfering with intercellular ?1-?1 interactions, suggesting that the ratio between FXYD5 and ?1-?1 heterodimer determines whether the Na,K-ATPase acts as a positive or negative regulator of intercellular adhesion.
Project description:This study aimed to identify the biological processes associated with long-term survival in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). HGSOC cases obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer (TCGA-OV) database were divided into long-term survivors (LTS) and normal-term survivors (NTS) based on survival cutoffs defined by the HGSOC cohort in the SEER database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the generalized linear modeling (GLM) method. Gene Ontology (GO) functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed using DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. DEG-related protein-protein interactions (PPI) were extracted from the STRING database and hub genes were identified using CytoHubba in the Cytoscape program. In total, 157 DEGs, including 155 upregulated and 2 downregulated genes, were identified. Upregulated genes were statistically enriched in 80 GO terms and 11 KEGG pathways related to energy and substrate metabolism, such as protein absorption, digestion, and metabolism as well as signaling pathways, including chromatin silencing, regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade, and regulation of MAPKKK. ALB and POMC were the common hub genes. These findings reveal that protein anabolism is crucial to long-term survival, regulated by activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and chromatin silencing. Comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms via further exploration may contribute toward an effective treatment for ovarian cancer.