The three members of the Vav family proteins form complexes that concur to foam cell formation and atherosclerosis.
ABSTRACT: During foam cell formation and atherosclerosis development, the scavenger receptor CD36 plays critical roles in lipid uptake and triggering of atherogenicity via the activation of Vav molecules. The Vav family includes three highly conserved members known as Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3. As Vav1 and Vav3 were found to exert function in atherosclerosis development, it remains thus to decipher whether Vav2 also plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study we found that Vav2 deficiency in RAW264.7 macrophages significantly diminished oxidized LDL uptake and CD36 signaling, demonstrating that each Vav protein family member was required for foam cell formation. Genetic disruption of Vav2 in ApoE-deficient C57BL/6 mice significantly inhibited the severity of atherosclerosis. Strikingly, we further found that the genetic deletion of each member of the Vav protein family by CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in a similar alteration of transcriptomic profiles of macrophages. The three members of the Vav proteins were found to form complexes, and genetic ablation of each single Vav molecule was sufficient to prevent endocytosis of CD36. The functional interdependence of the three Vav family members in foam cell formation was due to their indispensable roles in transcriptomic programing, lipid uptake, and activation of the JNK kinase in macrophages.
Project description:Vav proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho family GTPases which activate pathways leading to actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and transcriptional alterations. Vav proteins contain several protein binding domains which can link cell surface receptors to downstream signaling proteins. Vav1 is expressed exclusively in hematopoietic cells and tyrosine phosphorylated in response to activation of multiple cell surface receptors. However, it is not known whether the recently identified isoforms Vav2 and Vav3, which are broadly expressed, can couple with similar classes of receptors, nor is it known whether all Vav isoforms possess identical functional activities. We expressed Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3 at equivalent levels to directly compare the responses of the Vav proteins to receptor activation. Although each Vav isoform was tyrosine phosphorylated upon activation of representative receptor tyrosine kinases, integrin, and lymphocyte antigen receptors, we found unique aspects of Vav protein coupling in each receptor pathway. Each Vav protein coprecipitated with activated epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, and multiple phosphorylated tyrosine residues on the PDGF receptor were able to mediate Vav2 tyrosine phosphorylation. Integrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav proteins was not detected in nonhematopoietic cells unless the protein tyrosine kinase Syk was also expressed, suggesting that integrin activation of Vav proteins may be restricted to cell types that express particular tyrosine kinases. In addition, we found that Vav1, but not Vav2 or Vav3, can efficiently cooperate with T-cell receptor signaling to enhance NFAT-dependent transcription, while Vav1 and Vav3, but not Vav2, can enhance NFkappaB-dependent transcription. Thus, although each Vav isoform can respond to similar cell surface receptors, there are isoform-specific differences in their activation of downstream signaling pathways.
Project description:Atherosclerosis requires migration of monocytes to the arterial intima, with subsequent differentiation into foam cells. We showed previously that the scavenger receptor CD36 contributes to the activation of Vav family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Vavs) in aortae from hyperlipidemic apoE-null mice and that oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein induced CD36-dependent activation of macrophage Vavs in vitro. We also discovered that CD36-dependent uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and foam cell formation were reduced in Vav-deficient macrophages. We now tested the hypothesis that Vavs play a role in atherosclerotic lesion development.We showed that apoE/vav1 double-null mice fed a Western diet had significant reduction in total aortic lesion area (by en face analysis) compared with apoE-null mice, with no significant differences in body weight or plasma lipid profiles. Histological analysis of aortic sinus lesions showed fewer macrophages and foam cells in double-null mice compared with apoE-null mice, indicating impaired foam cell generation and homing of macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions. An intravital video microscopy-based adhesion assay with fluorescent (Qtracker655)-labeled monocytes showed reduced adhesion of vav1-null monocytes to hyperlipidemic carotid arteries compared with wild-type monocytes. Furthermore, fewer fluorescently labeled vav1-null monocytes accumulated in aortic sinus lesions in hyperlipidemic apoE-null mice. We also found that activation of RhoGTPase Rac and mitogen-activated protein kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase-2 by CD36-specific oxidized phospholipids was dependent on Vavs.These results for the first time link Vavs to atherosclerotic lesion development and suggest that Vavs act as critical molecular links coupling hyperlipidemia with proatherogenic monocyte/macrophage responses.
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> VAV family genes (<i>VAV1, VAV2,</i> and <i>VAV3</i>) are associated with prognosis in various cancers; however, they have not been evaluated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, the prognostic value of VAV expression in AML was evaluated by a single-center study in combination with bioinformatics analyses. <b>Methods:</b> The expression and prognostic value of VAVs in patients with AML were investigated using various databases, including GEPIA, CCLE, EMBL-EBI, UALCAN, cBioPortal, STRING, and DAVID. Blood samples from 35 patients with AML (non-M3 subtype) and 13 benigh individuals were collected at our center. VAV expression levels were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blotting. Clinical data were derived from medical records. <b>Results:</b> Based on data from multiple databases, the expression levels of VAV1, VAV2, and VAV3 were significantly higher in AML than in control tissues (<i>P</i> < 0.05). RT-qPCR and western blotting results showed that <i>VAV</i> expression in mRNA and protein levels were higher in patients with AML that in the control group (<i>P</i> < 0.05). Complete remission rates were lower and risks were higher in patients with AML with high <i>VAV1</i> expression than with low <i>VAV1</i> expression (<i>P</i> < 0.05). High levels of VAV2, VAV3, and VAV1 were related to a poor overall survival, and this relationship was significant for VAV1 (<i>P</i> < 0.05). High expression levels of genes correlated with <i>VAV1</i>, such as <i>SIPA1</i>, <i>SH2D3C</i>, and <i>HMHA1</i> were also related to a poor prognosis in AML. Functional and pathways enrichment analyses indicated that the contribution of the VAV family to AML may be mediated by the NF-κB, cAMP, and other pathways. <b>Conclusion:</b> VAVs were highly expressed in AML. In particular, VAV1 has prognostic value and is a promising therapeutic target for AML.
Project description:The scavenger receptor CD36 plays critical roles in lipid uptake and triggering of inflammatory response, via activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav. We used microarrays to detail the different up-regulated or down-regulate genes among three vav familymembers. Overall design: 12 samples are analyzed.Sample 1-3 are Vav1 Knockout cells.Sample 4-6 are Vav2 Knockout cells.Sample 7-9 are Vav3 Knockout cells.Sample 10-12 are Wildtype Raw264.7 cells as control group.
Project description:The Vav family is a group of signal transduction molecules that activate Rho/Rac GTPases during cell signaling. Experiments using knockout mice have indicated that the three Vav proteins present in mammals (Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3) are essential for proper signaling responses in hematopoietic cells. However, Vav2 and Vav3 are also highly expressed in nonhematopoietic tissues, suggesting that they may have additional functions outside blood cells. Here, we report that this is the case for Vav2, because the disruption of its locus in mice causes tachycardia, hypertension, and defects in the heart, arterial walls, and kidneys. We also provide physiological and pharmacological evidence demonstrating that the hypertensive condition of Vav2-deficient mice is due to a chronic stimulation of the renin/angiotensin II and sympathetic nervous systems. Together, these results indicate that Vav2 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis in mice.
Project description:Fungal infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The innate immune system senses fungal pathogens through Syk-coupled C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), which signal through the conserved immune adaptor Card9. Although Card9 is essential for antifungal defense, the mechanisms that couple CLR-proximal events to Card9 control are not well defined. Here, we identify Vav proteins as key activators of the Card9 pathway. Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3 cooperate downstream of Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle to engage Card9 for NF-?B control and proinflammatory gene transcription. Although Vav family members show functional redundancy, Vav1/2/3-/- mice phenocopy Card9-/- animals with extreme susceptibility to fungi. In this context, Vav3 is the single most important Vav in mice, and a polymorphism in human VAV3 is associated with susceptibility to candidemia in patients. Our results reveal a molecular mechanism for CLR-mediated Card9 regulation that controls innate immunity to fungal infections.
Project description:Genetic evidence suggests that three members of the VAV family (VAV1, VAV2 and VAV3) of signal transduction proteins could play important roles in rheumatoid arthritis. However, it is not known currently whether the inhibition of these proteins protects against this disease and, if so, the number of family members that must be eliminated to get a therapeutic impact. To address this issue, we have used a collection of single and compound Vav family knockout mice in experimental models for antigen-dependent (methylated bovine serum albumin injections) and neutrophil-dependent (Zymosan A injections) rheumatoid arthritis in mice. We show here that the specific elimination of Vav1 is sufficient to block the development of antigen-induced arthritis. This protection is likely associated with the roles of this Vav family member in the development and selection of immature T cells within the thymus as well as in the subsequent proliferation and differentiation of effector T cells. By contrast, we have found that depletion of Vav2 reduces the number of neutrophils present in the joints of Zymosan A-treated mice. Despite this, the elimination of Vav2 does not protect against the joint degeneration triggered by this experimental model. These findings indicate that Vav1 is the most important pharmacological target within this family, although its main role is limited to the protection against antigen-induced rheumatoid arthritis. They also indicate that the three Vav family proteins do not play redundant roles in these pathobiological processes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages, foam cells, within sub-endothelial intima is a key feature of early atherosclerosis. Siglec-E, a mouse orthologue of human Siglec-9, is a sialic acid binding lectin predominantly expressed on the surface of myeloid cells to transduce inhibitory signal via recruitment of SH2-domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1/2 upon binding to its sialoglycan ligands. Whether Siglec-E expression on macrophages impacts foam cell formation and atherosclerosis remains to be established.<h4>Methods</h4>ApoE-deficient (apoE<sup>-/-</sup>) and apoE/Siglec-E-double deficient (apoE<sup>-/-</sup>/Siglec-E<sup>-/-</sup>) mice were placed on high fat diet for 3 months and their lipid profiles and severities of atherosclerosis were assessed. Modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and foam cell formation in wild type (WT) and Siglec-E<sup>-/-</sup>- peritoneal macrophages were examined in vitro. Potential Siglec-E-interacting proteins were identified by proximity labeling in conjunction with proteomic analysis and confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation experiment. Impacts of Siglec-E expression and cell surface sialic acid status on oxidized LDL uptake and signaling involved were examined by biochemical assays.<h4>Results</h4>Here we show that genetic deletion of Siglec-E accelerated atherosclerosis without affecting lipid profile in apoE<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Siglec-E deficiency promotes foam cell formation by enhancing acetylated and oxidized LDL uptake without affecting cholesterol efflux in macrophages in vitro. By performing proximity labeling and proteomic analysis, we identified scavenger receptor CD36 as a cell surface protein interacting with Siglec-E. Further experiments performed in HEK293T cells transiently overexpressing Siglec-E and CD36 and peritoneal macrophages demonstrated that depletion of cell surface sialic acids by treatment with sialyltransferase inhibitor or sialidase did not affect interaction between Siglec-E and CD36 but retarded Siglec-E-mediated inhibition on oxidized LDL uptake. Subsequent experiments revealed that oxidized LDL induced transient Siglec-E tyrosine phosphorylation and recruitment of SHP-1 phosphatase in macrophages. VAV, a downstream effector implicated in CD36-mediated oxidized LDL uptake, was shown to interact with SHP-1 following oxidized LDL treatment. Moreover, oxidized LDL-induced VAV phosphorylation was substantially lower in WT macrophages comparing to Siglec-E<sup>-/-</sup> counterparts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data support the protective role of Siglec-E in atherosclerosis. Mechanistically, Siglec-E interacts with CD36 to suppress downstream VAV signaling involved in modified LDL uptake.
Project description:ERBB4 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ERBB subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that regulates cellular processes including proliferation, migration, and survival. ERBB4 signaling is involved in embryogenesis and homeostasis of healthy adult tissues, but also in human pathologies such as cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Here, an MS-based analysis revealed the Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (VAV3), an activator of Rho family GTPases, as a critical ERBB4-interacting protein in breast cancer cells. We confirmed the ERBB4-VAV3 interaction by targeted MS and coimmunoprecipitation experiments and further defined it by demonstrating that kinase activity and Tyr-1022 and Tyr-1162 of ERBB4, as well as the intact phosphotyrosine-interacting SH2 domain of VAV3, are necessary for this interaction. We found that ERBB4 stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the VAV3 activation domain, known to be required for guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity of VAV proteins. In addition to VAV3, the other members of the VAV family, VAV1 and VAV2, also coprecipitated with ERBB4. Analyses of the effects of overexpression of dominant-negative VAV3 constructs or shRNA-mediated down-regulation of VAV3 expression in breast cancer cells indicated that active VAV3 is involved in ERBB4-stimulated cell migration. These results define the VAV GEFs as effectors of ERBB4 activity in a signaling pathway relevant for cancer cell migration.
Project description:Despite the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, the prognosis for p190-BCR-ABL(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains poor. In the present study, we present the cellular and molecular roles of the Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav in lymphoid leukemogenesis and explore the roles of Vav proteins in BCR-ABL-dependent signaling. We show that genetic deficiency of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3 delays leukemogenesis by p190-BCR-ABL and phenocopies the effect of Rac2 deficiency, a downstream effector of Vav3. Compensatory up-regulation of expression and activation of Vav3 in Vav1/Vav2-deficient B-cell progenitors increases the transformation ability of p190-BCR-ABL. Vav3 deficiency induces apoptosis of murine and human leukemic lymphoid progenitors, decreases the activation of Rho GTPase family members and p21-activated kinase, and is associated with increased Bad phosphorylation and up-regulation of Bax, Bak, and Bik. Finally, Vav3 activation only partly depends on ABL TK activity, and Vav3 deficiency collaborates with tyrosine kinase inhibitors to inhibit CrkL activation and impair leukemogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that Vav3 represents a novel specific molecular leukemic effector for multitarget therapy in p190-BCR-ABL-expressing acute lymphoblastic leukemia.