TRPM4-specific blocking antibody attenuates reperfusion injury in a rat model of stroke.
ABSTRACT: Reperfusion therapy is currently the gold standard treatment for acute ischemic stroke. However, reperfusion injuries such as oedema and haemorrhagic transformation largely limit the use of this potent treatment to a narrow time window. Recently, transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel has emerged as a potential target for vascular protection in stroke management. Non-specificity and side effects are major concerns for current TRPM4 blockers. The present study was undertaken to develop a novel TRPM4 blocker for stroke management. We report the generation of a TRPM4-specific antibody M4P which binds to a region close to the channel pore. M4P could inhibit TRPM4 current and downregulate TRPM4 surface expression, therefore prevent hypoxia-induced cell swelling. In the rat model of 3-h stroke reperfusion, application of M4P at 2 h after occlusion ameliorated reperfusion injury by improving blood-brain barrier integrity, and enhanced functional recovery. Our results demonstrate that TRPM4 blockade could attenuate reperfusion injury in stroke recanalization. When applied together with reperfusion treatments, TRPM4 blocking antibody has the potential to extend the therapeutic time window for acute ischemic stroke.
Project description:The transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel has been suggested to play a key role in the treatment of ischemic stroke. However, in vivo evaluation of TRPM4 channel, in particular by direct channel suppression, is lacking. In this study, we used multimodal imaging to assess edema formation and quantify the amount of metabolically functional brain salvaged after a rat model of stroke reperfusion. TRPM4 upregulation in endothelium emerges as early as 2 h post-stroke induction. Expression of TRPM4 channel was suppressed directly in vivo by treatment with siRNA; scrambled siRNA was used as a control. T2-weighted MRI suggests that TRPM4 inhibition successfully reduces edema by 30% and concomitantly salvages functionally active brain, measured by 18F-FDG-PET. These in vivo imaging results correlate well with post-mortem 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining which exhibits a 34.9% reduction in infarct volume after siRNA treatment. Furthermore, in a permanent stroke model, large areas of brain tissue displayed both edema and significant reductions in metabolic activity which was not shown in transient models with or without TRPM4 inhibition, indicating that tissue salvaged by TRPM4 inhibition during stroke reperfusion may survive. Evans Blue extravasation and hemoglobin quantification in the ipsilateral hemisphere were greatly reduced, suggesting that TRPM4 inhibition can improve BBB integrity after ischemic stroke reperfusion. Our results support the use of TRPM4 blocker for early stroke reperfusion.
Project description:The nonselective monovalent cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (Trpm4) is transcriptionally upregulated in neural and vascular cells in animal models of brain infarction. It associates with sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1) to form Sur1-Trpm4 channels, which have critical roles in cytotoxic edema, cell death, blood-brain barrier breakdown, and vasogenic edema. We examined Trpm4 expression in postmortem brain specimens from 15 patients who died within the first 31 days of the onset of focal cerebral ischemia. We found increased Trpm4 protein expression in all cases using immunohistochemistry; transcriptional upregulation was confirmed using in situ hybridization of Trpm4 messenger RNA. Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 colocalized and coassociated with Sur1 within ischemic endothelial cells and neurons. Coexpression of Sur1 and Trpm4 in necrotic endothelial cells was also associated with vasogenic edema indicated by upregulated perivascular tumor necrosis factor, extravasation of serum immunoglobulin G, and associated inflammation. Upregulated Trpm4 protein was present up to 1 month after the onset of cerebral ischemia. In a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke, pharmacologic channel blockade by glibenclamide, a selective inhibitor of sulfonylurea receptor, mitigated perivascular tumor necrosis factor labeling. Thus, upregulated Sur1-Trpm4 channels and associated blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral edema suggest that pharmacologic targeting of this channel may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of patients with cerebral ischemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hemorrhagic transformation is a major complication of ischemic stroke, is linked to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and is exacerbated by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is characterized by SUR1-TRPM4 (sulfonylurea receptor 1-transient receptor potential melastatin 4) channel upregulation in microvascular endothelium. In humans and rodents with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), the SUR1 antagonist, glibenclamide, reduces hemorrhagic transformation and plasma MMP-9, but the mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that tPA induces protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated, Ca2+-dependent phasic secretion of MMP-9 from activated brain endothelium, and that SUR1-TRPM4 is required for this process. METHODS:Cerebral I/R, of 2 and 4 hours duration, respectively, was obtained using conventional middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunolabeling was used to quantify p65 nuclear translocation. Murine and human brain endothelial cells (BEC) were studied in vitro, without and with NF-?B activation, using immunoblot, zymography and ELISA, patch clamp electrophysiology, and calcium imaging. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations were used to identify signaling pathways. RESULTS:Cerebral I/R caused prominent nuclear translocation of p65 in microvascular endothelium. NF-?B-activation of BEC caused de novo expression of SUR1-TRPM4 channels. In NF-?B-activated BEC: (i) tPA caused opening of SUR1-TRPM4 channels in a plasmin-, PAR1-, TRPC3- and Ca2+-dependent manner; (ii) tPA caused PAR1-dependent secretion of MMP-9; (iii) tonic secretion of MMP-9 by activated BEC was not influenced by SUR1 inhibition; (iv) phasic secretion of MMP-9 induced by tPA or the PAR1-agonist, TFLLR, required functional SUR1-TRPM4 channels, with inhibition of SUR1 decreasing tPA-induced MMP-9 secretion. CONCLUSIONS:tPA induces PAR1-mediated, SUR1-TRPM4-dependent, phasic secretion of MMP-9 from activated brain endothelium.
Project description:Reperfusion exceeded time window may induce ischemia/reperfusion injury, increase hemorrhagic transformation, and deteriorate neurological outcomes in ischemic stroke models. However, the increasing clinical evidences supported that reperfusion even within 6-24?h may salvage ischemic tissue and improve neurological outcomes in selected large vessel occlusion patients, without inducing serious ischemia/reperfusion injury and hemorrhagic transformation. The underlying molecular mechanisms are less clear. In present study, we demonstrated that delayed recanalization at 3?days after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) decreased infarct volumes and improved neurobehavioral deficits in rats, with no increasing animal mortality and intracerebral hemorrhage. Meanwhile, we observed that endogenous neuroprotective agent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) significantly increased in serum after MCAO, but which did not synchronously increase in penumbra due to permanent MCAO. Recanalization dramatically increased the endogenous FGF21 expression on neurons in penumbra after MCAO. We confirmed that FGF21 activated the FGFR1/PI3K/Caspase-3 signaling pathway, which attenuated neuronal apoptosis in penumbra. Conversely, knockdown of FGFR1 via FGFR1 siRNA abolished the anti-apoptotic effects of FGF21, and in part abrogated beneficial effects of recanalization on neurological outcomes. These findings suggested that delayed recanalization at 3?days after MCAO improved neurological outcomes in rats via increasing endogenous FGF21 expression and activating FGFR1/PI3K/Caspase-3 pathway to attenuate neuronal apoptosis in penumbra. Delayed recanalization at 3?days after ischemic stroke onset may be a promising treatment strategy in selected patients.
Project description:TRPM4 is a calcium-activated, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) -modulated, non-selective cation channel that belongs to the family of melastatin-related transient receptor potential (TRPM) channels. Here we present the electron cryo-microscopy structures of the mouse TRPM4 channel with and without ATP. TRPM4 consists of multiple transmembrane and cytosolic domains, which assemble into a three-tiered architecture. The N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain and the C-terminal coiled-coil participate in the tetrameric assembly of the channel; ATP binds at the nucleotide-binding domain and inhibits channel activity. TRPM4 has an exceptionally wide filter but is only permeable to monovalent cations; filter residue Gln973 is essential in defining monovalent selectivity. The S1-S4 domain and the post-S6 TRP domain form the central gating apparatus that probably houses the Ca2+- and PtdIns(4,5)P2-binding sites. These structures provide an essential starting point for elucidating the complex gating mechanisms of TRPM4 and reveal the molecular architecture of the TRPM family.
Project description:Mutation, irregular expression and sustained activation of the Transient Receptor Potential Channel, type Melastatin 4 (TRPM4), have been linked to various cardiovascular diseases. However, much remains unknown about the structure of this important ion channel. Here, we have purified a heterologously expressed TRPM4-eGFP fusion protein and investigated the oligomeric state of TRPM4-eGFP in detergent micelles using crosslinking, native gel electrophoresis, multi-angle laser light scattering and electron microscopy. Our data indicate that TRPM4 is tetrameric, like other TRP channels studied to date. Furthermore, the functionality of liposome reconstituted TRPM4-eGFP was examined using electrophysiology. Single-channel recordings from TRPM4-eGFP proteoliposomes showed inhibition of the channel using Flufenamic acid, a well-established inhibitor of TRPM4, suggesting that the channels are functional upon reconstitution. Our characterisation of the oligomeric structure of TRPM4 and the ability to reconstitute functional channels in liposomes should facilitate future studies into the structure, function and pharmacology of this therapeutically relevant channel.
Project description:Progressive familial heart block type I (PFHBI) is a progressive cardiac bundle branch disease in the His-Purkinje system that exhibits autosomal-dominant inheritance. In 3 branches of a large South African Afrikaner pedigree with an autosomal-dominant form of PFHBI, we identified the mutation c.19G-->A in the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 gene (TRPM4) at chromosomal locus 19q13.3. This mutation predicted the amino acid substitution p.E7K in the TRPM4 amino terminus. TRPM4 encodes a Ca2+-activated nonselective cation (CAN) channel that belongs to the transient receptor potential melastatin ion channel family. Quantitative analysis of TRPM4 mRNA content in human cardiac tissue showed the highest expression level in Purkinje fibers. Cellular expression studies showed that the c.19G-->A missense mutation attenuated deSUMOylation of the TRPM4 channel. The resulting constitutive SUMOylation of the mutant TRPM4 channel impaired endocytosis and led to elevated TRPM4 channel density at the cell surface. Our data therefore revealed a gain-of-function mechanism underlying this type of familial heart block.
Project description:Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can leave patients with memory impairments that may not recover fully. Molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and no treatment is available. The sulfonylurea receptor 1-transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (Sur1-Trpm4) channel plays an important role in acute central nervous system injury. We evaluated upregulation of Sur1-Trpm4 in humans with SAH and, in rat models of SAH, we examined Sur1-Trpm4 upregulation, its role in barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation, and its consequences on spatial learning.We used Förster resonance energy transfer to detect coassociated Sur1 and Trpm4 in human autopsy brains with SAH. We studied rat models of SAH involving filament puncture of the internal carotid artery or injection of blood into the subarachnoid space of the entorhinal cortex. In rats, we used Förster resonance energy transfer and coimmunoprecipitation to detect coassociated Sur1 and Trpm4, we measured immunoglobulin G extravasation and tumor necrosis ? overexpression as measures of barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation, and we assessed spatial learning and memory on days 7 to 19.Sur1-Trpm4 channels were upregulated in humans and rats with SAH. In rats, inhibiting Sur1 using antisense or the selective Sur1 inhibitor glibenclamide reduced SAH-induced immunoglobulin G extravasation and tumor necrosis ? overexpression. In models with entorhinal SAH, rats treated with glibenclamide for 7 days after SAH exhibited better platform search strategies and better performance on incremental and rapid spatial learning than vehicle-treated controls.Sur1-Trpm4 channels are upregulated in humans and rats with SAH. Channel inhibition with glibenclamide may reduce neuroinflammation and the severity of cognitive deficits after SAH.
Project description:Transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is a widely expressed cation channel associated with a variety of cardiovascular disorders. TRPM4 is activated by increased intracellular calcium in a voltage-dependent manner but, unlike many other TRP channels, is permeable to monovalent cations only. Here we present two structures of full-length human TRPM4 embedded in lipid nanodiscs at ~3-angstrom resolution, as determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. These structures, with and without calcium bound, reveal a general architecture for this major subfamily of TRP channels and a well-defined calcium-binding site within the intracellular side of the S1-S4 domain. The structures correspond to two distinct closed states. Calcium binding induces conformational changes that likely prime the channel for voltage-dependent opening.
Project description:Ischemic stroke is among the leading causes of disability and death worldwide. In acute ischemic stroke, the rapid recanalization of occluded cranial vessels is the primary therapeutic aim. However, experimental data (obtained using mostly the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model) indicates that progressive stroke can still develop despite successful recanalization, a process termed "reperfusion injury." Mounting experimental evidence suggests that platelets and T cells contribute to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and ischemic stroke is increasingly considered a thrombo-inflammatory disease. The interaction of von Willebrand factor and its receptor on the platelet surface, glycoprotein Ib, as well as many activatory platelet receptors and platelet degranulation contribute to secondary infarct growth in this setting. In contrast, interference with GPIIb/IIIa-dependent platelet aggregation and thrombus formation does not improve the outcome of acute brain ischemia but dramatically increases the susceptibility to intracranial hemorrhage. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms and the potential translational impact of platelet contributions to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.