ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), playing an essential role in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Here we tested a novel hypothesis that hypoxia-induced RyR-mediated Ca2+ release may, in turn, promote mitochondrial ROS generation contributing to hypoxic cellular responses in PASMCs. Our data reveal that application of caffeine to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by activating RyRs results in a significant increase in ROS production in cytosol and mitochondria of PASMCs. Norepinephrine to increase [Ca2+]i due to the opening of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) produces similar effects. Exogenous Ca2+ significantly increases mitochondrial-derived ROS generation as well. Ru360 also inhibits the hypoxic ROS production. The RyR antagonist tetracaine or RyR2 gene knockout (KO) suppresses hypoxia-induced responses as well. Inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake with Ru360 eliminates N- and Ca2+-induced responses. RISP KD abolishes the hypoxia-induced ROS production in mitochondria of PASMCs. Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) gene knockdown (KD) blocks caffeine- or NE-induced ROS production. Taken together, these findings have further demonstrated that ER Ca2+ release causes mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and RISP-mediated ROS production; this novel local ER/mitochondrion communication-elicited, Ca2+-mediated, RISP-dependent ROS production may play a significant role in hypoxic cellular responses in PASMCs.
Project description:In ventricular myocytes from humans and large mammals, the transverse and axial tubular system (TATS) network is less extensive than in rodents with consequently a greater proportion of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) not coupled to this membrane system. TATS remodelling in heart failure (HF) and after myocardial infarction (MI) increases the fraction of non-coupled RyRs. Here we investigate whether this remodelling alters the activity of coupled and non-coupled RyR sub-populations through changes in local signalling. We study myocytes from patients with end-stage HF, compared with non-failing (non-HF), and myocytes from pigs with MI and reduced left ventricular (LV) function, compared with sham intervention (SHAM).Single LV myocytes for functional studies were isolated according to standard protocols. Immunofluorescent staining visualized organization of TATS and RyRs. Ca2+ was measured by confocal imaging (fluo-4 as indicator) and using whole-cell patch-clamp (37°C). Spontaneous Ca2+ release events, Ca2+ sparks, as a readout for RyR activity were recorded during a 15 s period following conditioning stimulation at 2 Hz. Sparks were assigned to cell regions categorized as coupled or non-coupled sites according to a previously developed method. Human HF myocytes had more non-coupled sites and these had more spontaneous activity than in non-HF. Hyperactivity of these non-coupled RyRs was reduced by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Myocytes from MI pigs had similar changes compared with SHAM controls as seen in human HF myocytes. As well as by CaMKII inhibition, in MI, the increased activity of non-coupled sites was inhibited by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mito-ROS) scavenging. Under adrenergic stimulation, Ca2+ waves were more frequent and originated at non-coupled sites, generating larger Na+/Ca2+ exchange currents in MI than in SHAM. Inhibition of CaMKII or mito-ROS scavenging reduced spontaneous Ca2+ waves, and improved excitation-contraction coupling.In HF and after MI, RyR microdomain re-organization enhances spontaneous Ca2+ release at non-coupled sites in a manner dependent on CaMKII activation and mito-ROS production. This specific modulation generates a substrate for arrhythmia that appears to be responsive to selective pharmacologic modulation.
Project description:Plasmamembrane small conductance Ca2+-activated K+?(SK) channels were implicated in ventricular arrhythmias in infarcted and failing hearts. Recently, SK channels were detected in the inner mitochondria membrane (IMM) (mSK), and their activation protected from acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury by reducing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that mSK play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function in chronic cardiac diseases. We investigated the role of mSK channels in Ca2+-dependent ventricular arrhythmia using rat model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by banding of the ascending aorta thoracic aortic banding (TAB).Dual Ca2+?and membrane potential optical mapping of whole hearts derived from TAB rats revealed that membrane-permeable SK enhancer NS309 (2??M) improved aberrant Ca2+?homeostasis and abolished VT/VF induced by ?-adrenergic stimulation. Using whole cell patch-clamp and confocal Ca2+?imaging of cardiomyocytes derived from TAB hearts (TCMs) we found that membrane-permeable SK enhancers NS309 and CyPPA (10??M) attenuated frequency of spontaneous Ca2+?waves and delayed afterdepolarizations. Furthermore, mSK inhibition enhanced (UCL-1684, 1??M); while activation reduced mitochondrial ROS production in TCMs measured with MitoSOX. Protein oxidation assays demonstrated that increased oxidation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in TCMs was reversed by SK enhancers. Experiments in permeabilized TCMs showed that SK enhancers restored SR Ca2+?content, suggestive of substantial improvement in RyR function.These data suggest that enhancement of mSK channels in hypertrophic rat hearts protects from Ca2+-dependent arrhythmia and suggest that the protection is mediated via decreased mitochondrial ROS and subsequent decreased oxidation of reactive cysteines in RyR, which ultimately leads to stabilization of RyR-mediated Ca2+?release.
Project description:CD38 is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the endogenous Ca(2+)-mobilizing messengers cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) for the activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) of sarcoplasmic reticulum and NAADP-sensitive Ca(2+) release channels in endolysosomes, respectively. It plays important roles in systemic vascular functions, but there is little information on CD38 in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Earlier studies suggested a redox-sensing role of CD38 in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. This study sought to characterize its roles in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced Ca(2+) release (AICR) in PASMCs. Examination of CD38 expression in various rat arteries found high levels of CD38 mRNA and protein in pulmonary arteries. The Ang II-elicited Ca(2+) response consisted of extracellular Ca(2+) influx and intracellular Ca(2+) release in PASMCs. AICR activated in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) was reduced by pharmacological or siRNA inhibition of CD38, by the cADPR antagonist 8-bromo-cADPR or ryanodine, and by the NAADP antagonist Ned-19 or disruption of endolysosomal Ca(2+) stores with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Suppression of AICR by the inhibitions of cADPR- and NAADP-dependent pathways were nonadditive, indicating interdependence of RyR- and NAADP-gated Ca(2+) release. Furthermore, AICR was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine, the nonspecific NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium, the NOX2-specific inhibitor gp91ds-tat, and the scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) tempol. These results provide the first evidence that Ang II activates CD38-dependent Ca(2+) release via the NOX2-ROS pathway in PASMCs.
Project description:The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in the O(2) sensing mechanism underlying acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) has been controversial. Although mitochondria are important sources of ROS, studies using chemical inhibitors have yielded conflicting results, whereas cellular models using genetic suppression have precluded in vivo confirmation. Hence, genetic animal models are required to test mechanistic hypotheses.We tested whether mitochondrial Complex III is required for the ROS signaling and vasoconstriction responses to acute hypoxia in pulmonary arteries (PA).A mouse permitting Cre-mediated conditional deletion of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) of Complex III was generated. Adenoviral Cre recombinase was used to delete RISP from isolated PA vessels or smooth muscle cells (PASMC).In PASMC, RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced increases in ROS signaling in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and cytosol, and it abrogated hypoxia-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i). In isolated PA vessels, RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced ROS signaling in the cytosol. Breeding the RISP mice with transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-activated Cre in smooth muscle permitted the depletion of RISP in PASMC in vivo. Precision-cut lung slices from those mice revealed that RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) of the PA. In vivo RISP depletion in smooth muscle attenuated the acute hypoxia-induced increase in right ventricular systolic pressure in anesthetized mice.Acute hypoxia induces superoxide release from Complex III of smooth muscle cells. These oxidant signals diffuse into the cytosol and trigger increases in [Ca(2+)](i) that cause acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.
Project description:Recent studies have implicated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), but controversy exists regarding whether hypoxia increases or decreases ROS generation.This study tested the hypothesis that hypoxia induces redox changes that differ among subcellular compartments in pulmonary (PASMCs) and systemic (SASMCs) smooth muscle cells.We used a novel, redox-sensitive, ratiometric fluorescent protein sensor (RoGFP) to assess the effects of hypoxia on redox signaling in cultured PASMCs and SASMCs. Using genetic targeting sequences, RoGFP was expressed in the cytosol (Cyto-RoGFP), the mitochondrial matrix (Mito-RoGFP), or the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS-RoGFP), allowing assessment of oxidant signaling in distinct intracellular compartments. Superfusion of PASMCs or SASMCs with hypoxic media increased oxidation of both Cyto-RoGFP and IMS-RoGFP. However, hypoxia decreased oxidation of Mito-RoGFP in both cell types. The hypoxia-induced oxidation of Cyto-RoGFP was attenuated through the overexpression of cytosolic catalase in PASMCs.These results indicate that hypoxia causes a decrease in nonspecific ROS generation in the matrix compartment, whereas it increases regulated ROS production in the IMS, which diffuses to the cytosol of both PASMCs and SASMCs.
Project description:KEY POINTS:Using 3D direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), we developed novel approaches to quantitatively describe the nanoscale, 3D organization of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in cardiomyocytes. Complex arrangements of RyR clusters were observed in 3D space, both at the cell surface and within the cell interior, with allocation to dyadic and non-dyadic pools. 3D imaging importantly allowed discernment of clusters overlapping in the z-axis, for which detection was obscured by conventional 2D imaging techniques. Thus, RyR clusters were found to be significantly smaller than previous 2D estimates. Ca2+ release units (CRUs), i.e. functional groupings of neighbouring RyR clusters, were similarly observed to be smaller than earlier reports. Internal CRUs contained more RyRs in more clusters than CRUs on the cell surface, and yielded longer duration Ca2+ sparks. ABSTRACT:Cardiomyocyte contraction is dependent on Ca2+ release from ryanodine receptors (RyRs). However, the precise localization of RyRs remains unknown, due to shortcomings of imaging techniques which are diffraction limited or restricted to 2D. We aimed to determine the 3D nanoscale organization of RyRs in rat cardiomyocytes by employing direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) with phase ramp technology. Initial observations at the cell surface showed an undulating organization of RyR clusters, resulting in their frequent overlap in the z-axis and obscured detection by 2D techniques. Non-overlapping clusters were imaged to create a calibration curve for estimating RyR number based on recorded fluorescence blinks. Employing this method at the cell surface and interior revealed smaller RyR clusters than 2D estimates, as erroneous merging of axially aligned RyRs was circumvented. Functional groupings of RyR clusters (Ca2+ release units, CRUs), contained an average of 18 and 23 RyRs at the surface and interior, respectively, although half of all CRUs contained only a single 'rogue' RyR. Internal CRUs were more tightly packed along z-lines than surface CRUs, contained larger and more numerous RyR clusters, and constituted ?75% of the roughly 1 million RyRs present in an average cardiomyocyte. This complex internal 3D geometry was underscored by correlative imaging of RyRs and t-tubules, which enabled quantification of dyadic and non-dyadic RyR populations. Mirroring differences in CRU size and complexity, Ca2+ sparks originating from internal CRUs were of longer duration than those at the surface. These data provide novel, nanoscale insight into RyR organization and function across cardiomyocytes.
Project description:The heart contraction is controlled by the Ca2+-induced Ca2+?release (CICR) between L-type Ca2+?channels and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). The FK506-binding protein FKBP12.6 binds to RyR subunits, but its role in stabilizing RyR function has been debated for long. Recent reports of high-resolution RyR structure show that the HD2 domain that binds to the SPRY2 domain of neighbouring subunit in FKBP-bound RyR1 is detached and invisible in FKBP-null RyR2. The present study was to test the consequence of FKBP12.6 absence on the in situ activation of RyR2.Using whole-cell patch-clamp combined with confocal imaging, we applied a near threshold depolarization to activate a very small fraction of LCCs, which in turn activated RyR Ca2+?sparks stochastically. FKBP12.6-knockout and FK506/rapamycin treatments increased spark frequency and LCC-RyR coupling fidelity without altering LCC open probability. Neither FK506 nor rapamycin further altered LCC-RyR coupling fidelity in FKBP12.6-knockout cells. In loose-seal patch-clamp experiments, the LCC-RyR signalling kinetics, indexed by the delay for a LCC sparklet to trigger a RyR spark, was accelerated after FKBP12.6 knockout and FK506/rapamycin treatments. These results demonstrated that RyRs became more sensitive to Ca2+?triggers without FKBP12.6. Isoproterenol (1??M) further accelerated the LCC-RyR signalling in FKBP12.6-knockout cells. The synergistic sensitization of RyRs by catecholaminergic signalling and FKBP12.6 dysfunction destabilized the CICR system, leading to chaotic Ca2+?waves and ventricular arrhythmias.FKBP12.6 keeps the RyRs from over-sensitization, stabilizes the potentially regenerative CICR system, and thus may suppress the life-threatening arrhythmogenesis.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondria are locally coupled to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release in myoblasts and to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release in differentiated muscle fibers in order to regulate cytoplasmic calcium dynamics and match metabolism with cell activity. However, the mechanism of the developmental transition from ER to SR coupling remains unclear. We have studied mitochondrial sensing of IP3 receptor (IP3R)- and ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated Ca2+ signals in H9c2 myoblasts and differentiating myotubes, as well as the attendant changes in mitochondrial morphology. Mitochondria in myoblasts were largely elongated, luminally connected and relatively few in number, whereas the myotubes were densely packed with globular mitochondria that displayed limited luminal continuity. Vasopressin, an IP3-linked agonist, evoked a large cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) increase in myoblasts, whereas it elicited a smaller response in myotubes. Conversely, RyR-mediated Ca2+ release induced by caffeine, was not observed in myoblasts, but triggered a large [Ca2+]c signal in myotubes. Both the IP3R and the RyR-mediated [Ca2+]c rise was closely associated with a mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) signal. Every myotube that showed a [Ca2+]c spike also displayed a [Ca2+]m response. Addition of IP3 to permeabilized myoblasts and caffeine to permeabilized myotubes also resulted in a rapid [Ca2+]m rise, indicating that Ca2+ was delivered via local coupling of the ER/SR and mitochondria. Thus, as RyRs are expressed during muscle differentiation, the local connection between RyR and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake sites also appears. When RyR1 was exogenously introduced to myoblasts by overexpression, the [Ca2+]m signal appeared together with the [Ca2+]c signal, however the mitochondrial morphology remained unchanged. Thus, RyR expression alone is sufficient to induce the steps essential for their alignment with mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake sites, whereas the mitochondrial proliferation and reshaping utilize either downstream or alternative pathways.
Project description:In cardiac myocytes, clusters of type-2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via a positive feedback mechanism in which fluxed Ca2+ activates nearby RyRs. Although the general principles of this are understood, less is known about how single-RyR gating properties define the RyR group dynamics in an array of many channels. Here, we examine this using simulations with three models of RyR gating that have identical open probabilities: the commonly used two-state Markov gating model, one that utilizes multiple exponentials to fit single-channel open time (OT) and closed time (CT) distributions, and an extension of this multiexponential model that also includes experimentally measured correlations between single-channel OTs and CTs. The simulations of RyR clusters that utilize the multiexponential gating model produce infrequent Ca2+ release events with relatively few open RyRs. Ca2+ release events become even smaller when OT/CT correlations are included. This occurs because the correlations produce a small but consistent bias against recruiting more RyRs to open during the middle of a Ca2+ release event, between the initiation and termination phases (which are unaltered compared to the uncorrelated simulations). In comparison, the two-state model produces frequent, large, and long Ca2+ release events because it had a recruitment bias in favor of opening more RyRs. This difference stems from the two-state model's single-RyR OT and CT distributions being qualitatively different from the experimental ones. Thus, the details of single-RyR gating can profoundly affect SR Ca2+ release even if open probability and mean OTs and CTs are identical. We also show that Ca2+ release events can terminate spontaneously without any reduction in SR [Ca2+], luminal regulation, Ca2+-dependent inactivation, or physical coupling between RyRs when Ca2+ flux is below a threshold value. This supports and extends the pernicious attrition/induction decay hypothesis that SR Ca2+ release events terminate below a threshold Ca2+ flux.
Project description:Calexcitin (CE), a Ca2+- and GTP-binding protein, which is phosphorylated during memory consolidation, is shown here to co-purify with ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and bind to RyRs in a calcium-dependent manner. Nanomolar concentrations of CE released up to 46% of the 45Ca label from microsomes preloaded with 45CaCl2. This release was Ca2+-dependent and was blocked by antibodies against the RyR or CE, by the RyR inhibitor dantrolene, and by a seven-amino-acid peptide fragment corresponding to positions 4689-4697 of the RyR, but not by heparin, an Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor antagonist. Anti-CE antibodies, in the absence of added CE, also blocked Ca2+ release elicited by ryanodine, suggesting that the CE and ryanodine binding sites were in relative proximity. Calcium imaging with bis-fura-2 after loading CE into hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices revealed slow, local calcium transients independent of membrane depolarization. Calexcitin also released Ca2+ from liposomes into which purified RyR had been incorporated, indicating that CE binding can be a proximate cause of Ca2+ release. These results indicated that CE bound to RyRs and suggest that CE may be an endogenous modulator of the neuronal RyR.