In vitro study of cartilage tissue engineering using human adipose-derived stem cells induced by platelet-rich plasma and cultured on silk fibroin scaffold.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising technique for repairing cartilage defect. Due to the limitation of cell number and proliferation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been developed as a substitute to chondrocytes as a cartilage cell-source. This study aimed to develop cartilage tissue from human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) cultured on a Bombyx mori silk fibroin scaffold and supplemented with 10% platelet-rich plasma (PRP). METHODS:Human ADSCs and PRP were characterized. A silk fibroin scaffold with 500??m pore size was fabricated through salt leaching. ADSCs were then cultured on the scaffold (ADSC-SS) and supplemented with 10% PRP for 21?days to examine cell proliferation, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and surface marker expression. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and type 1 collagen was analysed. The presence of type 2 collagen confirming chondrogenesis was validated using immunocytochemistry. The negative and positive controls were ADSC-SS supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and ADSC-SS supplemented with commercial chondrogenesis medium, respectively. RESULTS:Cells isolated from adipose tissue were characterized as ADSCs. Proliferation of the ADSC-SS PRP was significantly increased (p?
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been isolated, expanded, and applied in the treatment of many diseases. ADSCs have also been used to treat injured articular cartilage. However, there is controversy regarding the treatment efficiency. We considered that ADSC transplantation with activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may improve injured articular cartilage compared with that of ADSC transplantation alone. In this study, we determined the role of PRP in ADSC transplantation to improve the treatment efficiency. METHODS:ADSCs were isolated and expanded from human adipose tissue. PRP was collected and activated from human peripheral blood. The effects of PRP were evaluated in vitro and in ADSC transplantation in vivo. In vitro, the effects of PRP on ADSC proliferation, differentiation into chondrogenic cells, and inhibition of angiogenic factors were investigated at three concentrations of PRP (10%, 15% and 20%). In vivo, ADSCs pretreated with or without PRP were transplanted into murine models of injured articular cartilage. RESULTS:PRP promoted ADSC proliferation and differentiation into chondrogenic cells that strongly expressed collagen II, Sox9 and aggrecan. Moreover, PRP inhibited expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor. As a result, PRP-pretreated ADSCs improved healing of injured articular cartilage in murine models compared with that of untreated ADSCs. CONCLUSION:Pretreatment of ADSCs with PRP is a simple method to efficiently apply ADSCs in cartilage regeneration. This study provides an important step toward the use of autologous ADSCs in the treatment of injured articular cartilage.
Project description:Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue with limited regenerative property. Therefore, a defect or trauma in articular cartilage due to disease or accident can lead to progressive tissue deterioration. Cartilage tissue engineering, by replacing defective cartilage tissue, is a method for repairing such a problem. In this research, three main aspects-cell, biomaterial scaffold, and bioactive factors-that support tissue engineering study were optimized. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) that become cartilage were grown in an optimized growth medium supplemented with either platelet rich plasma (PRP) or L-ascorbic acid (LAA). As the characterization result, the ADSC used in this experiment could be classified as Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) based on multipotency analysis and cell surface marker analysis. The biomaterial scaffold was fabricated from the Bombyx morii cocoon using silk fibroin by salt leaching method and was engineered to form different sizes of pores to provide optimized support for cell adhesion and growth. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity evaluation was done using MTT assay to optimize silk fibroin concentration and pore size. Characterized ADSC were grown on the optimized scaffold. LAA and PRP were chosen as bioactive factors to induce ADSC differentiation to become chondrocytes. The concentration optimization of LAA and PRP was analyzed by cell proliferation using MTT assay and chondrogenic differentiation by measuring glycosaminoglycan (GAG) using Alcian Blue at 605 nm wavelength. The optimum silk fibroin concentration, pore size, LAA concentration, and PRP concentration were used to grow and differentiate characterized ADSC for 7, 14, and 21 days. The cell morphology on the scaffold was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result showed that the ADSC could adhere on plastic, express specific cell surface markers (CD73, CD90, and CD105), and could be differentiated into three types of mature cells. The silk fibroin scaffold made from 12% w/v concentration formed a 500 µm pore diameter (SEM analysis), and was shown by MTT assay to be biocompatible and to facilitate cell growth. The optimum concentrations of the bioactive factors LAA and PRP were 50 µg/mL and 10%, respectively. GAG analysis with Alcian Blue staining suggested that PRP induction medium and LAA induction medium on 12% w/v scaffold could effectively promote not only cell adhesion and cell proliferation but also chondrogenic differentiation of ADSC within 21 days of culture. Therefore, this study provides a new approach to articular tissue engineering with a combination of ADSC as cell source, LAA and PRP as bioactive factors, and silk fibroin as a biocompatible and biodegradable scaffold.
Project description:In this research, hWJ-MSCs were grown on silk scaffolds and induced towards chondrogenesis by supplementation with L-ascorbic acid (LAA) or platelet rich plasma (PRP). Silk scaffolds were fabricated with salt leaching method by mixing silk fibroin (SF) with silk spidroin (SS). The silk fibroin was obtained from Bombyx mori cocoon that had been degummed, and the silk spidroin was obtained from wild-type spider Argiope appensa. The effect of scaffold composition and inducer on cell proliferation was observed through MTT assay. The most optimal treatment then continued to be used to induce hWJ-MSC towards chondrogenic differentiation for 7 and 21 days. Scaffolds characterization showed that the scaffolds produced had 3D structure with interconnected pores, and all were biocompatible with hWJ-MSCs. Scaffold with the addition of 10% SS?+?90% SF showed higher compressive strength and better pore interconnectivity in comparison to 100% silk fibroin scaffold. After 48 h, cells seeded on scaffold with spidroin and fibroin mix had flattened morphology in comparison to silk fibroin scaffold which appeared to be more rounded on the scaffold surface. Scaffold with 10% (w/w) of silk spidroin (SS)?+?90% (w/w) of silk fibroin (SF) was the most optimal composition for cell proliferation. Immunocytochemistry of integrin ?1 and RGD sequence, showed that scaffold with SS 10% provide better cell attachment with the presence of RGD sequence from the spidroin silk which could explain the higher cell proliferation than SF100% scaffold. Based on Alcian Blue staining and Collagen Type II immunocytochemistry (ICC), cells grown on 10% SS?+?90% SF scaffold with 10% PRP supplementation were the most optimal to support chondrogenesis of hWJ-MSCs. These results showed that the addition of spidroin silk from A. appensa. had impact on scaffold compressive strength and chondrogenic differentiation of hWJ-MSC and had the potential for further development of bio-based material scaffold in cartilage tissue engineering.
Project description:Adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) can repair auricular cartilage defects. Furthermore, stem cell secretome may also be a promising biological therapeutic option, which is equal to or even superior to the stem cell. We explored the therapeutic efficacies of ADSCs and their secretome in terms of rabbit auricular cartilage regeneration. ADSCs and their secretome were placed into surgically created auricular cartilage defects. After 4 and 8 weeks, the resected auricles were histopathologically and immunohistochemically examined. We used real-time PCR to determine the levels of genes expressing collagen type II, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). ADSCs significantly improved auricular cartilage regeneration at 4 and 8 weeks, compared to the secretome and PBS groups, as revealed by gross examination, histopathologically and immunohistochemically. ADSCs upregulated the expression of collagen type II, TGF-?1, and IGF-1 more so than did the secretome or PBS. The expression levels of collagen type II and IGF-1 were significantly higher at 8 weeks than at 4 weeks after ADSC injection. Although ADSCs thus significantly enhanced new cartilage formation, their secretome did not. Therefore, ADSCs may be more effective than their secretome in the repair of auricular cartilage defect.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Synthetic implants are being used to restore injured or damaged tissues following cancer resection and congenital diseases. However, the survival of large tissue implant replacements depends on their ability to support angiogenesis that if limited, causes extrusion and infection of the implant. This study assessed the beneficial effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on synthetic biomaterials in combination with argon plasma surface modification to enhance vascularisation of tissue-engineered constructs. METHODS:Non-biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds were manufactured and modified with plasma surface modification using argon gas (PM). Donor rats were then used to extract ADSCs and PRP to modify the scaffolds further. Scaffolds with and without PM were modified with and without ADSCs and PRP and subcutaneously implanted in the dorsum of rats for 3 months. After 12 weeks, the scaffolds were excised and the degree of tissue integration using H&E staining and Masson's trichrome staining, angiogenesis by CD31 and immune response by CD45 and CD68 immunohistochemistry staining was examined. RESULTS:H&E and Masson's trichrome staining showed PM+PRP+ADSC and PM+ADSC scaffolds had the greatest tissue integration, but there was no significant difference between the two scaffolds (p < 0.05). The greatest vessel formation after 3 months was shown with PM+PRP+ADSC and PM+ADSC scaffolds using CD31 staining compared to all other scaffolds (p < 0.05). The CD45 and CD68 staining was similar between all scaffolds after 3 months showing the ADSCs or PRP had no effect on the immune response of the scaffolds. CONCLUSIONS:Argon plasma surface modification enhanced the effect of adipose-derived stem cells effect on angiogenesis and tissue integration of polyurethane scaffolds. The combination of ADSCs and argon plasma modification may improve the survival of large tissue implants for regenerative applications.
Project description:Bone and cartilage craniofacial defects due to trauma or congenital deformities pose a difficult problem for reconstructive surgeons. Human adipose stem cells (ADSCs) can differentiate into bone and cartilage and together with suitable scaffolds could provide a promising system for skeletal tissue engineering. It has been suggested that nanomaterials can direct cell behavior depending on their surface nanotopographies. Thus, this study examined whether by altering a nanoscaffold surface using radiofrequency to excite gases, argon (Ar), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) with a single step technique, we could enhance the osteogenic and chondrogenic potential of ADSCs. At 24?h, Ar modification promoted the highest increase in ADSCs adhesion as indicated by upregulation of vinculin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression compared to O2 and N2 scaffolds. Furthermore, ADSCs on Ar-modified nanocomposite polymer POSS-PCU scaffolds upregulated expression of bone markers, alkaline phosphatase, collagen I and osteocalcin after 3?weeks. Cartilage markers, aggrecan and collagen II, were also upregulated on Ar-modified scaffolds at the mRNA and protein level. Finally, all plasma treated scaffolds supported tissue ingrowth and angiogenesis after grafting onto the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Ar promoted greater expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and laminin in ovo compared to O2 and N2 scaffolds as shown by immunohistochemistry. This study provides an important understanding into which surface chemistries best support the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs that could be harnessed for regenerative skeletal applications. Argon surface modification is a simple tool that can promote ADSC skeletal differentiation that is easily amenable to translation into clinical practice.
Project description:Human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are being explored for the repair of craniofacial defects due to their multi-differentiation potential and ease of isolation and expansion. Crucial to using ADSCs for craniofacial repair is the availability of materials with appropriate biomechanical properties that can support their differentiation into bone and cartilage. We tested the hypothesis that different modifications of chemical groups on the surface of a nanocomposite polymer could increase human ADSC adhesion and selectively enhance their osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. We show that the COOH modification significantly promoted initial cell adhesion and proliferation over 14days compared to NH2 surfaces. Expression of focal adhesion kinase and vinculin was enhanced after plasma surface polymerisation at 24h. The COOH modification significantly enhanced chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by up-regulation of aggrecan and collagen II transcripts. In contrast, NH2 group functionalised scaffolds promoted osteogenic differentiation with significantly enhanced expression of collagen I, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin both at the gene and protein level. Finally, chorioallantoic membrane grafting demonstrated that both NH2 and COOH functionalised scaffolds seeded with ADSCs were biocompatible and supported vessel ingrowth apparently to a greater degree than unmodified scaffolds. In summary, our study shows the ability to direct ADSC chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation by deposition of different chemical groups through plasma surface polymerisation. Hence this approach could be used to selectively enhance bone or cartilage formation before implantation in vivo to repair skeletal defects.Human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are an exciting stem cell source for regenerative medicine due to their plentiful supply and ease of isolation. However, the optimal environmental cues to direct stem cells towards certain lineages change have to has not been identified. We have shown that by modifying the surface of the scaffold with specific chemical groups using plasma surface polymerisation techniques we can control ADSCs differentiation. This study shows that ADSCs can be differentiated towards osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages on amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) modified scaffolds respectively. Plasma polymerisation can be easily applied to other biomaterial surfaces to direct stem cell differentiation for the regeneration of bone and cartilage.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapy is a promising avenue for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular injections of culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced rat OA model. The paracrine effects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unmatched ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Rats were divided into an OA group that underwent ACLT surgery and a sham-operated group that did not undergo ACLT surgery. Four weeks after surgery mild OA was induced in the OA group. Subsequently, the OA rats were randomly divided into ADSC and control groups. A single dose of 1 × 106 ADSCs suspended in 60 ?L phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was intra-articularly injected into the rats of the ADSC group. The control group received only 60 ?L PBS. OA progression was evaluated macroscopically and histologically at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. ADSC treatment did not cause any adverse local or systemic reactions. The degeneration of articular cartilage was significantly weaker in the ADSC group compared to that in the control group at both 8 and 12 weeks. Chondrocytes were co-cultured with MHC-unmatched ADSCs in trans-wells to assess the paracrine effects of ADSCs on chondrocytes. Co-culture with ADSCs counteracted the IL-1?-induced mRNA upregulation of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 in chondrocytes. Importantly, ADSCs increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chondrocytes. The results of this study indicated that the intra-articular injection of culture-expanded allogenic ADSCs attenuated cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat OA model without inducing any adverse reactions. MHC-unmatched ADSCs protected chondrocytes from inflammatory factor-induced damage. The paracrine effects of ADSCs on OA chondrocytes are at least part of the mechanism by which ADSCs exert their therapeutic activity.
Project description:Objectives:Homosapien collagen beta (1-O) galactosyl transferase 2 (COLGALT2) is an important enzyme during collagen glycosylation, yet its biological functions in cancer are incompletely understood. Our previous study revealed that in the osteosarcoma microenvironment, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) demonstrate cancer-promoting effects, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of COLGALT2 in the osteosarcoma-fostering effects of ADSCs. Materials and Methods:In this study, we compared COLGALT2 expression between primary and metastatic osteosarcoma tissues and found that metastatic tissues expressed significantly higher COLGALT2 levels. Then, we isolated and identified exosomes secreted by ADSCs. Additionally, we assessed the roles of ADSC exosomes and COLGALT2 in the osteosarcoma-promoting effects of ADSCs. Results:Our results showed that ADSC exosomes could foster the invasion, migration, and proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, together with increasing COLGALT2 expression. COLGALT2 inhibition in MG63 cells suppressed the ADSC exosome-mediated fostering of osteosarcoma cell invasion, migration and proliferation in vitro. Conversely, COLGALT2 overexpression promoted U-2OS cell invasion, migration and proliferation in vitro. Additionally, COLGALT2 inhibition attenuated metastasis and tumor growth, and ADSC exosomes promoted tumor progression, as demonstrated in a nude mouse model of osteosarcoma. Conclusion:According to these data, ADSC exosomes foster osteosarcoma progression by increasing COLGALT2 expression in osteosarcoma cells.
Project description:Stem cells hold great promise for treating cartilage degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). The efficacy of stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair is highly dependent on their interactions with local cells in the joint. This study aims at evaluating the interactions between osteoarthritic chondrocytes (OACs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) using three dimensional (3D) biomimetic hydrogels. To examine the effects of cell distribution on such interactions, ADSCs and OACs were co-cultured in 3D using three co-culture models: conditioned medium (CM), bi-layered, and mixed co-culture with varying cell ratios. Furthermore, the effect of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?3 supplementation on ADSC-OAC interactions and the resulting cartilage formation was examined. Outcomes were analyzed using quantitative gene expression, cell proliferation, cartilage matrix production, and histology. TGF-?3 supplementation led to a substantial increase in cartilage matrix depositions in all groups, but had differential effects on OAC-ADSC interactions in different co-culture models. In the absence of TGF-?3, CM or bi-layered co-culture had negligible effects on gene expression or cartilage formation. With TGF-?3 supplementation, CM and bi-layered co-culture inhibited cartilage formation by both ADSCs and OACs. In contrast, a mixed co-culture with moderate OAC ratios (25% and 50%) resulted in synergistic interactions with enhanced cartilage matrix deposition and reduced catabolic marker expression. Our results suggested that the interaction between OACs and ADSCs is highly dependent on cell distribution in 3D and soluble factors, which should be taken into consideration when designing stem cell-based therapy for treating OA patients.