Deaminative Arylation of Amino Acid-derived Pyridinium Salts.
ABSTRACT: A Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of ?-pyridinium esters and arylboroxines has been developed. Combined with formation of the pyridinium salts from amino acid derivatives, this method enables amino acid derivatives to be efficiently transformed into ?-aryl esters and amides. Under the mild conditions, broad functional group tolerance on both the amino acid derivatives and the arylboroxine are observed, including protic functional groups. Mechanistic studies support an alkyl radical intermediate, similar to other cross-couplings of alkylpyridinium salts.
Project description:A nickel-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling of alkylpyridinium salts and aryl bromides has been developed using Mn as the reductant. Both primary and secondary alkylpyridinium salts can be used, and high functional group and heterocycle tolerance is observed, including for protic groups. Mechanistic studies indicate the formation of an alkyl radical, and controlling its fate was key to the success of this reaction.
Project description:A Negishi cross-coupling of alkylpyridinium salts and alkylzinc halides has been developed. This is the first example of alkyl-alkyl bond formation via cross-coupling of an alkyl amine derivative with an unactivated alkyl group, and allows both primary and secondary alkylpyridinium salts to react with primary alkylzinc halides with high functional group tolerance. When combined with formation of the pyridinium salts from primary amines, this method enables the noncanonical transformation of NH2 groups into a wide range of alkyl substituents with broad functional group tolerance.
Project description:The reductive cross-coupling of sp3-hybridized carbon centers represents great synthetic values and insurmountable challenges. In this work, we report a nickel-catalyzed deaminative cross-electrophile coupling reaction to construct C(sp)─C(sp3), C(sp2)─C(sp3), and C(sp3)─C(sp3) bonds. A wide range of coupling partners including aryl iodides, bromoalkynes, or alkyl bromides are stitched with alkylpyridinium salts that derived from the corresponding primary amines. The advantages of this methodology are showcased in the two-step synthesis of the key lactonic moiety of (+)-compactin and (+)-mevinolin. The one-pot procedure without isolation of alkylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate salt is also proven to be successful. This cross-coupling strategy of two electrophiles provides a highly valuable vista for the convenient installation of alkyl substituents and late functionalizations of sp3 carbons.
Project description:Described is a cross-electrophilic, deaminative coupling strategy harnessing Katritzky salts as a new species of electrophile in Ni/photoredox dual catalytic reductive cross-coupling reactions. Distinguishing features of this arylation protocol include its mild reaction conditions, high chemoselectivity, and adaptability to a variety of complex substrates [i.e., pyridinium salts derived from amines and partners derived from (hetero)aryl bromides].
Project description:Pyridinium ylides are well recognized as dipoles for cycloaddition reactions. In its turn, the microwave-assisted interaction of N-(cyanomethyl)-2-alkylpyridinium salts with enaminones unexpectedly proceeds as a domino sequence of cycloisomerization and cyclocondensation reactions, instead of a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The reaction takes place in the presence of sodium acetate as base and employs benign solvents. The optical properties of the resulting pyrido[2,3-b]indolizines were studied, showing green light emission with high fluorescence quantum yields.
Project description:The use of pyridinium-activated primary amines as photoactive functional groups for deaminative generation of alkyl radicals under catalyst-free conditions is described. By taking advantage of the visible light absorptivity of electron donor-acceptor complexes between Katritzky pyridinium salts and either Hantzsch ester or Et3 N, photoinduced single-electron transfer could be initiated in the absence of a photocatalyst. This general reactivity platform has been applied to deaminative alkylation (Giese), allylation, vinylation, alkynylation, thioetherification, and hydrodeamination reactions. The mild conditions are amenable to a diverse range of primary and secondary alkyl pyridiniums and demonstrate broad functional group tolerance.
Project description:A ruthenium-catalyzed photoredox coupling of substituted N-aryltetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) and different bench-stable pyridinium salts was successfully developed to give fast access to 1-benzyl-THIQs. Furthermore, secondary alkyl and allyl groups were also successfully introduced via the same method. Additionally, the typically applied N-phenyl group in the THIQ substrate could be replaced by the cleavable p-methoxyphenyl (PMP) group and successful N-deprotection was demonstrated.
Project description:An efficient, simple, and metal-free synthetic approach for the N- and O-benzoylation of various amines/benzyl alcohols with pyridinium salts of phenacyl bromides is demonstrated to generate the corresponding amides and esters. This protocol facilitates the oxidative cleavage of a C-C bond followed by formation of a new C-N/C-O bond in the presence of K2CO3. Various pyridinium salts of phenacyl bromides can be readily transformed into a variety of amides and esters which is an alternative method for the conventional amidation and esterification in organic synthesis. High functional group tolerance, broad substrate scope and operational simplicity are the prominent advantages of the current protocol.
Project description:A method for the synthesis of benzylsilanes starting from the corresponding ammonium triflates is reported. Silyl boronic esters are employed as silicon pronucleophiles, and the reaction is catalyzed by copper(I) salts. Enantioenriched benzylic ammonium salts react stereospecifically through an SN 2-type displacement of the ammonium group to afford ?-chiral silanes with inversion of the configuration. A cyclopropyl-substituted substrate does not undergo ring opening, thus suggesting an ionic reaction mechanism with no benzyl radical intermediate.
Project description:The design of nanoparticle delivery materials possessing biological activities is an attractive strategy for the development of various therapies. In this study, 11 cationic amphiphilic 4-(N-alkylpyridinium)-1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) derivatives differing in alkyl chain length and propargyl moiety/ties number and position were selected for the study of their self-assembling properties, evaluation of their cytotoxicity in vitro and toxicity on microorganisms, and the characterisation of their interaction with phospholipids. These lipid-like 1,4-DHPs have been earlier proposed as promising nanocarriers for DNA delivery. We have revealed that the mean diameter of freshly prepared nanoparticles varied from 58 to 513 nm, depending upon the 4-(N-alkylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP structure. Additionally, we have confirmed that only nanoparticles formed by 4-(N-dodecylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP derivatives 3 and 6, and by 4-(N-hexadecylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP derivatives 10 and 11 were stable after two weeks of storage. The nanoparticles of these compounds were found to be homogenous in size distribution, ranging from 124 to 221 nm. The polydispersity index (PDI) values of 1,4-DHPs samples 3, 6, 10, and 11 were in the range of 0.10 to 0.37. We also demonstrated that the nanoparticles formed by 4-(N-dodecylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP derivatives 3, 6, and 9, and 4-(N-hexadecylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP derivatives 10 and 11 had zeta-potentials from +26.07 mV (compound 6) to +62.80 mV (compound 11), indicating a strongly positive surface charge and confirming the relative electrostatic stability of these nanoparticle solutions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nanoaggregates formed by 1,4-DHPs 3 and 11 confirmed liposome-like structures with diameters around 70 to 170 nm. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) value interval for 4-(N-alkylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP was from 7.6 µM (compound 11) to 43.3 µM (compound 6). The tested 4-(N-alkylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP derivatives were able to quench the fluorescence of the binary 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) system, demonstrating hydrophobic interactions of 1,4-DHPs with phospholipids. Thus, 4-(N-dodecylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP derivative 3 quenched the fluorescence of the DPH⁻DPPC system more efficiently than the other 4-(N-alkylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP derivatives. Likewise the compound 3, also 4-(N-dodecylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP derivative 9 interacted with the phospholipids. Moreover, we have established that increasing the length of the alkyl chain at the quaternised nitrogen of the 4-(N-alkylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP molecule or the introduction of propargyl moieties in the 1,4-DHP molecule significantly influences the cytotoxicity on HT-1080 (human fibrosarcoma) and MH-22A (mouse hepatocarcinoma) cell lines, as well as the estimated basal cytotoxicity. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the toxicity of the 4-(N-alkylpyridinium)-1,4-DHP derivatives on the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria species and eukaryotic microorganism depended on the presence of the alkyl chain length at the N-alkyl pyridinium moiety, as well as the number of propargyl groups. These lipid-like compounds may be proposed for the further development of drug formulations to be used in cancer treatment.