Prognostic Biomarkers for Gastric Cancer: An Umbrella Review of the Evidence.
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Biomarkers are biological molecules entirely or partially participating in cancerous processes that function as measurable indicators of abnormal changes in the human body microenvironment. Aiming to provide an overview of associations between prognostic biomarkers and gastric cancer (GC), we performed this umbrella review analyzing currently available meta-analyses and grading the evidence depending on the credibility of their associations. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted by two independent investigators of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Databases to identify meta-analyses investigating associations between prognostic biomarkers and GC. The strength of evidence for prognostic biomarkers for GC were categorized into four grades: strong, highly suggestive, suggestive, and weak. Results: Among 120 associations between prognostic biomarkers and GC survival outcomes, only one association, namely the association between platelet count and GC OS, was supported by strong evidence. Associations between FITC, CEA, NLR, foxp3+ Treg lymphocytes (both 1- and 3-year OS), CA 19-9, or VEGF and GC OS were supported by highly suggestive evidence. Four associations were considered suggestive and the remaining 108 associations were supported by weak or not suggestive evidence. Discussion: The association between platelet count and GC OS was supported by strong evidence. Associations between FITC, CEA, NLR, foxp3+ Treg lymphocytes (both 1- and 3-year OS), CA 19-9, or VEGF and GC OS were supported by highly suggestive evidence, however, the results should be interpreted cautiously due to inadequate methodological quality as deemed by AMSTAR 2.0.
Project description:Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) leads to the majority of cancer-related deaths due to its morbidity with similar mortality. Lack of effective prognostic biomarkers are the main reason for belated post-operative intervention of recurrence which causes high mortality. Numerous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have explored the prognostic value of biomarkers in PDAC so far. In this article, we performed an umbrella review analyzing these studies to provide an overview of associations between prognostic biomarkers and PDAC survival outcome and synthesized these results to guide better clinical practice. Methods: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses investigating the associations between PDAC survival outcomes and prognostic biomarkers were acquired via the PubMed and Embase databases from inception till February 1, 2020. Associations supported by nominally statistically significant results were classified into strong, highly suggestive, suggestive, and weak based on several critical factors such as the statistical significance of summary estimates, the number of events, the estimate of the largest study included, interstudy heterogeneity, small-study effects, 95% predictive interval (PI), excess significance bias, and the results of credibility ceiling sensitivity analyses. Results: We included 41 meta-analyses containing 63 associations between PDAC survival outcomes and prognostic biomarkers. Although, none was supported by strong evidence among these associations, an association between C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (CAR) and PDAC overall survival (OS) and an association between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and PDAC OS were supported by highly suggestive evidence. Otherwise, the association between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and PDAC OS was supported by suggestive evidence. The remaining 60 associations were supported by weak or not suggestive evidence. Conclusion: Associations between CAR or NLR and PDAC OS were supported by highly suggestive evidence. And the association between LDH and PDAC OS was supported by suggestive evidence. Although the methodological quality of the included systematic reviews and meta-analyses which were evaluated by AMSTAR2.0 is generally poor, the identification of the relatively robust prognostic biomarkers of PDAC may guide better post-operative intervention and follow-up to prolong patients' survival.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Accurately distinguishing serosal invasion in patients with gastric cancer (GC) prior to surgery can be difficult. Molecular analysis of peritoneal fluid (MAPF) for free cancer cells with higher sensitivity than other methods; however, its prognostic value for GC remains controversial, precluding its application in clinical practice.<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were systematically searched. Thirty-one studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled for overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and peritoneal recurrence-free survival (PRF).<h4>Results</h4>The current meta-analysis focused on patients with GC and negative cytological diagnoses. The results showed that positive MAPF status (MAPF+) led to poorer prognoses for OS (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.99-3.37), DFS (HR 4.92, 95% CI 3.28-7.37) and PRF (HR 2.81, 95% CI 2.12-3.72) compared with negative MAPF status (MAPF-). Moreover, among the patients with GC who received curative treatment, the MAPF+ patients had poorer prognoses for OS (HR 3.27, 95% CI 2.49-4.29), DFS (HR 3.90, 95% CI 2.74-5.57) and PRF (HR 5.45, 95% CI 3.70-8.03). A meta-analysis of multivariate-adjusted HRs demonstrated that MAPF+ status was an independent prognostic factor for patients with GC who underwent curative treatment (OS: HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.47-3.28; PRF: HR 3.44, 95% CI 2.01-5.87). Using the identical target genes (CEA, CEA/CK20) as molecular markers, the patients with GC who were MAPF+ had significantly worse prognoses for OS (CEA: HR 3.03, 95% CI 2.29-4.01; CEA/CK20: HR 4.24, 95% CI 2.42-7.40), DFS (CEA: HR 3.99, 95% CI 2.24-7.12; CEA/CK20: HR 4.31, 95% CI 1.49-2.48) and PRF (CEA: HR 4.45, 95% CI 2.72-7.31; CEA/CK20: HR 6.46, 95% CI 3.62-11.55) than the patients who were MAPF-.<h4>Conclusion/significance</h4>The above results demonstrate that MAPF could be a prognostic indicator for patients with GC who have a negative cytological diagnosis and/or are receiving curative treatment. MAPF could provide clinicians with additional prognostic information that could aid in developing individualized treatment plans prior to surgery. The widely used target genes CEA, CEA/CK20 were confirmed to be valuable MAPF markers for predicting the prognosis of GC.
Project description:Background: Metformin has been reported to possess anti-cancer properties in addition to glucose-lowering activity and numerous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have studied the association between metformin use and cancer incidence or survival outcomes. We performed an umbrella review to assess the robustness of these associations to facilitate proper interpretation of these results to inform clinical and policy decisions. Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase systematic reviews and meta-analyses investigating the effect of metformin use on cancer incidence or survival outcomes published from inception to September 2, 2018. We estimated the summary effect size, the 95% CI, and the 95% prediction interval, heterogeneity, evidence of small-study effects, and evidence of excess significance bias. Results: We included 21 systematic reviews and meta-analyses covering 11 major anatomical sites and 33 associations. There was strong evidence for the association between metformin use and decreased pancreatic cancer incidence. The association between metformin use and improved colorectal cancer overall survival (OS) was supported by highly suggestive evidence. Seven associations (all cancer incidence, all cancer OS, breast cancer OS, colorectal cancer incidence, liver cancer incidence, lung cancer OS, and pancreatic cancer OS) presented only suggestive evidence. The remaining 24 associations were supported by weak or not-suggestive evidence. Conclusions: Associations between metformin use and pancreatic cancer incidence or colorectal cancer OS are supported by strong or highly suggestive evidence, respectively. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the poor methodological quality of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Growing evidence has indicated that tumor biomarkers, including cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (Cyfra21-1), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) were reported to be commonly used in diagnosis and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, which is the best marker for predicting prognosis remains unknown. Few papers focused on the relationship between tumor biomarkers and postoperative treatment in ESCC.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 416 ESCC patients were enrolled in this study. The association between tumor markers and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test, followed by multivariate Cox regression models.<h4>Results</h4>The results of Cox multivariate analysis indicated that among these tumor biomarkers, CA19-9 (≥ 37 vs. < 37) [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.130, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.138-3.986, p = 0.018] and CEA (≥ 5 vs. < 5) (HR = 1.827, 95% CI = 1.089-3.064, p = 0.022) were the independent prognostic factors of poor OS. For the ESCC patients with CA19-9 < 37, CEA < 5 or SCC-Ag < 1.5, the surgery plus postoperative chemotherapy group had a significantly longer OS than the surgery group alone (p < 0.05), but this significant difference of OS between these two groups cannot be found in patients with CA19-9 ≥ 37, CEA ≥ 5 or SCC-Ag ≥ 1.5 (p > 0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>CEA and CA19-9 maybe are superior to other tumor biomarkers as prognostic indicators in ESCC. CA19-9, CEA, SCC-Ag may be useful in predicting the therapeutic effect of postoperative chemotherapy in ESCC.
Project description:The prognostic/predictive value of potential vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling biomarkers was evaluated retrospectively using samples from two randomized Phase III studies (HORIZON II and III) investigating cediranib in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).Baseline levels of VEGF, soluble VEGF receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were measured in plasma/serum samples collected from patients participating in HORIZON II (n=860; FOLFOX/XELOX plus cediranib 20?mg (n=502) or placebo (n=358)) and HORIZON III (n=1422; mFOLFOX6 plus cediranib 20?mg (n=709) or bevacizumab (n=713)). Median biomarker baseline levels determined cutoff values for the patient subgroups.Baseline data were available for 88-97% of patients/study (>2000 patients). In both the studies, high baseline VEGF and CEA were associated with worse outcomes for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) independent of treatment (HORIZON II OS: VEGF, hazard ratio (HR)=1.35 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.63); CEA, HR=1.63 (1.36-1.96); HORIZON III OS: VEGF, HR=1.32 (1.12-1.54); CEA, HR=1.50 (1.29-1.76)). sVEGFR-2 was not prognostic for PFS/OS. Baseline VEGF and CEA were not predictive for PFS/OS outcome to cediranib treatment; low sVEGFR-2 was associated with a trend towards improved cediranib effect in HORIZON II.Baseline VEGF and CEA levels were treatment-independent prognostic biomarkers for PFS and OS in both the studies.
Project description:A desmoplastic colorectal cancer stroma, characterized by excess turnover of the cancer-associated fibroblast derived collagens type III and VI, can lead to reduced drug-uptake and poor treatment response. We investigated the association between biomarkers of collagen type III and VI and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Serum samples were collected from 252 patients with mCRC prior to treatment with bevacizumab and chemotherapy. Serum concentrations of biomarkers reflecting formation of collagen type III (PRO-C3) and VI (PRO-C6) and degradation of collagen type VI (C6M and C6M?3) were determined by ELISA. The biomarkers were evaluated for associations with OS, individually, combined, and after adjusting for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and performance status (PS). High baseline levels (>?median) of each collagen biomarker were significantly associated with shorter OS (PRO-C3: HR?=?2.0, 95%CI?=?1.54-2.63; PRO-C6: HR?=?1.6, 95%CI?=?1.24-2.11; C6M: HR?=?1.4, 95%CI?=?1.05-1.78; C6M?3: HR?=?1.6, 95%CI?=?1.16-2.07). PRO-C3 and PRO-C6 remained significant after adjustment for CEA, LDH and PS. Weak correlations were seen between the collagen biomarkers (r?=?0.03-0.59) and combining all improved prognostic capacity (HR?=?3.6, 95%CI?=?2.30-5.76). Collagen biomarkers were predictive of shorter OS in patients with mCRC. This supports that collagen- and CAF biology is important in CRC.
Project description:The clinical significance of tumor markers after radical gastrectomy has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of early postoperative tumor marker normalization in N3 stage gastric cancer (GC) patients. A total of 259 N3 stage GC patients with preoperatively elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, >5 ng/mL) or carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, >37 U/mL) levels underwent radical gastrectomy were analyzed retrospectively. Early postoperative tumor marker response was considered as a normalization of CEA or CA19-9 levels 4 weeks after surgery. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. N3 stage GC patients were divided into N3a (n = 157) and N3b (n = 102) groups according to the 8th TNM stage system. Early tumor marker response was identified in 96 of 157 N3a patients (61.15%) and 57 of 102 N3b patients (55.88%). In N3 stage GC patients with a tumor marker response, significant increase was observed in both DFS (25.2 months vs 12.5 months, P < .001) and OS (32.5 months vs 18.5 months, P < .001) compared with those without tumor marker response. N3b patients with a tumor marker response showed more favorable DFS (19.2 months vs 13.6 months, P = .019) and OS (25.8 months vs 19.0 months, P = .013) compared with N3a patients lacking a tumor marker response. Multivariate analysis revealed that early tumor marker response was an independent factor for DFS and OS in N3 stage GC, as well as for depth of invasion and metastatic lymph node rate (P < .05). Early postoperative CEA or CA19-9 normalization serves as a strong prognostic indicator in N3 stage GC. Both N3a and N3b patients with increased early postoperative tumor marker levels showed poor outcomes.
Project description:Previous studies have indicated that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels are both independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. However, the utility of CEA and CA15-3 levels as conventional cancer biomarkers in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains controversial. The current study was performed to explore the predictive value of pre-therapeutic serum CEA and CA15-3 levels, and nomograms were developed including these serum cancer biomarkers to improve the prognostic evaluation of TNBC patients. Pre-therapeutic CA15-3 and CEA concentrations were measured in 247 patients with stage I-IV TNBC. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that TNBC patients with high levels of both CEA and CA15-3 had shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates than those in the low-level groups (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis suggested that pre-therapeutic CA15-3 and CEA levels are independent predictive elements for OS (p = 0.022 and p = 0.040, respectively) and DFS (p = 0.023 and p = 0.028, respectively). In addition, novel nomograms were established and validated to provide personal forecasts of OS and DFS for patients with TNBC. These novel nomograms may help physicians to select the optimal treatment plans to ensure the best outcomes for TNBC patients.
Project description:Identifying prognostic factors by affordable tools is crucial for guiding gastric cancer (GC) treatments especially at earlier stages for timing interventions. The autonomic function that is clinically assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) is involved in tumorigenesis. This pilot study was aimed to examine whether nonlinear indices of HRV can be biomarkers of GC severity. Sixty-one newly-diagnosed GC patients were enrolled. Presurgical serum fibrinogen (FIB), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA199) were examined. Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) of 5-min was collected prior to surgical treatments to enable the HRV analysis. Twelve nonlinear HRV indices covering the irregularity, complexity, asymmetry, and temporal correlation of heartbeat fluctuations were obtained. Increased short-range temporal correlations, decreased asymmetry, and increased irregularity of heartbeat fluctuations were associated with higher FIB level. Increased irregularity and decreased complexity were also associated with higher CEA level. These associations were independent of age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, history of diabetes, left ventricular ejection fraction, and anemia. The results support the hypothesis that perturbations in nonlinear dynamical patterns of HRV predict increased GC severity. Replication in larger samples as well as the examination of longitudinal associations of HRV nonlinear features with cancer prognosis/survival are warranted.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years for their potential application as disease biomarkers due to their high abundance and stability. In this study, we attempted to screen circRNAs that can be used to predict postoperative recurrence and survival in patients with gastric cancer (GC).<h4>Methods</h4>High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed circRNAs in GC patients with different prognoses. The expression level of circRNAs in the training set (n = 136) and validation set (n = 167) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Kaplan-Meier estimator, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the prognostic value of circRNAs on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in GC patients. CeRNA network prediction, gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed for the circRNAs with prognostic significance.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 259 differentially expressed circRNAs were identified in GC patients with different RFS. We found two circRNAs (hsa_circ_0005092 and hsa_circ_0002647) that highly expressed in GC patients with good prognoses, and subsequently established a predictive model for postoperative recurrence and prognosis evaluation, named circPanel. Patients with circPanel<sup>low</sup> might have shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). We also performed circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network prediction and functional analysis for hsa_circ_0005092 and hsa_circ_0002647.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CircPanel has the potential to be a prognostic biomarker in GC patients with greater accuracy than a single circRNA and certain traditional tumor markers (e.g., CEA, CA19-9 and CA724).