Project description:Being able to predict whether AKI will progress could improve monitoring and care, guide patient counseling, and assist with enrollment into trials of AKI treatment. Using samples from the Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints in AKI study (TRIBE-AKI), we evaluated whether kidney injury biomarkers measured at the time of first clinical diagnosis of early AKI after cardiac surgery can forecast AKI severity. Biomarkers included urinary IL-18, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), and urinary and plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL); each measurement was on the day of AKI diagnosis in 380 patients who developed at least AKI Network (AKIN) stage 1 AKI. The primary end point (progression of AKI defined by worsening AKIN stage) occurred in 45 (11.8%) patients. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined the risk of AKI progression. After adjustment for clinical predictors, compared with biomarker values in the lowest two quintiles, the highest quintiles of three biomarkers remained associated with AKI progression: IL-18 (odds ratio=3.0, 95% confidence interval=1.3-7.3), ACR (odds ratio=3.4, 95% confidence interval=1.3-9.1), and plasma NGAL (odds ratio=7.7, 95% confidence interval=2.6-22.5). Each biomarker improved risk classification compared with the clinical model alone, with plasma NGAL performing the best (category-free net reclassification improvement of 0.69, P<0.0001). In conclusion, biomarkers measured on the day of AKI diagnosis improve risk stratification and identify patients at higher risk for progression of AKI and worse patient outcomes.
Project description:Graphical abstract Highlights • Carcinoid heart disease typically involves the right-sided valves of the heart.• Carcinoid valves are fixed and retracted with limited mobility.• Pathognomonic appearance of valves increases carcinoid likelihood.• Carcinoid diagnosis has intraoperative implications.
Project description:Biomarkers for acute kidney injury (AKI) have been used to predict the progression of AKI, but a systematic comparison of the prognostic ability of each biomarker alone or in combination has not been performed. In order to assess this, we measured the concentration of 32 candidate biomarkers in the urine of 95 patients with AKIN stage 1 after cardiac surgery. Urine markers were divided into eight groups based on the putative pathophysiological mechanism they reflect. We then compared the ability of the markers alone or in combination to predict the primary outcome of worsening AKI or death (23 patients) and the secondary outcome of AKIN stage 3 or death (13 patients). IL-18 was the best predictor of both outcomes (AUC of 0.74 and 0.89). L-FABP (AUC of 0.67 and 0.85), NGAL (AUC of 0.72 and 0.83), and KIM-1 (AUC of 0.73 and 0.81) were also good predictors. Correlation between most of the markers was generally related to their predictive ability, but KIM-1 had a relatively weak correlation with other markers. The combination of IL-18 and KIM-1 had a very good predictive value with an AUC of 0.93 to predict AKIN 3 or death. Thus, a combination of IL-18 and KIM-1 would result in improved identification of high-risk patients for enrollment in clinical trials.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Although lower than normal serum bicarbonate levels are known to be associated with consecutive renal function deterioration in patients with chronic kidney injury, it is not well-known whether preoperative low serum bicarbonate levels are associated with the development of AKI in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Therefore, the clinical implication of preoperative serum bicarbonate levels on AKI occurrence after cardiac surgery was investigated. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at Yonsei University Health System from January 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on preoperative serum bicarbonate levels, which represented group 1 (below normal levels) <23?mEq/L; group 2 (normal levels) 23 to 24?mEq/L; and group 3 (elevated levels) >24?mEq/L. The primary outcome was the predicated incidence of AKI 48?hours after cardiac surgery. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Among 875 patients, 228 (26.1%) developed AKI within 48?hours after cardiac surgery. The incidence of AKI was higher in group 1 (40.9%) than in group 2 (26.5%) and group 3 (19.5%) (P?<?0.001). In addition, the duration of postoperative stay in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU) was longer for AKI patients and for those in the low-preoperative-serum-bicarbonate-level groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low preoperative serum bicarbonate levels were significantly associated with AKI even after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, operation type, preoperative hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, low serum bicarbonate levels were associated with higher incidence of AKI and prolonged ICU stay. Further studies are needed to clarify whether strict correction of bicarbonate levels close to normal limits may have a protective role in preventing further AKI development.
Project description:Graphical abstract Highlights • Trypanosomiasis manifests as myocardial dysfunction with arrhythmias in dogs.• Arrhythmias in this dog prompted further evaluation with echocardiography.• Echocardiography confirms cardiac enlargement and dysfunction in Chagas myocarditis.• Bundle branch block and ventricular aneurysms are features of Chagas disease.• These features are more frequently described in humans than in dogs.
Project description:Graphical abstract Highlights • Echo fusion overlays echocardiographic cardiac structures over fluoroscopy.• Echo fusion provides “real-time” feedback during complicated percutaneous procedures.• Echo fusion and 3D TEE imaging can be used to localize PVLs and guide intervention.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly after pediatric cardiac surgery and associates with poor outcomes. Biomarkers may help the prediction or early identification of AKI, potentially increasing opportunities for therapeutic interventions. Here, we conducted a prospective, multicenter cohort study involving 311 children undergoing surgery for congenital cardiac lesions to evaluate whether early postoperative measures of urine IL-18, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), or plasma NGAL could identify which patients would develop AKI and other adverse outcomes. Urine IL-18 and urine and plasma NGAL levels peaked within 6 hours after surgery. Severe AKI, defined by dialysis or doubling in serum creatinine during hospital stay, occurred in 53 participants at a median of 2 days after surgery. The first postoperative urine IL-18 and urine NGAL levels strongly associated with severe AKI. After multivariable adjustment, the highest quintiles of urine IL-18 and urine NGAL associated with 6.9- and 4.1-fold higher odds of AKI, respectively, compared with the lowest quintiles. Elevated urine IL-18 and urine NGAL levels associated with longer hospital stay, longer intensive care unit stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. The accuracy of urine IL-18 and urine NGAL for diagnosis of severe AKI was moderate, with areas under the curve of 0.72 and 0.71, respectively. The addition of these urine biomarkers improved risk prediction over clinical models alone as measured by net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement. In conclusion, urine IL-18 and urine NGAL, but not plasma NGAL, associate with subsequent AKI and poor outcomes among children undergoing cardiac surgery.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery and increases morbidity and mortality. The identification of reliable biomarkers that allow earlier diagnosis of AKI in the postoperative period may increase the success of therapeutic interventions. Here, we conducted a prospective, multicenter cohort study involving 1219 adults undergoing cardiac surgery to evaluate whether early postoperative measures of urine IL-18, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), or plasma NGAL could identify which patients would develop AKI and other adverse patient outcomes. Urine IL-18 and urine and plasma NGAL levels peaked within 6 hours after surgery. After multivariable adjustment, the highest quintiles of urine IL-18 and plasma NGAL associated with 6.8-fold and 5-fold higher odds of AKI, respectively, compared with the lowest quintiles. Elevated urine IL-18 and urine and plasma NGAL levels associated with longer length of hospital stay, longer intensive care unit stay, and higher risk for dialysis or death. The clinical prediction model for AKI had an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.69. Urine IL-18 and plasma NGAL significantly improved the AUC to 0.76 and 0.75, respectively. Urine IL-18 and plasma NGAL significantly improved risk prediction over the clinical models alone as measured by net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). In conclusion, urine IL-18, urine NGAL, and plasma NGAL associate with subsequent AKI and poor outcomes among adults undergoing cardiac surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inflammation is a key component of both acute kidney injury (AKI) and response to cardiopulmonary bypass. Because AKI poses risks to children after cardiac surgery, we investigated the value of inflammatory biomarkers interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) for predicting AKI and other complications. METHODS:We enrolled 412 children between the ages of 1 month and 18 years undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery. We collected blood both preoperatively and postoperatively (within 6 hours post-surgery) and measured plasma IL-8 and TNF?. RESULTS:IL-8 and TNF? did not predict AKI in children <2 years, but were strongly associated with AKI in children ?2 years. There were significant associations between biomarker levels and age (<2 or ?2 years). In children ?2 years, patients in the highest tertile of preoperative IL-8 and postoperative TNF? had 4.9-fold (95% CI: 1.8-13.2) and 3.3-fold (95% CI: 1.2-9.0) higher odds of AKI compared with those in the lowest tertile. Children <2 years with higher biomarker levels also had higher odds of AKI, but the difference was not significant. We also found that postoperative TNF? levels were significantly higher in patients with longer hospital stays, and that both postoperative IL-8 and TNF? levels were significantly higher in patients with longer ventilation lengths. There was no evidence that biomarker levels mediated the association between AKI and length of ventilation; they appear to be independent predictors. CONCLUSIONS:Preoperative IL-8 and postoperative TNF? are significantly associated with higher odds of AKI and greater lengths of hospital stays and ventilator use in children 2 years and older.