Treatment Outcome of 227 Patients with Sinonasal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) after Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy and Active Raster-Scanning Carbon Ion Boost: A 10-Year Single-Center Experience.
ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the treatment outcome of primary and postoperative bimodal radiotherapy (RT) including intensity modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT) and carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) patients. Medical records of 227 consecutive patients who received either a primary (n = 90, 40%) or postoperative (n = 137, 60%; R2, n = 86, 63%) IMRT with doses between 48 and 56 Gy in 1.8 or 2 Gy fractions and active raster-scanning carbon ion boost with 18 to 24 Gy (RBE, relative biological effectiveness) in 3 Gy (RBE) fractions between 2009 and 2019 up to a median total dose of 80 Gy (EQD2, equivalent dose in 2 Gy single dose fractions, range 71-80 Gy) were reviewed. Results: Median follow-up was 50 months. In univariate and multivariate analysis, no significant difference in local control (LC) could be shown between the two treatment groups (p = 0.33). Corresponding 3-year LC rates were 79% for primary bimodal RT and 82% for postoperative bimodal RT, respectively. T4 stage (p = 0.002) and solid histology (p = 0.005) were identified as independent prognostic factors for decreased LC. Significant worse long-term treatment tolerance was observed for postoperatively irradiated patients with 17% vs. 6% late grade 3 toxicity (p < 0.001). Primary radiotherapy including IMRT and carbon ion boost for dose-escalation results in adequate LC with less long-term grade 3 toxicity compared to postoperative bimodal radiotherapy in sinonasal ACC patients. The high rate of macroscopic tumor disease in the postoperative group makes the interpretation of the beneficial results in LC for primary RT difficult.
Project description:Background:Whole-ventricular radiotherapy (WV-RT) followed by a boost to the tumor bed (WV-RT/TB) is recommended for intracranial germ cell tumors (IGCT). As the critical brain areas are mainly in the target volume vicinity, it is unclear if protons indeed substantially spare neurofunctional organs at risk (NOAR). Therefore, a dosimetric comparison study of WV-RT/TB was conducted to assess whether proton or photon radiotherapy achieves better NOAR sparing. Methods:Eleven children with GCT received 24?Gy(RBE) WV-RT and a boost up to 40?Gy(RBE) in 25 fractions of 1.6?Gy(RBE) with pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBS-PT). Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for these patients. NOAR were delineated and treatment plans were compared for target volume coverage (TVC), homogeneity index (HI), inhomogeneity coefficient (IC) and (N)OAR sparing. Results:TVC was comparable for all three modalities. Compared to IMRT and VMAT, PBS-PT showed statistically significant optimized IC, as well as dose reduction, among others, in mean and integral dose to the: normal brain (-35.2%, -32.7%; -35.2%, -33.0%, respectively), cerebellum (-53.7%, -33.1%; -53.6%, -32.7%) and right temporal lobe (-14.5%, -31.9%; -14.7%, -29.9%). The Willis' circle was better protected with PBS-PT than IMRT (-7.1%; -7.8%). The left hippocampus sparing was higher with IMRT. Compared to VMAT, the dose to the hippocampi, amygdalae and temporal lobes was significantly decreased in the IMRT plans. Conclusions:Dosimetric comparison of WV-RT/TB in IGCT suggests PBS-PT's advantage over photons in conformality and NOAR sparing, whereas IMRT's superiority over VMAT, thus potentially minimizing long-term sequelae.
Project description:Purpose This randomized trial compared outcomes of passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) versus intensity-modulated (photon) radiotherapy (IMRT), both with concurrent chemotherapy, for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesized that PSPT exposes less lung tissue to radiation than IMRT and thereby reduces toxicity without compromising tumor control. The primary end points were grade ? 3 radiation pneumonitis (RP) and local failure (LF). Patients and Methods Eligible patients had stage IIB to IIIB NSCLC (or stage IV NSCLC with a single brain metastasis or recurrent lung or mediastinal disease after surgery) who were candidates for concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Pairs of treatment plans for IMRT and PSPT were created for each patient. Patients were eligible for random assignment only if both plans satisfied the same prespecified dose-volume constraints for at-risk organs at the same tumor dose. Results Compared with IMRT (n = 92), PSPT (n = 57) exposed less lung tissue to doses of 5 to 10 Gy(RBE), which is the absorbed Gy dose multiplied by the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) factor for protons; exposed more lung tissue to ? 20 Gy(RBE), but exposed less heart tissue at all dose levels between 5 and 80 Gy(RBE). The grade ? 3 RP rate for all patients was 8.1% (IMRT, 6.5%; PSPT, 10.5%); corresponding LF rates were 10.7% (all), 10.9% (IMRT), and 10.5% (PSPT). The posterior probability of IMRT being better than PSPT was 0.54. Exploratory analysis showed that the RP and LF rates at 12 months for patients enrolled before versus after the trial midpoint were 21.1% (before) versus 18.2% (after) for the IMRT group (P = .047) and 31.0% (before) versus 13.1% (after) for the PSPT group (P = .027). Conclusion PSPT did not improve dose-volume indices for lung but did for heart. No benefit was noted in RP or LF after PSPT. Improvements in both end points were observed over the course of the trial.
Project description:<b>Purpose:</b> To evaluate treatment outcomes and toxicity in patients with cervical cancer (CC) treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), followed by three-dimensional high-dose-rate intracavity combined with interstitial brachytherapy (IC/IS BT) compared with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> A total of 398 patients with stage IA-IVB CC treated with definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed (331 VMAT and 67 IMRT). A total prescription dose of 45-50 Gy was delivered to pelvic field with VMAT/IMRT in 25/28 fractions, with five fractions per week. Every patient further received IC/IS BT for four to six 6.0-Gy fractions. Local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were calculated. Acute hematotoxicity and late toxicity were recorded. <b>Results:</b> The median follow-up period was 25.47 (range, 0.93-58.93) months for the VMAT and 35.07 (4.8-90.37) months for IMRT. The 3-year OS, DFS, LC, and DMFS rate were 80.5, 65.4, 88.7, and 78.1% in VMAT group, and 76.2, 76.4, 83.1, and 86.1% in the IMRT group, respectively. No significant differences were found between VMAT and IMRT groups for OS, DFS, LC, and DMFS rate. However, patients in the VMAT group had lower incidence of chronic enterocolitis complication (26.6 vs. 38.8%, <i>p</i> = 0.004). In addition, a total of 3 (0.9%) patients developed grade 3 chronic cystitis, and 7 (2.1%) patients developed grade 3 or greater chronic enterocolitis in VMAT group. <b>Conclusion:</b> VMAT combined with IC/IS BT can result in satisfactory curative outcomes and low incidences of late radiation enterocolitis and cystitis in CC treatment.
Project description:Dose-escalated hypofractionated radiotherapy (hfrt) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt), with inclusion of the pelvic lymph nodes (plns), plus androgen suppression therapy (ast) in high-risk prostate cancer patients should improve patient outcomes, but acute toxicity could limit its feasibility.Our single-centre phase ii prospective study enrolled 40 high-risk prostate cancer patients. All patients received hfrt using imrt with daily mega-voltage computed tomography imaging guidance, with 95% of planning target volumes (ptv68 and ptv50) receiving 68 Gy and 50 Gy (respectively) in 25 daily fractions. The boost volume was targeted to the involved plns and the prostate (minus the urethra plus 3 mm and minus 3 mm from adjacent rectal wall) and totalled up to 75 Gy in 25 fractions. Acute toxicity scores were recorded weekly during and 3 months after radiotherapy (rt) administration.For the 37 patients who completed rt and the 3-month follow-up, median age was 65.5 years (range: 50-76 years). Disease was organ-confined (T1c-T2c) in 23 patients (62.1%), and node-positive in 5 patients (13.5%). All patients received long-term ast. Maximum acute genitourinary (gu) and gastrointestinal (gi) toxicity peaked at grade 2 in 6 of 36 evaluated patients (16.6%) and in 4 of 31 evaluated patients (12.9%) respectively. Diarrhea and urinary frequency were the chief complaints. Dose-volume parameters demonstrated no correlation with toxicity. The ptv treatment objectives were met in 36 of the 37 patients.This hfrt dose-escalation trial in high-risk prostate cancer has demonstrated the feasibility of administering 75 Gy in 25 fractions with minimal acute gi and gu toxicities. Further follow-up will report late toxicities and outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety of focal dose escalation to regions with standardized uptake value (SUV) >2.0 using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by comparison of radiotherapy plans using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for postoperative local recurrent rectal cancer METHODS: First, we performed conventional radiotherapy with 40 Gy/20 fr. (CRT 40 Gy) for 12 patients with postoperative local recurrent rectal cancer, and then we performed FDG-PET/CT radiotherapy planning for those patients. We defined the regions with SUV > 2.0 as biological target volume (BTV) and made three boost plans for each patient: 1) CRT boost plan, 2) IMRT without dose-painting boost plan, and 3) IMRT with dose-painting boost plan. The total boost dose was 20 Gy. In IMRT with dose-painting boost plan, we increased the dose for BTV+5 mm by 30% of the prescribed dose. We added CRT boost plan to CRT 40 Gy (summed plan 1), IMRT without dose-painting boost plan to CRT 40 Gy (summed plan 2) and IMRT with dose-painting boost plan to CRT 40 Gy (summed plan 3), and we compared those plans using DVHs and NTCP. RESULTS: D(mean) of PTV-PET and that of PTV-CT were 26.5 Gy and 21.3 Gy, respectively. V50 of small bowel PRV in summed plan 1 was significantly higher than those in other plans ((summed plan 1 vs. summed plan 2 vs. summed plan 3: 47.11 +/- 45.33 cm3 vs. 40.63 +/- 39.13 cm3 vs. 41.25 +/- 39.96 cm3 (p < 0.01, respectively)). There were no significant differences in V30, V40, V60, D(mean) or NTCP of small bowel PRV. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET-guided IMRT can facilitate focal dose-escalation to regions with SUV above 2.0 for postoperative local recurrent rectal cancer.
Project description:To characterise the relationship between lacrimal gland dose and ocular toxicity among patients treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumours.40 patients with cancers involving the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses were treated with IMRT to a median dose of 66.0 Gy. Toxicity was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity criteria based on conjunctivitis, corneal ulceration and keratitis. The paired lacrimal glands were contoured as organs at risk, and the mean dose, maximum dose, V10, V20 and V30 were determined. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and the Akaike information criterion (AIC).The maximum and mean dose to the ipsilateral lacrimal gland were 19.2 Gy (range, 1.4-75.4 Gy) and 14.5 Gy (range, 11.1-67.8 Gy), respectively. The mean V10, V20 and V30 values were 50%, 25% and 17%, respectively. The incidence of acute and late Grade 3+ toxicities was 23% and 19%, respectively. Based on logistic regression and AIC, the maximum dose to the ipsilateral lacrimal gland was identified as a more significant predictor of acute toxicity (AIC, 53.89) and late toxicity (AIC, 32.94) than the mean dose (AIC, 56.13 and 33.83, respectively). The V20 was identified as the most significant predictor of late toxicity (AIC, 26.81).A dose-response relationship between maximum dose to the lacrimal gland and ocular toxicity was established. Our data suggesting a threshold relationship may be useful in establishing dosimetric guidelines for IMRT planning that may decrease the risk of acute and late lacrimal toxicities in the future.A threshold relationship between radiation dose to the lacrimal gland and ocular toxicity was demonstrated, which may aid in treatment planning and reducing the morbidity of radiotherapy for sinonasal tumours.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with dose escalation by simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) can be a safe modality for treating spinal bone metastases with enhanced targeting accuracy and improve local tumor control. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. One hundred and twenty patients with spinal bone metastases will receive palliative radiation therapy at the Heidelberg University Hospital. SBRT will be given in five or ten fractions with or without SIB. Four treatment arms are planned: IMRT with 30 Gy in ten fractions, IMRT with 30 Gy in ten fractions and SIB to 40 Gy, IMRT with 20 Gy in five fractions, and IMRT with 20 Gy in five fractions and SIB to 30Gy in five fractions will be compared. The target parameters will be measured at baseline level and at three and six months after radiation. DISCUSSION:The primary endpoint of this study was to assess and compare the local tumor control (by means of different fractionation schedules and biological doses to the tumor area). Secondary endpoints are acute and chronic adverse events, pain relief, quality of life, and fatigue. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02832765 . Registered on 27 July 2016.
Project description:Radiation therapy is an essential modality in the treatment of breast cancer. Addition of radiotherapy to surgery has significantly increased local control and survival rates of the disease. However, radiotherapy is also associated with side effects, such as tissue fibrosis or enhanced vascular morbidity. Modern radiotherapy strategies, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), can shorten the overall treatment time by integration of the additional tumor bed boost significantly. To what extent this might be possible without impairing treatment outcome and cosmetic results remains to be clarified.The IMRT-MC2 study is a prospective, two armed, multicenter, randomized phase-III-trial comparing intensity modulated radiotherapy with integrated boost to conventional radiotherapy with consecutive boost in patients with breast cancer after breast conserving surgery. 502 patients will be recruited and randomized into two arms: patients in arm A will receive IMRT in 28 fractions delivering 50.4 Gy to the breast and 64.4 Gy to the tumor bed by integrated boost, while patients in arm B will receive conventional radiotherapy of the breast in 28 fractions to a dose of 50.4 Gy and consecutive boost in 8 fractions to a total dose of 66.4 Gy.Primary objectives of the study are the evaluation of the cosmetic results 6 weeks and 2 years post treatment and the 2- and 5-year local recurrence rates for the two different radiotherapy strategies. Secondary objectives are long term overall survival, disease free survival and quality of life.ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol ID: NCT01322854.
Project description:Objective: This study aimed to look into the relationship between intensity-modulated-radiotherapy (IMRT)- or volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy (VMAT)-based dose-volume parameters and 5-year outcome for a consecutive series of non-metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients (pts) treated in a single institution in a non-endemic area in order to identify potential prognostic factors. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive non-metastatic NPC pts treated curatively with IMRT or VMAT and chemotherapy (CHT) between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. One patient was in stage I (0.7%), and 24 pts (17.5%) were in stage II, 38 pts (27.7%) in stage III, 29 pts (21.2%) in stage IVA, and 45 pts (32.8%) in stage IVB. Five pts (3.6%) received radiotherapy (RT) alone. Of the remaining 132 pts (96.4%), 30 pts (21.9%) received CHT concomitant to RT, and 102 pts (74.4%) were treated with induction CHT followed by RT-CHT. IMRT was given with standard fractionation at a total dose of 70 Gy. Clinical outcomes investigated in the study were local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis was performed for the outcomes considering dose and coverage parameters, staging, and RT technique. Results: Overall, 137 pts were eligible for this retrospective analysis. With a median follow-up of 70 months (range 12-143), actuarial rates at 5 years were LC 90.4, DFS 77.2, and OS 82.8%. For this preliminary study, T stage was dichotomized as T1, T2, T3 vs. T4. At 5 years, the group T1-T2-T3 reported an LC of 93%, a DFS of 79%, and an OS of 88%, whereas T4 pts reported LC, DFS, and OS, respectively, of 56, 50, and 78%. Pts with V95% > 95.5% had better LC (p = 0.006). Pts with D99% > 63.8 Gy had better LC (p = 0.034) and OS (p = 0.005). The threshold value of 43.2 cm3 of GTVT was prognostic for LC (p = 0.016). To predict the risk of local recurrence at 5 years, we constructed a nomogram which combined GTVT with D99% relative to HRPTV. Conclusions: We demonstrated the prognostic value of some dose-volume parameters, although in a retrospective series, this is potentially useful to improve planning procedure. In addition, for the first time in a non-endemic area, a threshold value of GTVT, prognostic for LC, has been confirmed.