Genome-Wide Small RNA Sequencing Identifies MicroRNAs Deregulated in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Harboring Gain-of-Function Mutant p53.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the TP53 gene are one of the most frequent events in cancers. Certain missense mutant p53 proteins gain oncogenic functions (gain-of-functions) and drive tumorigenesis. Apart from the coding genes, a few non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in mediating mutant p53-driven cancer phenotypes. Here, we identified miRNAs in mutant p53R273H bearing non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells while using small RNA deep sequencing. Differentially regulated miRNAs were validated in the TCGA lung adenocarcinoma patients with p53 mutations and, subsequently, we identified specific miRNA signatures that are associated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival of the patients. Pathway analyses with integrated miRNA-mRNA expressions further revealed potential regulatory molecular networks in mutant p53 cancer cells. A possible contribution of putative mutant p53-regulated miRNAs in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is also predicted. Most importantly, we identified a novel miRNA from the unmapped sequencing reads through a systematic computational approach. The newly identified miRNA promotes proliferation, colony-forming ability, and migration of NSCLC cells. Overall, the present study provides an altered miRNA expression profile that might be useful in biomarker discovery for non-small cell lung cancers with TP53 mutations and discovers a hitherto unknown miRNA with oncogenic potential.
Project description:In the present study, we used a high-throughput small RNA deep sequencing followed by a systematic computational analysis to identify genome wide mutant p53R273H regulated miRNAs in both DNA damage dependent and independent context. Several miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks have been predicted that might contribute to mutant p53 GOF properties. Differentially regulated miRNA signature profile has been validated in the lung cancer patients harboring wildtype and mutant p53. We identified specific miRNA signatures for lymph node metastasis associated with p53 mutation in lung adenocarcinoma and also predicted the possible contribution of two mutant p53 regulated miRNAs in EMT process. Furthermore, this study identified a hitherto unknown miRNA in human which might act as one of the crucial downstream targets of GOF mutant p53 to confer oncogenic properties. Determination of mutant p53R273H regulated microRNAs H1299 cells.
Project description:p53 mutations have profound effects on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistance to chemotherapeutic treatments. Mutant p53 proteins are usually expressed at high levels in tumors, where they exert oncogenic functions. Here we show that p53R175H, a hotspot p53 mutant, induces microRNA (miRNA)-128-2 expression. Mutant p53 binds to the putative promoter of miR128-2 host gene, ARPP21, determining a concomitant induction of ARPP21 mRNA and miR-128-2. miR-128-2 expression in lung cancer cells inhibits apoptosis and confers increased resistance to cisplatin, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracyl treatments. At the molecular level, miR-128-2 post-transcriptionally targets E2F5 and leads to the abrogation of its repressive activity on p21(waf1) transcription. p21(waf1) protein localizes to the cytoplasmic compartment, where it exerts an anti-apoptotic effect by preventing pro-caspase-3 cleavage. This study emphasizes miRNA-128-2 role as a master regulator in NSCLC chemoresistance.
Project description:Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women worldwide. Targeted therapeutics, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib, have recently emerged as clinical alternatives for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the development of therapeutic resistance is a major challenge, resulting in low 5-year survival rates. Due to their ability to act as tumor suppressors, microRNAs (miRNAs) are attractive candidates as adjuvant therapeutics for the treatment of NSCLC. In this study, we examine the ability of 2 tumor suppressor miRNAs, let-7b and miR-34a to sensitize KRAS;TP53 mutant non-small cell lung cancer cells to the action of erlotinib. Treatment with these miRNAs, individually or in combination, resulted in synergistic potentiation of the anti-proliferative effects of erlotinib. This effect was observed over a wide range of miRNA and erlotinib interactions, suggesting that let-7b and miR-34a target oncogenic pathways beyond those inhibited by EGFR. Combinatorial treatment with let-7b and miR-34a resulted in the strongest synergy with erlotinib, indicating that these miRNAs can effectively target multiple cellular pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation and resistance to erlotinib. Together, our findings indicate that NSCLC cells can be effectively sensitized to erlotinib by supplementation with tumor suppressor miRNAs, and suggest that the use of combinations of miRNAs as adjuvant therapeutics for the treatment of lung cancer is a viable clinical strategy.
Project description:Many cancers express mutant p53 proteins that have lost wild-type tumor suppressor activity and, in many cases, have acquired oncogenic functions that can contribute to tumor progression. These activities of mutant p53 reflect interactions with several other proteins, including the p53 family members p63 and p73. Mutations in p53 that affect protein conformation (such as R175H) show strong binding to p63 and p73, whereas p53 mutants that only mildly affect the conformation (such as R273H) bind less well. A previously described aggregation domain of mutant p53 is not required for p63 or p73 binding; indeed, mutations within this region lead to the acquisition of a mutant p53 phenotype-including a conformational shift, p63/p73 binding and the ability to promote invasion. The activity of wild-type p53 is regulated by an interaction with MDM2 and we have investigated the potential role of MDM2 in the mutant p53/p63/p73 interactions. Both mutant p53 and p73 bind MDM2 well, whereas p63 binds much more weakly. We found that MDM2 can inhibit p63 binding to p53R175H but enhances the weaker p53R273H/p73 interaction. These effects on the interactions are reflected in an ability of MDM2 to relieve the inhibition of p63 by p53R175H, but enhance the inhibition of p73 activity by p53R175H and R273H. We propose a model in which MDM2 competes with p63 for binding to p53R175H to restore p63 activity, but forms a trimeric complex with p73 and p53R273H to more strongly inhibit p73 function.
Project description:Protein phosphatase 1D (PPM1D), which functions as an oncogene, is a known target of the tumor suppressor p53 and is involved in p53-regulated genomic surveillance mechanisms. PPM1D dephosphorylates both p53 and its ubiquitin ligase mouse double minute 2 homolog, as well as the RNA-binding protein (RBM)38, which turns RBM38 from an inducer to inhibitor of TP53 translation. In addition, RBM38 induces PPM1D translation. Hence, the PPM1D-RBM38-p53 axis is important in maintaining genomic integrity and is often altered during tumorigenesis. TP53, which encodes p53, is deleted or mutated in >50% of cancer types, including lung cancer. Mutant p53 has been revealed to complex with hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) and upregulate transcription of pro-metastatic genes. However, the mechanism underlying the action of the PPM1D-RBM38-p53 axis in the context of mutant p53 under normoxic and hypoxic conditions is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines harboring wild-type (A549 cells) or hot-spot mutant (NCI-H1770 and R249W?-TP53-A549 cells) TP53, it was demonstrated that in cells harboring mutant p53, RBM38 was not the primary regulator of PPM1D translation under hypoxic conditions. Knockdown of RBM38 in TP53 mutant cells did not affect the PPM1D protein expression under hypoxic conditions. Instead, in NCI-H1770 cells maintained under normoxic conditions, PPM1D was revealed as a target of micro RNA (miR)-129-1-3p, a known tumor suppressor in lung cancer. Hypoxia resulted in the downregulation of miR-129-1-3p expression, and thus, in the downregulation of PPM1D messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. In NCI-H1770 cells grown under hypoxic conditions, the transient transfection of miR-129-1-3p mimic, and not control mimic, repressed the expression of a reporter containing wild-type, but not miR-129-1-3p binding mutant, of the PPM1D 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Analysis of NSCLC cell lines from the Broad Institute Cancer Cell Encyclopedia and patients with NSCLC from The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset revealed significant co-occurrence of PPM1D/RBM38 and PPM1D/HIF1A mutations. However, there was no significant difference in the overall survival of patients with NSCLC with or without genomic alterations in TP53, RBM38, PPM1D and HIF1A. In summary, the current study demonstrated hypoxia-dependent miR-129-1-3p-mediated regulation of PPM1D protein expression in NSCLC cell line harboring mutant TP53.
Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of tumor-related death. The lack of effective treatments urges the development of new therapeutic approaches able to selectively kill cancer cells. The connection between aberrant microRNA (miRNA - miR) expression and tumor progression suggests a new strategy to fight cancer by interfering with miRNA function. In this regard, LNAs (locked nucleic acids) have proven to be very promising candidates for miRNA neutralization. Here, we employed an LNA-based anti-miR library in a functional screening to identify putative oncogenic miRNAs in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). By screening NIH-H460 and A549 cells, miR-197 was identified as a new functional oncomiR, whose downregulation induces p53-dependent lung cancer cell apoptosis and impairs the capacity to establish tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. We further identified the two BH3-only proteins NOXA and BMF as new miR-197 targets responsible for induction of apoptosis in p53 wild-type cells, delineating miR-197 as a key survival factor in NSCLC. Thus, we propose the inhibition of miR-197 as a novel therapeutic approach against lung cancer.
Project description:The invasiveness of tumour cells depends on changes in cell shape, polarity and migration. Mutant p53 induces enhanced tumour metastasis in mice, and human cells overexpressing p53R273H have aberrant polarity and increased invasiveness, demonstrating the 'gain of function' of mutant p53 in carcinogenesis. We hypothesize that p53R273H interacts with mutant p53-specific binding partners that control polarity, migration or invasion. Here we analyze the p53R273H interactome using stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture and quantitative mass spectrometry, and identify at least 15 new potential mutant p53-specific binding partners. The interaction of p53R273H with one of them--nardilysin (NRD1)--promotes an invasive response to heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor that is p53R273H-dependant but does not require Rab coupling protein or p63. Advanced proteomics has thus allowed the detection of a new mechanism of p53-driven invasion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:miRNAs play crucial role in the progression of K-Ras-mutated nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, most studies have focused on miRNAs that target K-Ras. Here, we investigated miRNAs regulated by mutant K-Ras and their functions. METHODS:miRNAs regulated by mutant K-Ras were screened using miRNA arrays. miR-199b expression levels were measured by qRT-PCR. The protein expression levels were measured using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effects of miR-199b on NSCLC were examined both in vitro and in vivo by overexpressing or inhibiting miR-199b. DNA methylation was measured by bisulfite sequencing. RESULTS:An inverse correlation was observed between K-Ras mutation status and miR-199b levels in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. The inhibition of miR-199b stimulated NSCLC growth and metastasis, while restoration of miR-199b suppressed K-Ras mutation-driven lung tumorigenesis as well as K-Ras-mutated NSCLC growth and metastasis. miR-199b inactivated ERK and Akt pathways by targeting K-Ras, KSR2, PIK3R1, Akt1, and Rheb1. Furthermore, we determined that mutant K-Ras inhibits miR-199b expression by increasing miR-199b promoter methylation. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that mutant K-Ras plays an oncogenic role through downregulating miR-199b in NSCLC and that overexpression of miR-199b is a novel strategy for the treatment of K-Ras-mutated NSCLC.
Project description:Objective:Lung cancer has high incidence and mortality rate, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) takes up approximately 85% of lung cancer cases. This study is aimed to reveal miRNAs and genes involved in the mechanisms of NSCLC. Materials and Methods:In this retrospective study, GSE21933 (21 NSCLC samples and 21 normal samples), GSE27262 (25 NSCLC samples and 25 normal samples), GSE43458 (40 NSCLC samples and 30 normal samples) and GSE74706 (18 NSCLC samples and 18 normal samples) were searched from gene expression omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened from the four microarray datasets using MetaDE package, and then conducted with functional annotation using DAVID tool. Afterwards, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analyses were carried out using Cytoscape software. Based on miR2Disease and Mirwalk2 databases, microRNAs (miRNAs)-DEG pairs were selected. Finally, Cytoscape software was applied to construct miRNA-DEG regulatory network. Results:Totally, 727 DEGs (382 up-regulated and 345 down-regulated) had the same expression trends in all of the four microarray datasets. In the PPI network, TP53 and FOS could interact with each other and they were among the top 10 nodes. Besides, five network modules were found. After construction of the miRNA-gene network, top 10 miRNAs (such as hsa-miR-16-5p, hsa-let-7b-5p, hsa-miR-15a-5p, hsa-miR-15b-5p, hsa-let-7a-5p and hsa-miR-34a- 5p) and genes (such as HMGA1, BTG2, SOD2 and TP53) were selected. Conclusion:These miRNAs and genes might contribute to the pathogenesis of NSCLC.