Disruption of Broad Epigenetic Domains in PDAC Cells by HAT Inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: The spreading of epigenetic domains has emerged as a distinguishing epigenomic phenotype for diverse cell types. In particular, clusters of H3K27ac- and H3K4me3-marked elements, referred to as super-enhancers, and broad H3K4me3 domains, respectively, have been linked to cell identity and disease states. Here, we characterized the broad domains from different pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines that represent distinct histological grades. Our integrative genomic analysis found that human derived cell line models for distinct PDAC grades exhibit characteristic broad epigenetic features associated with gene expression patterns that are predictive of patient prognosis and provide insight into pancreatic cancer cell identity. In particular, we find that genes marked by overlapping Low-Grade broad domains correspond to an epithelial phenotype and hold potential as markers for patient stratification. We further utilize ChIP-seq to compare the effects of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors to detect global changes in histone acetylation and methylation levels. We found that HAT inhibitors impact certain broad domains of pancreatic cancer cells. Overall, our results reveal potential roles for broad domains in cells from distinct PDAC grades and demonstrate the plasticity of particular broad epigenomic domains to epigenetic inhibitors.
Project description:Background. Recent epigenomic studies have shown that the length of a DNA region covered by an epigenetic mark is not just a byproduct of the assaying technologies and has functional implications for that locus. For example, expanded regions of DNA sequences that are marked by enhancer-specific histone modifications, such as acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac) domains coincide with cell-specific enhancers, known as super or stretch enhancers. Similarly, promoters of genes critical for cell-specific functions are marked by expanded H3K4me3 domains in the cognate cell type, and these can span DNA regions from 4-5kb up to 40-50kb in length. These expanded H3K4me3 domains are known as buffer domains or super promoters. Methods. To ask what correlates with-and potentially regulates-the length of loci marked with these two important histone marks, H3K4me3 and H3K27ac, we built Random Forest regression models. With these models, we computationally identified genomic and epigenomic patterns that are predictive for the length of these marks in seven ENCODE cell lines. Results. We found that certain epigenetic marks and transcription factors explain the variability of the length of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac marks across different cell types, which implies that the lengths of these two epigenetic marks are tightly regulated in a given cell type. Our source code for the regression models and data can be found at our GitHub page: https://github.com/zubekj/broad_peaks. Discussion. Our Random Forest based regression models enabled us to estimate the individual contribution of different epigenetic marks and protein binding patterns to the length of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac deposition patterns, therefore potentially revealing genomic signatures at cell specific regulatory elements.
Project description:Dynamic changes in DNA methylation and demethylation reprogram transcriptional outputs to instruct lineage specification during development. Here, we applied an integrative epigenomic approach to unveil DNA (hydroxy)methylation dynamics representing major endodermal lineage intermediates during pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We found that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) marks genomic regions to be demethylated in the descendent lineage, thus reshaping the DNA methylation landscapes during pancreatic lineage progression. DNA hydroxymethylation is positively correlated with enhancer activities and chromatin accessibility, as well as the selective binding of lineage-specific pioneer transcription factors, during pancreatic differentiation. We further discovered enrichment of hydroxymethylated regions (termed '5hmC-rim') at the boundaries of large hypomethylated functional genomic regions, including super-enhancer, DNA methylation canyon and broad-H3K4me3 peaks. We speculate that '5hmC-rim' might safeguard low levels of cytosine methylation at these regions. Our comprehensive analysis highlights the importance of dynamic changes of epigenetic landscapes in driving pancreatic differentiation of hESC.
Project description:Recent studies have offered ample insight into genome-wide expression patterns to define pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) subtypes, although there remains a lack of knowledge regarding the underlying epigenomics of PDAC. Here we perform multi-parametric integrative analyses of chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) on multiple histone modifications, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), and DNA methylation to define epigenomic landscapes for PDAC subtypes, which can predict their relative aggressiveness and survival. Moreover, we describe the state of promoters, enhancers, super-enhancers, euchromatic, and heterochromatic regions for each subtype. Further analyses indicate that the distinct epigenomic landscapes are regulated by different membrane-to-nucleus pathways. Inactivation of a basal-specific super-enhancer associated pathway reveals the existence of plasticity between subtypes. Thus, our study provides new insight into the epigenetic landscapes associated with the heterogeneity of PDAC, thereby increasing our mechanistic understanding of this disease, as well as offering potential new markers and therapeutic targets.
Project description:Insulin-secreting ? cells and glucagon-secreting ? cells maintain physiological blood glucose levels, and their malfunction drives diabetes development. Using ChIP sequencing and RNA sequencing analysis, we determined the epigenetic and transcriptional landscape of human pancreatic ?, ?, and exocrine cells. We found that, compared with exocrine and ? cells, differentiated ? cells exhibited many more genes bivalently marked by the activating H3K4me3 and repressing H3K27me3 histone modifications. This was particularly true for ? cell signature genes involved in transcriptional regulation. Remarkably, thousands of these genes were in a monovalent state in ? cells, carrying only the activating or repressing mark. Our epigenomic findings suggested that ? to ? cell reprogramming could be promoted by manipulating the histone methylation signature of human pancreatic islets. Indeed, we show that treatment of cultured pancreatic islets with a histone methyltransferase inhibitor leads to colocalization of both glucagon and insulin and glucagon and insulin promoter factor 1 (PDX1) in human islets and colocalization of both glucagon and insulin in mouse islets. Thus, mammalian pancreatic islet cells display cell-type-specific epigenomic plasticity, suggesting that epigenomic manipulation could provide a path to cell reprogramming and novel cell replacement-based therapies for diabetes.
Project description:Regulators of the histone H3-trimethyl lysine-4 (H3K4me3) mark are significantly associated with the genetic risk architecture of common neurodevelopmental disease, including schizophrenia and autism. Typical H3K4me3 is primarily localized in the form of sharp peaks, extending in neuronal chromatin on average only across 500-1500 base pairs mostly in close proximity to annotated transcription start sites. Here, through integrative computational analysis of epigenomic and transcriptomic data based on next-generation sequencing, we investigated H3K4me3 landscapes of sorted neuronal and non-neuronal nuclei in human postmortem, non-human primate and mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC), and blood. To explore whether H3K4me3 peak signals could also extend across much broader domains, we examined broadest domain cell-type-specific H3K4me3 peaks in an unbiased manner with an innovative approach on 41+12 ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data sets. In PFC neurons, broadest H3K4me3 distribution ranged from 3.9 to 12?kb, with extremely broad peaks (~10?kb or broader) related to synaptic function and GABAergic signaling (DLX1, ELFN1, GAD1, IGSF9B and LINC00966). Broadest neuronal peaks showed distinct motif signatures and were centrally positioned in prefrontal gene-regulatory Bayesian networks and sensitive to defective neurodevelopment. Approximately 120 of the broadest H3K4me3 peaks in human PFC neurons, including many genes related to glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling, were fully conserved in chimpanzee, macaque and mouse cortical neurons. Exploration of spread and breadth of lysine methylation markings could provide novel insights into epigenetic mechanism involved in neuropsychiatric disease and neuronal genome evolution.
Project description:During pancreatic cancer progression, heterogeneous subclonal populations evolve in the primary tumor that possess differing capacities to metastasize and cause patient death. However, the genetics of metastasis reflects that of the primary tumor, and PDAC driver mutations arise early. This raises the possibility than an epigenetic process could be operative late. Using an exceptional resource of paired patient samples, we found that different metastatic subclones from the same patient possessed remarkably divergent malignant properties and global epigenetic programs. Global reprogramming was targeted to thousands of large chromatin domains across the genome that collectively specified malignant divergence. This was maintained by a metabolic shift within the pentose phosphate pathway, independent of KRAS driver mutations. Analysis of paired primary and metastatic tumors from multiple patients uncovered substantial epigenetic heterogeneity in primary tumors, which resolved into a terminally reprogrammed state in metastatic lesions. This supports a model whereby driver mutations accumulate early to initiate pancreatic tumorigenesis, followed by a period of subclonal evolution that generates sufficient intra-tumor heterogeneity for selection of epigenetic programs that may increase fitness during malignant progression and metastatic spread. To map the epigenomic landscape of pancreatic cancer progression as it evolves within patients. BS-Seq of 4 patients (A13, A38, A124 and A125). Patient A38 included local peritoneal metastasis and 2 distant metastsis (liver and lung mets). Patient A13 included 2 primary tumors and 1 distant lung metastasis. Each sample has been done with replicates. Patient A124 included 2 primary tumors and 1 normal pancreas.
Project description:Personalized cancer medicine offers the promise of more effective treatments that are tailored to an individual's own dynamic cancer phenotype. Meanwhile, tissue-engineering approaches to modeling tumors may complement these advances by providing a powerful new approach to understanding the adaptation dynamics occurring during treatment. However, in both of these areas new tools will be required to gain a full picture of the genetic and epigenetic regulators of phenotype dynamics occurring in the small populations of cells that drive resistance. In this study, we perform epigenomic analysis of brain tumor cells that are collected from micro-engineered three-dimensional tumor models, overcoming the challenges associated with the small numbers of cells contained within these micro-tissue niches, in this case collecting ~1,000 cells per sample. Specifically, we use a high-resolution epigenomic analysis method known as microfluidic-oscillatory-washing-based chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing (MOWChIP-seq) to analyze histone methylation patterns (H3K4me3). We identified gene loci that are associated with the H3K4me3 modification, which is generally a mark of active transcription. We compared methylation patterns in standard 2D cultures and 3D cultures based on type I collagen hydrogels, under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We found that culture dimensionality drastically impacted the H3k4me3 profile and resulted in differential modifications in response to hypoxic stress. Differentially H3K4me3-marked regions under the culture conditions used in this study have important implications for gene expression differences that have been previously observed. In total, our work illustrates a direct connection between cell culture or tissue niche condition and genome-wide alterations in histone modifications, providing the first steps towards analyzing the spatiotemporal variations in epigenetic regulation of cancer cell phenotypes. This study, to our knowledge, also represents the first time broad-spectrum epigenomic analysis has been applied to small cell samples collected from engineered micro-tissues.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive solid malignancies due to the rapid rate of metastasis and high resistance to currently applied cancer therapies. The complex mechanism underlying the development and progression of PDAC includes interactions between genomic, epigenomic, and signaling pathway alterations. In this review, we summarize the current research findings on the deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms in PDAC and the influence of the epigenome on the dynamics of the gene expression changes underlying epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is responsible for the invasive phenotype of cancer cells and, therefore, their metastatic potential. More importantly, we provide an overview of the studies that uncover potentially actionable pathways. These studies provide a scientific basis to test epigenetic drug efficacy in synergy with other anticancer therapies in future clinical trials, in order to reverse acquired therapy resistance. Thus, epigenomics has the potential to generate relevant new knowledge of both a biological and clinical impact. Moreover, the potential, hurdles, and challenges of predictive biomarker discoveries will be discussed, with a special focus on the promise of liquid biopsies.
Project description:The monitoring of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in high-risk populations is essential. Cathepsin E (CTSE) is specifically and highly expressed in PDAC and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), and its expression gradually increases along with disease progression. In this study, we first established an in situ 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced rat model for PanINs and PDAC and then confirmed that tumorigenesis properties in this model were consistent with those of human PDAC in that CTSE expression gradually increased with tumor development using histology and immunohistochemistry. Then, using in vivo imaging of heterotopically implanted tumors generated from CTSE- overexpressing cells (PANC-1-CTSE) in nude mice and in vitro imaging of PanINs and PDAC in DMBA-induced rats, the specificity of the synthesized CTSE-activatable probe was verified. Quantitative determination identified that the fluorescence signal ratio of pancreatic tumor to normal pancreas gradually increased in association with progressive pathological grades, with the exception of no significant difference between PanIN-II and PanIN-III grades. Finally, we monitored pancreatic carcinogenesis in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in combination with the CTSE-activatable probe. A prospective double-blind control study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of this method in diagnosing PDAC and PanINs of all grades (>82.7%). This allowed us to establish effective diagnostic criteria for CLE in PDAC and PanINs to facilitate the monitoring of PDAC in high-risk populations.