Association of Body Mass Index and Extreme Obesity With Long-Term Outcomes Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
ABSTRACT: Background Previous studies have reported a protective effect of obesity compared with normal body mass index (BMI) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, it is unclear whether this effect extends to the extremely obese. In this large multicenter registry-based study, we sought to examine the relationship between BMI and long-term clinical outcomes following PCI, and in particular to evaluate the association between extreme obesity and long-term survival after PCI. Methods and Results This cohort study included 25 413 patients who underwent PCI between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2017, who were prospectively enrolled in the Melbourne Interventional Group registry. Patients were stratified by World Health Organization-defined BMI categories. The primary end point was National Death Index-linked mortality. The median length of follow-up was 4.4 years (interquartile range 2.0-7.6 years). Of the study cohort, 24.8% had normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), and 3.3% were extremely obese (BMI ?40 kg/m2). Patients with greater degrees of obesity were younger and included a higher proportion of diabetics (P<0.001). After adjustment for age and comorbidities, a J-shaped association was observed between different BMI categories and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for long-term mortality (normal BMI, HR 1.00 [ref]; overweight, HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93, P<0.001; mild obesity, HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.94, P=0.002; moderate obesity, HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.80-1.12, P=0.54; extreme obesity HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.65, P=0.01). Conclusions An obesity paradox is still apparent in contemporary practice, with elevated BMI up to 35 kg/m2 associated with reduced long-term mortality after PCI. However, this protective effect appears not to extend to patients with extreme obesity.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>To investigate the obesity paradox and association of extreme obesity with long-term outcomes among older ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Nineteen thousand four hundred and ninety-nine patients ≥65 years with STEMI surviving to hospital discharge in NCDR ACTION Registry-GWTG linked to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services outcomes between 2007 and 2012 were stratified by body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) into normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9), class I (30-34.9), class II (35-39.9), and class III/extreme obese (≥40) categories. Multivariable-adjusted associations were evaluated between BMI categories and mortality by Cox proportional hazards models, and days alive and out of hospital (DAOH) by generalized estimating equations, within 3 years after discharge. Seventy percent of patients were overweight/obese and 3% extremely obese. Normal weight patients were older and more likely to smoke; while extremely obese patients were younger and more likely to be female and black, with lower socioeconomic status and more comorbidity (P ≤ 0.001). A U-shaped association was observed between BMI categories and mortality: patients with class I obesity were at lowest risk, while normal weight [hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.47] and extremely obese patients (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.74) had higher mortality. Normal weight [odds ratio (OR) 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.90] and extremely obese (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.99) individuals also had lower odds of DAOH.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Mild obesity is associated with lower long-term risk in older STEMI patients, while normal weight and extreme obesity are associated with worse outcomes. These findings highlight hazards faced by an increasing number of older individuals with normal weight or extreme obesity and cardiovascular disease.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> The association between obesity, non-HDL cholesterol, and clinical outcomes in subjects with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is incompletely understood. The aim of this investigation was to explore the association between body mass index (BMI), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, and long-term follow-up prognosis. <b>Methods:</b> This present study used data obtained by the Cardiovascular Center of Beijing Friendship Hospital Database Bank. We identified 3,780 consecutive AMI populations aged 25-93 years from 2013 to 2020. Participants were categorized as normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI <22.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), overweight (23.0 ≤ BMI <24.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), obese class I (25.0 ≤ BMI <29.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), and obese class II (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m<sup>2</sup>). The endpoint of interest was cardiovascular (CV) death, all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, unplanned revascularization, and cardiac hospitalization. <b>Results:</b>Participants with higher BMI were younger and more likely to be males compared with lower BMI groups. Elevated non-HDL cholesterol was present in 8.7, 11.0, 24.3, and 5.9% of the normal, overweight, obese class I, and obese class II groups, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, compared to normal-weight participants with decreased non-HDL cholesterol (reference group), obese participants with and without elevated non-HDL cholesterol had a lower risk of mortality (with obese class I and elevated non-HDL cholesterol: hazard ratio [HR] 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-0.67; with obese class I and decreased non-HDL cholesterol: HR, 0.68, 95% CI, 0.47-0.98; with obese class II and elevated non-HDL cholesterol: HR, 0.42, 95% CI, 0.20-0.87; with obese class II and decreased non-HDL cholesterol: HR, 0.35, 95% CI, 0.16-0.72). <b>Conclusion:</b> In AMI participants performing with PCI, obesity had a better long-term prognosis which probably unaffected by the level of non-HDL cholesterol.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a multiethnic South East Asian population. SETTING:Fifteen participating cardiology centres contributed to the Malaysian National Cardiovascular Disease Database-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (NCVD-PCI) registry. PARTICIPANTS:28?742 patients from the NCVD-PCI registry who had their first PCI between January 2007 and December 2014 were included. Those without their BMI recorded or BMI <11?kg/m2 or >70?kg/m2 were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:In-hospital death, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), vascular complications between different BMI groups were examined. Multivariable-adjusted HRs for 1-year mortality after PCI among the BMI groups were also calculated. RESULTS:The patients were divided into four groups; underweight (BMI <18.5?kg/m2), normal BMI (BMI 18.5 to <23?kg/m2), overweight (BMI 23 to <27.5?kg/m2) and obese (BMI ?27.5?kg/m2). Comparison of their baseline characteristics showed that the obese group was younger, had lower prevalence of smoking but higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. There was no difference found in terms of in-hospital death, MACE and vascular complications after PCI. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that compared with normal BMI group the underweight group had a non-significant difference (HR 1.02, p=0.952), while the overweight group had significantly lower risk of 1-year mortality (HR 0.71, p=0.005). The obese group also showed lower HR but this was non-significant (HR 0.78, p=0.056). CONCLUSIONS:Using Asian-specific BMI cut-off points, the overweight group in our study population was independently associated with lower risk of 1-year mortality after PCI compared with the normal BMI group.
Project description:Background:Catheter ablation (CA) is an established treatment for patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of single CA in AF patients with extreme obesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 40 kg/m2) and its long-term impact on body weight. Methods:Patients with BMI ?40 kg/m2 who underwent CA at the Ohio State University between 2012 and 2016 were included. The primary efficacy endpoint was no atrial arrhythmia lasting > 30 seconds without anti-arrhythmic drugs during 1-year follow-up after a single procedure. Results:Out of 230 AF patients with BMI ? 40 kg/m2 undergoing CA, pulmonary vein isolation was achieved in 226 (98%) patients.Seventeen patients (7.4%) experienced acute major complications, including pericardial effusion, vascular complications and respiratory failure. Patient characteristics for 135 patients with complete 1-year follow-up were as follows: mean age 58.6 ± 9.6 years, mean BMI 44.5±4.7 kg/m2, female 63 (47%), non-paroxysmal AF 100 (74%), median CHA2DS2-VASc score 2 (IQR:1-3). In this cohort, the primary efficacy endpoint was achieved in 44 (33%) patients. Paroxysmal AF was associated with higher CA success compared to non-paroxysmal (51 vs. 26% [p < 0.01]).There was no significant weight change even in patients with successful AF CA. Conclusions:Extreme obesity is associated with low AF CA success, particularly in those with non-paroxysmal AF. Successful AF CA was not associated with long-term weight reduction. A better treatment strategy is needed in this population of AF and extreme obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The "obesity paradox" has not been elucidated in the long-term outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the association between obesity and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in ACS patients with and without diabetes. METHODS:We identified 6978 patients with ACS aged 40-79 years from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort between 2002 and 2015. Baseline body mass index (BMI) was categorized as underweight (<?18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), overweight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), obese class I (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese class II (??30.0 kg/m2). The primary outcome was major adverse CV events (MACE)-CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. The secondary outcomes were the individual components of MACE, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), and all-cause death. RESULTS:After adjustment for confounding variables, compared to normal-weight patients without diabetes (reference group), obese class I patients with and without diabetes had a lower risk of MACE, but only significant in patients without diabetes (with diabetes: hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-1.14; without diabetes: HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.97). Obese class II patient with diabetes had a higher risk of MACE with no statistical significance (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.82-1.59). Underweight patients with and without diabetes had a higher risk of MACE, but only significant in patients with diabetes (with diabetes: HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.24-2.58; without diabetes: HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.77-1.97). CONCLUSION:In ACS patients, obesity had a protective effect on CV outcomes, especially in patients without diabetes.
Project description:The association between obesity and mortality risks following coronary revascularization is not clear. We examined the associations of BMI (kg/m2) with short-, intermediate-, and long-term mortality following coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with different coronary anatomy risks and diabetes mellitus status.Data from the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease (APPROACH) registry were analyzed. Using normal BMI (18.5-24.9) as a reference, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality within 6 months, 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years were individually calculated for CABG and PCI with 4 prespecified BMI categories: overweight (25.0-29.9), obese class I (30.0-34.9), obese class II (35.0-39.9), and obese class III (≥40.0). The analyses were repeated after stratifying for coronary risks and diabetes mellitus status. The cohorts included 7560 and 30 258 patients for CABG and PCI, respectively. Following PCI, overall mortality was lower in patients with overweight and obese class I compared to those with normal BMI; however, 5- and 10-year mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with obese class III with high-risk coronary anatomy, which was primarily driven by higher mortality rates in patients without diabetes mellitus (5-year adjusted hazard ratio, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.11-2.85] and 10-year adjusted hazard ratio, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.02-2.43]). Following CABG, overweight was associated with lower mortality risks compared with normal BMI.Overweight was associated with lower mortality following CABG and PCI. Greater long-term mortality in patients with obese class III following PCI, especially in those with high-risk coronary anatomy without diabetes mellitus, warrants further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The efficacy of antiplatelet therapies following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be affected by body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND RESULTS:This is a prespecified subgroup analysis of the GLOBAL LEADERS trial, a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial in an all-comer population undergoing PCI, comparing the experimental strategy (23-month ticagrelor monotherapy following 1-month dual antiplatelet therapy [DAPT]) with a reference regimen (12-month aspirin monotherapy following 12-month DAPT). A total of 15,968 patients were stratified by baseline BMI with prespecified threshold of 27 kg/m2. Of those, 6973 (43.7%) patients with a BMI?<?27 kg/m2 had a higher risk of all-cause mortality at 2 years than those with BMI???27 kg/m2 (adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02-1.49). At 2 years, the rates of the primary endpoint (all-cause mortality or new Q-wave myocardial infarction) were similar between treatment strategies in either BMI group (pinteraction?=?0.51). In acute coronary syndrome, however, the experimental strategy was associated with significant reduction of the primary endpoint compared to the reference strategy in patients with BMI?<?27 kg/m2 (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.94), but not in the ones with BMI???27 kg/m2 (pinteraction?=?0.047). In chronic coronary syndrome, there was no between-group difference in the efficacy and safety of the two antiplatelet strategies. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, BMI did not influence the treatment effect seen with ticagrelor monotherapy; however, a beneficial effect of ticagrelor monotherapy was seen in ACS patients with BMI?<?27 kg/m2. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, Number NCT01813435.
Project description:The relationship between central obesity and survival in community-dwelling adults with normal body mass index (BMI) is not well-known.To examine total and cardiovascular mortality risks associated with central obesity and normal BMI.Stratified multistage probability design.NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).15,184 adults (52.3% women) aged 18 to 90 years.Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship of obesity patterns defined by BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and total and cardiovascular mortality risk after adjustment for confounding factors.Persons with normal-weight central obesity had the worst long-term survival. For example, a man with a normal BMI (22 kg/m2) and central obesity had greater total mortality risk than one with similar BMI but no central obesity (hazard ratio [HR], 1.87 [95% CI, 1.53 to 2.29]), and this man had twice the mortality risk of participants who were overweight or obese according to BMI only (HR, 2.24 [CI, 1.52 to 3.32] and 2.42 [CI, 1.30 to 4.53], respectively). Women with normal-weight central obesity also had a higher mortality risk than those with similar BMI but no central obesity (HR, 1.48 [CI, 1.35 to 1.62]) and those who were obese according to BMI only (HR, 1.32 [CI, 1.15 to 1.51]). Expected survival estimates were consistently lower for those with central obesity when age and BMI were controlled for.Body fat distribution was assessed based on anthropometric indicators alone. Information on comorbidities was collected by self-report.Normal-weight central obesity defined by WHR is associated with higher mortality than BMI-defined obesity, particularly in the absence of central fat distribution.National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, European Regional Development Fund, and Czech Ministry of Health.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Frail obese community-dwelling older adults are at increased mortality risk. Among hemodialysis (HD) patients, frailty is common and associated with increased mortality risk; however, in dialysis, obesity is associated with decreased mortality risk. Whether the frail-obese phenotype is associated with increased mortality risk among HD patients remains unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>This study included 370 incident HD patients enrolled in the Predictors of Arrhythmic and Cardiovascular Risk in End Stage Renal Disease (PACE) study. We measured frailty using the Fried phenotype, general obesity [body mass index (BMI)??30?kg/m2] and abdominal obesity [waist:hip ratio (WHR)??median WHR] and estimated their associations with mortality.<h4>Results</h4>The mean age was 55?years, with 42% female, 73% African American, 57% diabetic and 52% frail. Frail HD patients had higher mean BMI (frail?=?30.3?kg/m2, non-frail?=?28.3?kg/m2; P?=?0.02) and similar WHR (P?=?0.8). Twenty-two percent were frail with general obesity and 27% were frail with abdominal obesity. Frailty was associated with 1.66-fold increased mortality risk [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.67]. BMI was associated with a decreased mortality risk [25.0-29.9?kg/m2 hazard ratio (HR) 0.53 (95% CI 0.31-0.93); ?30?kg/m2 HR 0.34 (95% CI 0.19-0.62)]. Frailty was associated with elevated mortality risk among HD patients with general [HR 3.77 (95% CI 1.10-12.92)] and abdominal obesity [HR 2.38 (95% CI 1.17-4.82)]. Frailty was not associated with mortality among HD patients without general or abdominal obesity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In adults initiating HD, frailty was associated with elevated mortality risk, even among the obese. Frail-obese HD patients may be a high-risk, often-overlooked population, as obesity is assumed to be protective. Measurement of frailty and obesity may facilitate risk stratification.
Project description:CONTEXT:Most studies linking long-term consequences of adolescent underweight and obesity are limited to men. OBJECTIVE:To assess the sex-specific association of adolescent BMI with cardiovascular- and non-cardiovascular-related mortality in young adulthood and midlife. SETTING:A nationwide cohort. PARTICIPANTS:927,868 women, 1,366,271 men. INTERVENTIONS:Medical examination data at age 17, including BMI, were linked to the national death registry. MAIN OUTCOMES:Death attributed to cardiovascular (CVD) and non-CVD causes. RESULTS:During 17,346,230 women-years and 28,367,431 men-years of follow-up, there were 451 and 3208 CVD deaths, respectively, and 6235 and 22,223 non-CVD deaths, respectively. Compared to low-normal BMI (18.5-22.0 kg/m2), underweight women had a lower adjusted risk for CVD mortality (Cox hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.68; 95% CI 0.46-0.98) in contrast to underweight men (HR?=?0.99; 0.88-1.13). The latter were at higher risk for non-CVD mortality (HR?=?1.04; 1.00-1.09), unlike underweight women (HR?=?1.01; 0.93-1.10). Findings, which persisted when the study sample was limited to those with unimpaired health, were accentuated for the obese with???30 years follow-up. Both sexes exhibited similarly higher risk estimates already in the high-normal BMI range (22.0???BMI?<?25.0 kg/m2) with overall no interaction between sex and BMI (p?=?0.62). Adjusted spline models suggested lower BMI values for minimal mortality risk among women (16.8 and 18.2 kg/m2) than men (18.8 and 20.0 kg/m2), for CVD and non-CVD death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Underweight adolescent females have favorable cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood. Otherwise the risk patterns were similar between the sexes. The optimal BMI value for women and men with respect to future CVD outcomes is within or below the currently accepted low-normal BMI range.