Efficacy of two dosing schemes of a liquid containing ivy leaves dry extract EA 575 versus placebo in the treatment of acute bronchitis in adults.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:The results of a clinical trial published in 2016 showed the efficacy of ivy leaves dry extract EA 575 versus placebo in the treatment of patients suffering from acute cough. A clinical trial with a very similar design was conducted to not only show the reproducibility of former results but also to investigate an alternative dosing scheme. Methods:This randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre, double-blind clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a liquid containing EA 575 in the treatment of acute bronchitis. A total of 209 patients were treated with a liquid containing EA 575 as an active investigational medicinal product (verum) either two (7.5?mL) or three (5?mL) times a day or placebo in the respective dosing scheme for 1?week, with a total observational period of 2?weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was a change in Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS) of the pooled placebo and pooled verum groups between visits 1 and 5. Additional secondary parameters were assessed, including, for example, change in cough severity as assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Verbal Category Descriptive (VCD) score. Results:Superiority of verum over placebo was during and at the end of treatment, as measured by BSS. No significant differences between the dosing schemes were observed. VCD scores and VAS measurements also showed the superiority of verum over placebo. Conclusion:The existing data on the clinical efficacy of EA 575 were confirmed. Furthermore, a new dosing scheme was shown to be noninferior to the currently used scheme while maintaining the safety and tolerability of the well-established cough liquid containing EA 575.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:There is insufficient quality data to recommend the use of herbs for the treatment of acute bronchitis. Small number of randomized trials of plant extracts for this purpose were determined to be low quality and there are concerns for the safety. HL301 is a combined product of seven medicinal plants. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HL301 for the treatment of acute bronchitis with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial design. METHODS:A total of 166 patients with acute bronchitis were randomized to receive placebo or HL301 (600 mg/day) for 7 days. The primary endpoint was change in bronchitis severity score (BSS) from baseline visit (visit 2) to the end of treatment (visit 3). Other efficacy variables were the change of each component of the BSS (cough, sputum, dyspnea, chest pain, and crackle) with treatment, response rate, improvement rate, satisfaction rate and number of rescue medications taken. RESULTS:Changes in the BSS from visit 2 to visit 3 were higher in the HL301 group than in the placebo group both in the full analysis set (4.57 ± 1.82 vs. 3.15 ± 3.08, p < 0.01) and in the per protocol set (4.62 ± 1.81 vs. 3.30 ± 3.03, p < 0.01). Four BSS components (cough, sputum, dyspnea, and chest pain) improved more with HL301 treatment than with placebo treatment. Participants treated with HL301 showed higher response, improvement, and satisfaction rates and less use of rescue medication than the placebo group. CONCLUSION:HL301 (600 mg/day) was effective and safe for symptomatic treatment of acute bronchitis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infection of the large airways; cough is the primary symptom, usually lasting for about 3 weeks. Annually, approximately 5% of adults develop acute bronchitis, and its economic burden is substantial. There are also problems of antibiotic abuse in public health systems and symptomatic therapies are commonly prescribed, for which there is insufficient supporting evidence. GHX02 contains four herbs originating from gwaruhaengryeon-hwan, which has been used in the treatment of patients with acute bronchitis in Korea. The objective is to compare the GHX02 and placebo in terms of efficacy and safety, and to determine the appropriate dosage. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We planned a phase II, multicentre, dose-finding, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of two different doses of GHX02 compared with placebo. A total of 150 patients, aged 19-75 years, with a Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS) ?5?due to acute bronchitis starting within 2 weeks of study enrolment will be recruited from three university-affiliated hospitals across Korea. Participants will be stratified into three patterns using the Korean Standard Tool of Pattern Identifications of Cough and Sputum and randomly assigned to either a high-dose GHX02 group (1920?mg/day), standard-dose GHX02 group (960?mg/day) or placebo group according to a 1:1:1 allocation ratio. Patients will take medications three times daily for 7 days, with two visiting days. The primary outcome measure is a change in BSS from day 0 to day 7. The secondary outcomes are the Questionnaire of Clinical Symptoms of Cough and Sputum, Leicester Cough Questionnaire, frequency of coughing fits, Integrative Medicine Outcome Scale, Integrative Medicine Patient Satisfaction Scale and withdrawal rate of patients with exacerbation. Safety will be assessed by adverse events, vital signs and laboratory examinations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study has been approved by our Institutional Review Board (No. DJDSKH-17-DR-14). The trial results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and the Clinical Research Information Service. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03310385; Pre-results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Spicae aetheroleum (Spicae ae.), a phytomedicine obtained by steam distillation of the flowering tops of Lavandula latifolia, as compared to placebo in adult patients with acute bronchitis. METHODS:Patients with uncomplicated acute bronchitis (bronchitis severity score [BSS] ≥ 5 score points) were randomly assigned to treatment with Spicae ae. or placebo in a double-blind, parallel-group design. No additional treatment was admitted. The primary objective was the mean difference of a defined total BSS of 25% between the Spicae ae. and the placebo group after 7 days of full medication dose. Secondary endpoints included the BSS at day 10, additional signs and symptoms of bronchitis, quality of life (QoL) and safety. RESULTS:The mean decrease in BSS at day 7 and day 10 was significant with 4.79 vs. 3.20 (p < 0.005 for a 25% difference) and 6.47 vs. 4.32 (p < 0.009 for a 25% difference) score points respectively in the Spicae ae. (n = 119) vs. placebo group (n = 110). Accordingly, most additional signs and symptoms of acute bronchitis as well as the patients' QoL improved significantly with Spicae ae. as compared to placebo. In all, 258 patients were eligible for safety analysis. The treatment with Spicae ae. was well tolerated; no serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION:The defined objectives both for the primary and secondary endpoints have been met. The results of this study provide evidence that Spicae ae. is well tolerated, effective and superior to placebo in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis in adult patients.
Project description:Cluster immunotherapy represents an interesting alternative to conventional up-dosing schedules because it allows achieving the maintenance dose within a shorter time interval. In this study, the efficacy and safety of cluster immunotherapy with a high polymerized allergen extract of a grass/rye pollen mixture have been evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.In total, 121 patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to grass pollen were randomized 1 : 1 to verum or placebo group. A short cluster up-dosing schedule of only 1 week was applied to achieve the maintenance dose which was administered monthly during the study period of 1 year. Total combined symptom and medication score (TCS) was defined as primary outcome parameter. Secondary outcome parameters were individual symptom and medication scores, 'well days,' global improvement as well as immunological effects and nasal allergen challenge. The safety profile was evaluated based on the European academy of allergy and clinical immunology grading system.Significant reduction in the verum compared to the placebo group (intention-to-treat, population, verum: n = 55; placebo: n = 47) was found regarding TCS (P = 0.005), rhinoconjunctivitis total symptom score (RTSS, P = 0.006), and total rescue medication score (TRMS, P = 0.002). Additionally, secondary outcomes such as 'well days,' nasal challenge results, and increase of specific IgG4 were in favor of the active treatment. All systemic adverse reactions (0.8% of all injections in the verum group) were of mild intensity. No severe reactions related to the study medication were observed.Cluster immunotherapy with high polymerized grass pollen extracts resulted in significant clinical efficacy and has been shown to be a safe treatment for grass pollen-allergic patients.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy of oral anti-inflammatory or antibiotic treatment compared with placebo in the resolution of cough in patients with uncomplicated acute bronchitis and discoloured sputum.Multicentre, parallel, single blinded placebo controlled, randomised clinical trial.Nine primary care centres in Spain.Adults aged 18 to 70 presenting symptoms associated with respiratory tract infection of less than one week's duration, with cough as the predominant symptom, the presence of discoloured sputum, and at least one other symptom of lower respiratory tract infection (dyspnoea, wheezing, chest discomfort, or chest pain).Patients were randomised to receive either ibuprofen 600 mg three times daily, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 500 mg/125 mg three times daily, or placebo three times daily for 10 days. The duration of symptoms was measured with a diary card.Number of days with frequent cough after the randomisation visit.416 participants were randomised (136 to ibuprofen, 137 to antibiotic, and 143 to placebo) and 390 returned their symptom diaries fully completed. The median number of days with frequent cough was slightly lower among patients assigned to ibuprofen (9 days, 95% confidence interval 8 to 10 days) compared with those receiving amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (11 days, 10 to 12 days) or placebo (11 days, 8 to 14 days), albeit without statistically significant differences. Neither amoxicillin-clavulanic acid nor ibuprofen increased the probability of cough resolution (hazard ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.35 and 1.23, 0.93 to 1.61, respectively) compared with placebo. Adverse events were observed in 27 patients, and were more common in the antibiotic arm (12%) than ibuprofen or placebo arms (5% and 3%, respectively; P<0.01).No significant differences were observed in the number of days with cough between patients with uncomplicated acute bronchitis and discoloured sputum treated with ibuprofen, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, or placebo.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN07852892.
Project description:The examination of cough reflex sensitivity through inhalational challenge can be utilized to demonstrate pharmacological end points. Here we compare the effect of butamirate, dextromethorphan and placebo on capsaicin-induced cough in healthy volunteers.In this randomized, placebo-controlled, six way crossover study the effect of dextromethrophan 30?mg, four doses of butamirate and placebo was evaluated on incremental capsaicin challenges performed at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24?h following dosing. The primary end point was the area under the curve (AUC(0,12h)) of log10 C5 from pre-dose to 12?h after dosing. Plasma butamirate metabolites were analyzed to evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships.Thirty-four subjects (13 males, median age 25 years) completed the study. Cough sensitivity decreased from baseline in all arms of the study. Dextromethorphan was superior to placebo (P?=?0.01) but butamirate failed to show significant activity with maximum attenuation at the 45?mg dose. There was no apparent relationship between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for butamirate.We have demonstrated for the first time that dextromethorphan attenuates capsaicin challenge confirming its broad activity on the cough reflex. The lack of efficacy of butamirate could be due to formulation issues at higher doses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is defined as inappropriate movement of the vocal cords resulting in functional airway obstruction and symptoms including cough, wheezing, and dyspnea. VCD is often misdiagnosed with asthma but can also co-exist with asthma. The association of VCD with other serious pulmonary conditions has not been described to date.<h4>Case reports</h4>We describe the first case series of two adult patients evaluated at a university asthma clinic who in addition to having VCD also had significant pulmonary pathology other than asthma. Patient 1 had VCD and pulmonary veno-occulsive disease which necessitated a lung transplant. Patient 2 had VCD and a patent ductus arteriosis who necessitated surgical closure.<h4>Conclusion</h4>It is important to recognize that VCD can exist with pulmonary conditions other than asthma. Lack of improvement in respiratory symptoms after appropriate treatment for VCD should alert the clinician to evaluate for additional conditions.
Project description:Irreversible pulpitis is an extremely painful condition and its consequence in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. A mouse model of dental pulp injury (DPI) resembles the irreversible pulpitis profile in humans. This study sought to determine whether pain induced by DPI activates microglia and astrocytes in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), as well as increases levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and whether electroacupuncture (EA) can be a potential analgesic and neuroprotective therapy following DPI. Pain behavior was measured via head-withdrawal threshold (HWT) and burrowing behavior at days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 after DPI. A marked decrease in HWT and burrowing activity was observed from day 1 to 14 after DPI and no changes were seen on day 21. Microglial and astrocytes activation; along with high cytokine (TNF?, IL-1?, and IL-6) levels, were observed in the Vc at 21 days after DPI. These effects were attenuated by verum (local and distal) EA, as well as oral ibuprofen administration. The results suggest that DPI-induced pain and glial activations in the Vc and EA exert analgesic efficacy at both local and distal acupoints. Furthermore, verum (local and distal) EA might be associated with the modulations of microglial and astrocytes activation.
Project description:The effectiveness of injection therapy for low-back pain is still debatable. We compared the efficacy of local injections of the homeopathic preparation Disci/Rhus toxicodendron compositum (verum) with placebo injections and with no treatment in patients with chronic low back pain.In a randomized controlled partly double blind multicenter trial patients with chronic low back pain from 9 German outpatient clinics were enrolled and randomly allocated in a 1?1?1 ratio to receive subcutaneous injections (verum or placebo) into painful sites on the lower back over 12 treatment sessions within eight weeks, or no treatment (rescue pain medication with paracetamol or NSAIDs). All trial personnel and participants were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was the average pain intensity over the last seven days on a visual analogue scale (0-100 mm, 0?=?no pain, 100?=?worst imaginable pain) after eight weeks. Follow-up was 26 weeks. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. Between August 2007 and June 2008, 150 patients were randomly allocated to three groups (51 verum, 48 placebo and 51 no treatment). The mean baseline-adjusted low back pain intensity at week eight was: verum group 37.0 mm (97.5% CI 25.3;48.8), no treatment group 53.0 (41.8;64.2), and placebo group 41.8 (30.1;53.6). The verum was significantly superior to no treatment (P?=?0.001), but not to placebo (P?=?0.350). No significant side effects were reported.The homeopathic preparation was not superior to placebo. Compared to no treatment injections resulted in significant and clinical relevant chronic back pain relief.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00567736.
Project description:Background:The objective of this randomized placebo-controlled study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of clarithromycin in combination with bortezomib-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone (VCD) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma eligible for high-dose therapy. Methods:Patients were randomized to receive tablet clarithromycin 500 mg or matching placebo tablet twice daily during the first 3 cycles of VCD induction therapy. Primary endpoint was to compare the rate of very good partial response (VGPR) or better response after three cycles of VCD combined with clarithromycin or placebo. Results:The study was prematurely stopped for safety reasons after the inclusion of 58 patients (36% of the planned study population). The patients were randomly assigned to clarithromycin (n?=?27) or placebo (n?=?31). VGPR or better response after the VCD induction therapy was obtained in 12 patients (44.4%, 95% CI 25.5-64.7) and in 16 patients (51.6%, 33.1-69.8) (p?=?0.59) in the clarithromycin group and the placebo group, respectively. Seven patients (25.9%) in the clarithromycin group developed severe gastrointestinal complications (??grade 3) comprising pain, neutropenic enterocolitis, paralytic ileus or peptic ulcer. These complications occurred in only one patient in the placebo group. Septicemia with Gram negative bacteria was observed in 5 patients in the clarithromycin group in contrast to one case of pneumococcal septicemia in the placebo group. Patient-reported QoL were negatively affected in the clarithromycin group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion:The study was prematurely stopped due to serious adverse events, in particular serious gastrointestinal complications and septicemia. The response data do not suggest any effect of clarithromycin when added to the VCD regimen. The combination of clarithromycin and bortezomib containing regimens is toxic and do not seem to offer extra anti-myeloma efficacy.Trial registration EudraCT (no. 2014-002187-32, registered 7 October 2014, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2014-002187-32/DK) and ClinicalTrials.gov (no NCT02573935, retrospectively registered 12 October 2015, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02573935?term=Gregersen&cntry=DK&rank=9).