Effects of maternal lifestyle interventions on child neurobehavioral development: Follow-up of randomized controlled trials.
ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major public health problem. Children of women who were obese before or during pregnancy are at increased risk for neurobehavioral developmental problems. Whether a maternal lifestyle intervention conducted before and during pregnancy in obese women affects child neurobehavioral development is unknown. This study reports on the follow-up of a subsample of two randomized controlled trials, the Finnish RADIEL (n = 216) and Dutch LIFEstyle (n = 305) trial. Women with a pre-pregnancy BMI ?29 kg/m2 wishing to conceive or who were already pregnant (<20 weeks) were allocated to a lifestyle intervention or to care as usual. Child neurodevelopment was measured with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and child behavioral problems were measured with the Childhood Behavior Checklist (RADIEL) or the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (LIFEstyle) at age 3-6 years. We used linear and binary logistic regression analyses to assess the effects of the lifestyle interventions on children's neurobehavioral developmental scores. Follow-up data was available from 161(38%) RADIEL and 96(32%) LIFEstyle children. Child neurodevelopmental scores did not differ significantly between children in the intervention and the control group (RADIEL:median = 275 vs. 280; LIFEstyle:median = 270 vs 267). Child behavioral problem scores did not differ significantly between children in the intervention and the control group (RADIEL:median = 22 vs. 21; LIFEstyle:median = 8 vs. 8). We did not observe considerable effects of the lifestyle interventions before or during pregnancy in obese women on child neurobehavioral development. With our sample sizes, we were not able to detect subtle differences in neurobehavioral development however.
Project description:AIM:Women with prior gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased diabetes risk. This study aimed to assess whether lifestyle is associated with glycemic health of high-risk women 5 years postpartum, taking into account the pre-pregnancy BMI. METHODS:The RADIEL study enrolled before or in early pregnancy 720 women with pre-pregnancy BMI???30 kg/m2 and/or prior GDM. The follow-up visit 5 years postpartum included questionnaires and measurements of anthropometrics, blood pressure, and physical activity (PA) as well as analyses of glucose metabolism, lipids, and inflammatory markers. We measured body composition (Inbody) and calculated a Healthy Food Intake Index (HFII) from Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ). ArmBand measured PA, sedentary time, and sleep. To take into account the diverse risk groups of GDM, we divided the women based on pre-pregnancy BMI over/under 30 kg/m2. RESULTS:Altogether 348 women attended the follow-up. The obese and non-obese women showed similar prevalence of glycemic abnormalities, 13% and 19% (p?=?0.139). PA levels were higher among the non-obese women (p?<?0.05), except for step count, and their HFII was higher compared to the obese women (p?=?0.033). After adjusting for age, education, and GDM history, PA and HFII were associated with glycemic health only among obese women. When both lifestyle factors were in the same model, only PA remained significant. PA associated with other markers of metabolic health also among the non-obese women, excluding HbA1c. CONCLUSION:Lifestyle 5 years postpartum was associated with better glycemic health only among the obese high-risk women. PA, however, is essential for the metabolic health of all high-risk women. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.com , NCT01698385.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The global prevalence of obesity in women keeps increasing. The preconception period may be a window of opportunity to improve lifestyle, reduce obesity and improve cardiometabolic health. This study assessed the effect of a preconception lifestyle intervention on long-term cardiometabolic health in two randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS:Participants of the LIFEstyle and RADIEL preconception lifestyle intervention studies with a baseline body mass index (BMI) ≥29 kg/m2 were eligible for this follow-up study. Both studies randomized between a lifestyle intervention targeting physical activity, diet and behaviour modification or usual care. We assessed cardiometabolic health 6 years after randomization. RESULTS:In the LIFEstyle study (n = 111) and RADIEL study (n = 39), no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups were found for body composition, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HbA1c, lipids and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels 6 years after randomization. Participants of the LIFEstyle study who successfully lost ≥5% bodyweight or reached a BMI <29 kg/m2 during the intervention (n = 22, [44%]) had lower weight (-8.1 kg; 99% CI [-16.6 to -0.9]), BMI (-3.3 kg/m2; [-6.5 to -0.8]), waist circumference (-8.2 cm; [-15.3 to -1.3]), fasting glucose (-0.5 mmol/L; [-1.1 to -0.0]), HbA1c (-4.1 mmol/mol; [-9.1 to -0.8]), and higher HDL-C (0.3 mmol/L; [0.1-0.5]) compared with controls. CONCLUSION:We found no evidence of improved cardiometabolic health 6 years after a preconception lifestyle intervention among overweight and obese women in two RCTs. Women who successfully lost weight during the intervention had better cardiometabolic health 6 years later, emphasizing the potential of successful preconception lifestyle improvement.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) and obstetric outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The LiP (Lifestyle in Pregnancy) study was a randomized controlled trial in 360 obese women allocated in early pregnancy to lifestyle intervention or control. The intervention program included dietary guidance, free membership in fitness centers, physical training, and personal coaching. RESULTS: A total of 360 obese pregnant women were included, and 304 (84%) were followed up until delivery. The intervention group had a significantly lower median (range) GWG compared with the control group of 7.0 (4.7-10.6) vs. 8.6 kg (5.7-11.5; P = 0.01). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations on GWG were exceeded in 35.4% of women in the intervention group compared with 46.6% in the control group (P = 0.058). Overall, the obstetric outcomes between the two groups were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle intervention in pregnancy resulted in limited GWG in obese pregnant women. Overall obstetric outcomes were similar in the two groups. Lifestyle intervention resulted in a higher adherence to the IOM weight gain recommendations; however, a significant number of women still exceeded the upper threshold.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>In obese women, 1) to assess whether lower gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy in the lifestyle intervention group of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) resulted in differences in offspring anthropometrics and body composition, and 2) to compare offspring outcomes to a reference group of children born to women with a normal Body Mass Index (BMI).<h4>Research design and methods</h4>The LiPO (Lifestyle in Pregnancy and Offspring) study was an offspring follow-up of a RCT with 360 obese pregnant women with a lifestyle intervention during pregnancy including dietary advice, coaching and exercise. The trial was completed by 301 women who were eligible for follow-up. In addition, to the children from the RCT, a group of children born to women with a normal BMI were included as a reference group. At 2.8 (range 2.5-3.2) years, anthropometrics were measured in 157 children of the RCT mothers and in 97 reference group children with Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-score as a primary outcome. Body composition was estimated by Dual Energy X-ray (DEXA) in 123 successful scans out of 147 (84%).<h4>Results</h4>No differences between randomized groups were seen in mean (95% C.I.) BMI Z-score (intervention group 0.06 [-0.17; 0.29] vs. controls -0.18 [-0.43; 0.05]), in the percentage of overweight or obese children (10.9% vs. 6.7%), in other anthropometrics, or in body composition values by DEXA. Outcomes between children from the RCT and the reference group children were not significantly different.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The RCT with lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women did not result in any detectable effect on offspring anthropometrics or body composition by DEXA at 2.8 years of age. This may reflect the limited difference in GWG between intervention and control groups. Offspring of obese mothers from the RCT were comparable to offspring of mothers with a normal BMI.
Project description:Background:The offspring of obese pregnant women are at risk for adverse metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular programming. Comprehensive long-term data are lacking on the contribution of changes in maternal weight after bariatric surgery before pregnancy compared with lifestyle interventions during pregnancy on the cardiovascular programming of the offspring. Methods:EFFECTOR is designed as a cross-sectional cohort follow-up study targeting the children of different groups of women who were previously studied during their pregnancy. Four subgroups of children are identified, based on maternal weight characteristics during pregnancy: normal weight women, obese women without any intervention and obese women who underwent a lifestyle intervention during or bariatric surgery before pregnancy. Data collection is performed as a single study visit at home. Data on the sociodemographic situation, food habits and psychomotor development are obtained through questionnaires. During the home visit, extensive anthropometric and vascular assessment is performed. Information on body composition is provided by assessment of body weight and height, bioelectrical impedance analysis, skinfold measurements and ultrasound. Endothelial function is measured by non-invasive peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT 2000). Biomarkers performed in blood and urinalysis conclude the data collection process. Trial registration number:NCT02992106 (Pre-results).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity in infertile women increases the costs of fertility treatments, reduces their effectiveness and increases significantly the risks of many complications of pregnancy and for the newborn. Studies suggest that even a modest loss of 5-10 % of body weight can restore ovulation. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program targeting obese infertile women and integrated into the fertility clinics. This study will evaluate clinical outcomes and costs of a transferable interdisciplinary lifestyle intervention, before and during pregnancy, in obese infertile women. We hypothesize that the intervention will: 1) improve fertility, efficacy of fertility treatments, and health of mothers and their children; and 2) reduce the cost per live birth, including costs of fertility treatments and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN:Obese infertile women (age: 18-40 years; BMI ?30 kg/m(2) or ?27 kg/m(2) with polycystic ovary syndrome) will be randomised to either a lifestyle intervention followed by standard fertility treatments after 6 months if no conception has been achieved (intervention group) or standard fertility treatments only (control group). The intervention and/or follow-up will last for a maximum of 18 months or up to the end of pregnancy. Evaluation visits will be planned every 6 months where different outcome measures will be assessed. The primary outcome will be live-birth rates at 18 months. The secondary outcomes will be sub-divided into four categories: lifestyle and anthropometric, fertility, pregnancy complications, and neonatal outcomes. Outcomes and costs will be also compared to similar women seen in three fertility clinics across Canada. Qualitative data will also be collected from both professionals and obese infertile women. DISCUSSION:This study will generate new knowledge about the implementation, impacts and costs of a lifestyle management program in obese infertile women. This information will be relevant for decision-makers and health care professionals, and should be generalizable to North American fertility clinics. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01483612. Registered 25 November 2011.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight, obesity and consequently the incidence of gestational diabetes are increasing rapidly worldwide. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a combined diet and physical activity intervention implemented before, during and after pregnancy in a primary health care setting for preventing gestational diabetes, later type 2 diabetes and other metabolic consequences. METHODS: RADIEL is a randomized controlled multi-center intervention trial in women at high risk for diabetes (a previous history of gestational diabetes or prepregnancy BMI ?30 kg/m2). Participants planning pregnancy or in the first half of pregnancy were parallel-group randomized into an intervention arm which received lifestyle counseling and a control arm which received usual care given at their local antenatal clinics. All participants visited a study nurse every three months before and during pregnancy, and at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Measurements and laboratory tests were performed on all participants with special focus on dietary and exercise habits and metabolic markers.Of the 728 women [mean age 32.5 years (SD 4.7); median parity 1 (range 0-9)] considered to be eligible for the study 235 were non-pregnant and 493 pregnant [mean gestational age 13 (range 6 to 18) weeks] at the time of enrollment. The proportion of nulliparous women was 29.8% (n = 217). Out of all participants, 79.6% of the non-pregnant and 40.4% of the pregnant women had previous gestational diabetes and 20.4% of the non-pregnant and 59.6% of the pregnant women were recruited because of a prepregnancy BMI ?30 kg/m2. Mean BMI at first visit was 30.1 kg/m2 (SD 6.2) in the non-pregnant and 32.7 kg/m2 (SD 5.6) in the pregnant group. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first randomized lifestyle intervention trial, which includes, besides the pregnancy period, both the prepregnancy and the postpartum period. This study design also provides an opportunity to focus upon the health of the next generation. The study is expected to produce novel information on the optimal timing and setting of interventions and for allocating resources to prevent obesity and diabetes in women of reproductive age.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are related to adverse outcomes in women and children. Lifestyle interventions during pregnancy showed positive effects on decreasing weight gain during pregnancy, but effects on offspring's health and wellbeing are unclear. We aimed to assess the effect of lifestyle intervention programmes on offspring mental health, temperament, eating habits and anthropometric and cardiovascular measures. METHODS:Ninety-six offspring of pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) ?29 kg/m2 who were randomly assigned to 3 intervention groups during pregnancy (routine antenatal care, a brochure group or a prenatal session group) and 77 offspring of pregnant women with a normal BMI (between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2) were used as an additional control group in this analysis. When the children were between 3 and 7 years old, anthropometric and cardiovascular measurements were conducted and various questionnaires about offspring mental health, temperament and eating habits were filled out. RESULTS:Children of mothers who received a brochure-based lifestyle intervention programme showed significantly less surgency/extraversion compared to children of mothers who received routine antenatal care (contrast estimate = -0.36, SE = 0.15, p = 0.02, 95% CI [-6.66, -0.06]) and prenatal lifestyle intervention sessions (contrast estimate = -0.46, SE = 0.14, p < 0.01, 95% CI [-0.74, -0.18]) after adjusting for child's age, sex, offspring birth weight and mother's educational level. The lifestyle intervention could not be associated with any significant differences in offspring mental health, eating habits and anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics. Children of mothers with a normal BMI showed less emotional problems (F(1, 156) = 5.42, p = 0.02) and internalizing (F(1, 156) = 3.04, p = 0.08) and externalizing problems (F(1, 156) = 6.10, p = 0.02) when compared to children of mothers in the obese group. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION:The results suggest that a brochure-based lifestyle intervention programme can affect the offspring temperament. Future follow-up studies need to investigate how these temperament-related effects may influence obesity development later in life.
Project description:The effectiveness of prenatal lifestyle intervention to prevent gestational diabetes and improve maternal glucose metabolism remains to be established. The Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) randomized, controlled trial studied the effect of a combined lifestyle intervention provided to a general population, and found significantly lower gestational weight gain among intervention participants but no improvement in obstetrical outcomes or the proportion of large infants. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of the NFFD intervention on glucose metabolism, including an assessment of the subgroups of normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.Healthy, non-diabetic women expecting their first child, with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ?19 kg/m2, age ? 18 years and a singleton pregnancy of ?20 gestational-weeks were enrolled from healthcare clinics in southern Norway. Gestational weight gain was the primary endpoint. Participants (n = 606) were individually randomized to intervention (two dietary consultations and access to twice-weekly exercise groups) or control group (routine prenatal care). The effect of intervention on glucose metabolism was a secondary endpoint, measuring glucose (fasting and 2-h following 75-g glucose load), insulin, homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and leptin levels at gestational-week 30.Blood samples from 557 (91.9%) women were analyzed. For the total group, intervention resulted in reduced insulin (adj. Mean diff -0.91 mU/l, p = 0.045) and leptin levels (adj. Mean diff -207 pmol/l, p = 0.021) compared to routine care, while glucose levels were unchanged. However, the effect of intervention on both fasting and 2-h glucose was modified by pre-pregnancy BMI (interaction p = 0.030 and p = 0.039, respectively). For overweight/obese women (n = 158), intervention was associated with increased risk of at least one glucose measurement exceeding International Association of Pregnancy and Diabetes Study Group thresholds (33.7% vs. 13.9%, adj. OR 3.89, p = 0.004).The Norwegian Fit for Delivery intervention lowered neither glucose levels nor GDM incidence, despite reductions in insulin and leptin. Prenatal combined lifestyle interventions designed for a general population may be unsuited to reduce GDM risk, particularly among overweight/obese women, who may require earlier and more targeted interventions.ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01001689 , registered July 2, 2009, confirmed completed October 26, 2009 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pregnancy is associated with widespread change in metabolism, which may be more marked in obese women. Whether lifestyle interventions in obese pregnant women improve pregnancy metabolic profiles remains unknown. Our objectives were to determine the magnitude of change in metabolic measures during obese pregnancy, to indirectly compare these to similar profiles in a general pregnant population, and to determine the impact of a lifestyle intervention on change in metabolic measures in obese pregnant women. METHODS:Data from a randomised controlled trial of 1158 obese (BMI ??30 kg/m2) pregnant women recruited from six UK inner-city obstetric departments were used. Women were randomised to either the UPBEAT intervention, a tailored complex lifestyle intervention focused on improving diet and physical activity, or standard antenatal care (control group). UPBEAT has been shown to improve diet and physical activity during pregnancy and up to 6-months postnatally in obese women and to reduce offspring adiposity at 6-months; it did not affect risk of gestational diabetes (the primary outcome). Change in the concentrations of 158 metabolic measures (129 lipids, 9 glycerides and phospholipids, and 20 low-molecular weight metabolites), quantified three times during pregnancy, were compared using multilevel models. The role of chance was assessed with a false discovery rate of 5% adjusted p values. RESULTS:All very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles increased by 1.5-3 standard deviation units (SD) whereas intermediate density lipoprotein and specific (large, medium and small) LDL particles increased by 1-2 SD, between 16 and 36 weeks' gestation. Triglycerides increased by 2-3 SD, with more modest changes in other metabolites. Indirect comparisons suggest that the magnitudes of change across pregnancy in these obese women were 2- to 3-fold larger than in unselected women (n = 4260 in cross-sectional and 583 in longitudinal analyses) from an independent, previously published, study. The intervention reduced the rate of increase in extremely large, very large, large and medium VLDL particles, particularly those containing triglycerides. CONCLUSION:There are marked changes in lipids and lipoproteins and more modest changes in other metabolites across pregnancy in obese women, with some evidence that this is more marked than in unselected pregnant women. The UPBEAT lifestyle intervention may contribute to a healthier metabolic profile in obese pregnant women, but our results require replication. TRIAL REGISTRATION:UPBEAT was registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN89971375 , on July 23, 2008 (prior to recruitment).