Delirium After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Under General Anesthesia: Incidence, Predictors, and Relation to Long-Term Survival.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Prospectively collected data on postoperative delirium (POD) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are scarce. The aim of this study was to report the incidence and risk factors of delirium after TAVI under general anesthesia and to assess the association of POD with clinical outcome and short- and long-term survival. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 703 subsequent patients undergoing TAVI under general anesthesia between 2008 and 2017. MEASUREMENTS:Delirium was assessed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), criteria. Outcomes were postprocedural clinical outcome and short- and long-term survival (30?days and 5 years, respectively). RESULTS:POD was observed in 16.5% (116/703), was the strongest independent predictor of long-term mortality (hazard ratio = 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-2.70), and was associated with impaired 30-day and 5-year survival (92.2% vs 96.8% [P = .025] and 40.0% vs 50.0% [P = .007], respectively). Stroke and new onset of atrial fibrillation were more often observed in delirious patients (6.9% vs 1.9% and 12.1% vs 5.1%, respectively). Strongest independent predictors of POD were prior delirium (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.52-4.31) and aortic valve area?less than 0.75?cm2 (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.53-3.74). CONCLUSION:One in six patients experienced POD after TAVI under general anesthesia. POD was the strongest predictor of long-term mortality and was associated with impaired short- and long-term survival. Prior delirium and a more calcified aortic valve were the strongest independent predictors of POD. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2325-2330, 2019.
Project description:BACKGROUND:delirium is an event leading to negative health outcomes and increased mortality in patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence, determinants and consequences of post-operative delirium (POD) in older patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS:The TAVI Care and Cure program is a prospective, observational registry in patients referred for TAVI at Erasmus University Medical Centre. The presence of delirium was evaluated by daily clinical assessment by a geriatrician pre- and up to 3 days post-TAVI. Mortality data were obtained from the Dutch Civil Registry. RESULTS:A total of 543 patients underwent TAVI between January 2014 and December 2017. Overall, the incidence of POD was 14% (75/543 patients) but declined from 18% in 2014 to 7% in 2017 (P =?0.009). Patients who developed POD were older (81.9?±?5.8 versus 78.6?±?8.3 years, P <?0.001), had higher prevalence of renal dysfunction and prior stroke (54% versus 40%, P =?0.02; 31% versus 18%, P =?0.01) and were more often frail (32% versus 25%, P =?0.02). From a procedural perspective, general anesthesia (odds ratios (OR), 2.31; 95% CI, 1.40-3.83; P =?0.001), non-transfemoral access (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.20-4.70; P =?0.01) and longer procedural time (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02; P <?0.001) were significantly associated with POD. One-year survival rate was 68% among patients who had suffered a POD and was 85% in patients without a POD (hazard ratio's 1.8 (95% CI 1.01-3.10), P =?0.045). CONCLUSION:POD frequently occurs after TAVI and is associated with increased mortality. It might be speculated that patient selection and the minimalistic approach of TAVI may reduce the frequency of delirium.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine whether an association exists between delirium and length of time indwelling urine catheters (IUC) are used in octogenarian patients treated with surgical aortic valve treatment (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:Tertiary university hospital covering the western region of Norway. PARTICIPANTS:Octogenarian patients undergoing elective SAVR or TAVI and willing to participate in the study were eligible. Patients unable to speak Norwegian were excluded. Between 2011 and 2013, 143 consecutive patients were included, and data from 136 of them are presented. PRIMARY OUTCOME:Delirium. RESULTS:Logistic regression analysis shows that lower cognitive function was positively associated with delirium (OR 0.86, CI 0.74 to 0.99, p=0.047). Besides, the interaction term in the model shows that IUC use and delirium differed between SAVR and TAVI patients (p=0.04). The difference corresponded to a weaker association between hours of IUC use and delirium for SAVR (OR 1.01, CI: 0.99 to 1.03, p=0.54) compared with that for TAVI (OR 1.04, CI: 1.01 to 1.08, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS:The association between IUC use and delirium is stronger for octogenarian patients treated with TAVI than for patients who received SAVR. Our results revealed a previously unknown association between the number of hours an IUC is used and postoperative delirium in octogenarian patients treated with TAVI.
Project description:Delirium is a severe and common complication following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We sought to identify the prevalence and risk factors associated with the development of postprocedural delirium in patients aged over 60 years who underwent elective TAVI for aortic stenosis. Overall, 1,051 articles were searched, from which 9 studies were included. The prevalence of delirium following TAVI was higher in studies that assessed delirium for a minimum of 3 consecutive days (24.9%) compared with the studies that did not (2%). There were large effect sizes (d > 0.8) for 3 risk factors: acute kidney injury (odds ratio [OR] 5, p < 0.001), transapical approach (OR 4, p < 0.001) and carotid artery disease (OR 4, p < 0.001), whilst small effect sizes were found for a history of atrial fibrillation, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, and prior cognitive impairment. In conclusion, 23% of patients 60 years and over who underwent TAVI experience delirium, a preventative cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Recognition of risk factors for delirium after TAVI, such as a history of carotid artery disease, development of acute kidney injury, or use of a transapical approach, provides an opportunity to implement proven delirium preventative measures.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been accepted as one of primary options for treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Although TAVI has been predominantly used for patients at high risk or with old age who were not considered optimal candidates for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), its indication is now expanding toward low risk profile and younger age. Many clinical trials are now ongoing to test the possibility of TAVI for use in patients even with uncharted indications who are not eligible for SAVR in current guidelines but may benefit from valve replacement. Current issues including periprocedural safety, long-term adverse events, hemodynamics and durability associated with TAVI should be also solved for expanding use of TAVI. The review presents current status and future directions of TAVI and discusses perspectives in Korea.
Project description:AIMS:The third generation Edwards Sapien 3 (Edwards Lifesciences Inc., Irvine, California) system was optimized to reduce residual aortic regurgitation and vascular complications. METHODS AND RESULTS:235 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis were prospectively enrolled. Transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI) were performed without general anesthesia by transfemoral approach. Patients were followed for 30 days. Patients received 23mm (N = 77), 26mm (N = 91) or 29mm (N = 67) valve based on pre-procedural 256 multislice computer tomography. Mean oversizing did not differ between the 3 valves. There was no residual moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Rate of mild aortic regurgitation and regurgitation index did not differ between groups. There was no switch to general anesthesia or conversion to surgery. Rate of major vascular complication was 3.0% with no difference between valve and delivery sheath sizes. Within 30 days rates of all cause mortality (2.6%) and stroke (2.1%) were low. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with severe aortic stenosis transfemoral TAVI with the Edwards Sapien 3 valve without general anesthesia was associated with a high rate of device success, no moderate or severe residual aortic regurgitation, low rates of major vascular complication, mortality and stroke within 30 days with no difference between the 3 valve sizes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02162069.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an important treatment option for older patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, not all patients benefit from this procedure in terms of functional outcome and quality of life. This complicates patient selection and shared decision-making. Postoperative delirium might negatively affect patient outcomes after TAVI. We therefore studied the potential relationship between postoperative delirium and functional outcome, and how this impacts quality of life after TAVI.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a prospective cohort study of 91 consecutive patients undergoing TAVI between 2015 and 2017 at an academic medical center. All patients underwent a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment before TAVI. Delirium symptoms were assessed daily during hospitalization. Follow up was carried out between 6 and 12 months postprocedure. The primary outcome was functional decline or death at follow up. Secondarily, we measured quality of life at follow up.<h4>Results</h4>The incidence of postoperative delirium was 15.4%. In total, 38.5% of patients experienced functional decline, and 11.0% died during a median follow-up period of 7?months. Delirium resulted in a fourfold increased odds of the combined outcome of functional decline or death. Quality of life was lower in patients that experienced this outcome.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In a cohort of TAVI patients, functional decline or death was a frequent outcome in the first year postprocedure. Postoperative delirium increased the odds for this outcome substantially. This suggests that delirium risk should be an important factor to consider in shared decision-making for TAVI patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 1202-1207.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus surgical replacement of an aortic valve (SAVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis at low and intermediate risk of perioperative death. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized trials of TAVI compared with SAVR in patients with a mean perioperative risk of death <8%. REVIEW METHODS: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias for outcomes important to patients that were selected a priori by a parallel guideline committee, including patient advisors. We used the GRADE system was used to quantify absolute effects and quality of evidence. RESULTS: 4 trials with 3179 patients and a median follow-up of two years were included. Compared with SAVR, transfemoral TAVI was associated with reduced mortality (risk difference per 1000 patients: -30, 95% confidence interval -49 to -8, moderate certainty), stroke (-20, -37 to 1, moderate certainty), life threatening bleeding (-252, -293 to -190, high certainty), atrial fibrillation (-178, -150 to -203, moderate certainty), and acute kidney injury (-53, -39 to -62, high certainty) but increased short term aortic valve reintervention (7, 1 to 21, moderate certainty), permanent pacemaker insertion (134, 16 to 382, moderate certainty), and moderate or severe symptoms of heart failure (18, 5 to 34, moderate certainty). Compared with SAVR, transapical TAVI was associated higher mortality (57, -16 to 153, moderate certainty, P=0.015 for interaction between transfemoral versus transapical TAVI) and stroke (45, -2 to 125, moderate certainty, interaction P=0.012). No study reported long term follow-up, which is particularly important for structural valve deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients, particularly those who have a shorter life expectancy or place a lower value on the risk of long term valve degeneration, are likely to perceive net benefit with transfemoral TAVI versus SAVR. SAVR, however, performs better than transapical TAVI, which is of interest to patients who are not candidates for transfemoral TAVI. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016042879.
Project description:Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common primary valve disorder in the elderly with an increasing prevalence; transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an accepted alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the high risk or inoperable patient. Appropriate selection of patients for TAVI is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary approach including cardiothoracic surgeons, interventional cardiologists, anaesthetists, imaging experts and specialist nurses. Multimodality imaging including echocardiography, CT and MRI plays a pivotal role in the selection and planning process; however, echocardiography remains the primary imaging modality used for patient selection, intra-procedural guidance, post-procedural assessment and long-term follow-up. The contribution that contemporary transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography make to the selection and planning of TAVI is described in this article.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the standard of care for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Antithrombotic therapy is required after TAVI to prevent thrombotic complications but it increases the risk of bleeding events. Current clinical guidelines are mostly driven by expert opinion and therefore yield low-grade recommendations. The optimal antithrombotic regimen following TAVI has yet to be determined and several randomised controlled trials assessing this issue are ongoing. The purpose of this article is to critically explore the impact of antithrombotic drugs, especially anticoagulants, on long-term clinical outcomes following successful TAVI.
Project description:Aortic valve predilation with balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is recommended before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), despite limited data around the requirement of this preprocedural step and the potential risks of embolization. This study aimed to investigate the trends in practice and associations of BAV on short-term outcomes in the UK TAVI registry.Eleven clinical endpoints were investigated, including 30-day mortality, myocardial infarction, aortic regurgitation, valve dysfunction, and composite early safety. All endpoints were defined as per the VARC-2 definitions. Odd ratios of each endpoint were estimated using logistic regression, with data analyzed in balloon- and self-expandable valve subgroups. Propensity scores were calculated using patient demographics and procedural variables, which were included in the models of each endpoint to adjust for measured confounding. Between 2007 and 2014, 5887 patients met the study inclusion criteria, 1421 (24.1%) of whom had no BAV before TAVI valve deployment. We observed heterogeneity in the use of BAV nationally, both temporally and by center experience; rates of BAV in pre-TAVI workup varied between 30% and 97% across TAVI centers. All endpoints were similar between treatment groups in SAPIEN (Edwards Lifesciences Inc., Irvine, CA) valve patients. After correction for multiple testing, none of the endpoints in CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) patients were significantly different between patients with or without predilation.Performing TAVI without predilation was not associated with adverse short-term outcomes post procedure, especially when using a balloon-expandable prosthesis. Randomized trials including different valve types are required to provide conclusive evidence regarding the utility of predilation before-TAVI.