Thermal reaction and luminescence of long-lived N 2D in N2 ice.
ABSTRACT: Photochemistry of an N2 ice and thermal reaction of the irradiated sample were studied with vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) light from a synchrotron. Concurrent detection of infrared absorption and visible emission spectra provide evidence for the generation of energetic products N (2D) and N (2P) atoms, N2 (A) molecule and linear-N3 (l-N3) radical after excitation of icy N2 at 121.6 nm. Irradiation at 190 nm is shown to be an effective way to eliminate the l-N3 radical. After the photolysis and photoelimination of the l-N3, we initiate synthesis of l-N3 via the thermal ramping of the sample in temperature range 3.5 to 20 K. In addition, the emission from the N (2D) atom was observed during the thermal ramping process. These behaviors indicate that a long-lived N (2Dlong) atom is generated in the VUV-photolyzed N2 ice. A comparison of the variations of the visible emission of N (2D) and the infrared absorption of l-N3 with time indicates that the long-lived N (2Dlong) dominated the thermal synthesis of l-N3 The results have enhanced suggestion and understanding of the conversion for nitrogen species in cold astrophysical environments with VUV irradiation.
Project description:Owing to high quantum efficiency, adjustable composition and antioxidation properties of oxynitride phosphors, extensive investigations have focused on their photoluminescence properties under low-energy light excitation (UV or blue light). However, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) luminescence properties of oxynitride phosphors are rarely researched. Present work studies the structure and VUV luminescence properties of an oxynitride phosphor: AlON: Eu, Mg, which is synthesized by solid-state reaction. Under 147 nm excitation, it was found that AlON: Eu, Mg phosphor shows a blue emission band centered at about 470 nm. The first principle calculation is used to analyze the origin of the VUV absorption. Compared with BaMgAl10O17: Eu2+ phosphor, AlON: Eu, Mg phosphor shows better thermal stability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The obligate intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a neglected illness affecting millions of people in Latin America that recently entered non-endemic countries through immigration, as a consequence of globalization. The chemotherapy for this disease is based mainly on benznidazole and nifurtimox, which are very efficient nitroderivatives against the acute stage but present limited efficacy during the chronic phase. Our group has been studying the trypanocidal effects of naturally occurring quinones and their derivatives, and naphthoimidazoles derived from ?-lapachone N1, N2 and N3 were the most active. To assess the molecular mechanisms of action of these compounds, we applied proteomic techniques to analyze treated bloodstream trypomastigotes, which are the clinically relevant stage of the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The approach consisted of quantification by 2D-DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF protein identification. A total of 61 differentially abundant protein spots were detected when comparing the control with each N1, N2 or N3 treatment, for 34 identified spots. Among the differentially abundant proteins were activated protein kinase C receptor, tubulin isoforms, asparagine synthetase, arginine kinase, elongation factor 2, enolase, guanine deaminase, heat shock proteins, hypothetical proteins, paraflagellar rod components, RAB GDP dissociation inhibitor, succinyl-CoA ligase, ATP synthase subunit B and methionine sulfoxide reductase. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE:Our results point to different modes of action for N1, N2 and N3, which indicate a great variety of metabolic pathways involved and allow for novel perspectives on the development of trypanocidal agents.
Project description:The remarkable narrow-band emission of trivalent lanthanide-doped phosphors excited by the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation lines of Xe atoms/Xe2 molecules at 147/172?nm are extensively investigated in the development of plasma display panels and Hg-free fluorescent lamps, which are frequently used in our daily lives. Numerous solid materials, particularly Tb3+-doped oxides, such as silicates, phosphates and borates, are efficient green/blue sources with color-tunable properties. The excitation wavelength and rare earth concentration are usually varied to optimize efficiency and the luminescent properties. However, some underlying mechanisms for the shift in the emission colors remain unclear. The present study shows that a UV/VUV switch systematically controls the change in the phosphor (Ba3Si6O12N2:Tb) photoluminescence from green to blue, resulting in a green emission when the system is excited with UV radiation. However, a blue color is observed when the radiation wavelength shifts to the VUV region. Thus, a configurational coordinate model is proposed for the color-reversal effect. In this model, the dominant radiative decay results in a green emission under low-energy UV excitation from the 5D4 state of the f-f inner-shell transition in the Tb system. However, under high-energy VUV excitation, the state switches into the 5D3 state, which exhibits a blue emission. This mechanism is expected to be generally applicable to Tb-doped phosphors and useful in adjusting the optical properties against well-known cross-relaxation processes by varying the ratio of the green/blue contributions.
Project description:A simple and efficient method for selective cage B(3) multiple functionalization of o-carborane is described. Reaction of [3-N2-o-C2B10H11][BF4] with various kinds of nucleophiles gave a very broad spectrum of cage B(3)-substituted o-carborane derivatives, 3-X-o-C2B10H11 (X = OH, SCN, NH2, NO2, N3, CF3, PO(C6H5)2, etc). This reaction may serve as another efficient [18F]-radiolabeling method of carborane clusters for positron emission tomography applications.
Project description:Abstract:We report the development of a novel visible response BiVO4/TiO2(N2) nanotubes photoanode for photoelectrocatalytic applications. The nitrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube shows a high carrier concentration rate, thus resulting in a high efficient charge transportation and low electron-hole recombination in the TiO2-BiVO4. Therefore, the BiVO4/TiO2(N2) NTs photoanode enabled with a significantly enhanced photocurrent of 2.73 mA cm-2 (at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and a degradation efficiency in the oxidation of dyes under visible light. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and UV-Vis absorption spectrum were conducted to characterize the photoanode and demonstrated the presence of both metal oxides as a junction composite. Graphical Abstract:Visible-light response BiVO4/TiO2(N2) naontubes photoelectrode was fabricated for photoelectrochemical water splitting and organic degradation in this paper.
Project description:Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of temperature change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and warming tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and warming tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat temperatures from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark environmentally relevant rates of temperature change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of warming tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated warming tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the warming tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3-0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the environmental setting and experimental conditions when assessing species' vulnerability to climate change using a warming tolerance approach.
Project description:Aims:This paper investigates how the far-IR water ice features can be used to infer properties of disks around T Tauri stars and the water ice thermal history. We explore the power of future observations with SOFIA/HIRMES and SPICA's proposed far-IR instrument SAFARI. Methods:A series of detailed radiative transfer disk models around a representative T Tauri star are used to investigate how the far-IR water ice features at 45 and 63 ?m change with key disk properties: disk size, grain sizes, disk dust mass, dust settling, and ice thickness. In addition, a series of models is devised to calculate the water ice emission features from warmup, direct deposit and cooldown scenarios of the water ice in disks. Results:Photodesorption from icy grains in disk surfaces weakens the mid-IR water ice features by factors 4-5. The far-IR water ice emission features originate from small grains at the surface snow line in disks at distance of 10-100 au. Unless this reservoir is missing in disks (e.g. transitional disks with large cavities), the feature strength is not changing. Grains larger than 10 ?m do not contribute to the features. Grain settling (using turbulent description) is affecting the strength of the ice features by at most 15%. The strength of the ice feature scales with the disk dust mass and water ice fraction on the grains, but saturates for dust masses larger than 10-4 M? and for ice mantles that increase the dust mass by more than 50%. The various thermal histories of water ice leave an imprint on the shape of the features (crystalline/amorphous) as well as on the peak strength and position of the 45 ?m feature. SOFIA/HIRMES can only detect crystalline ice features much stronger than simulated in our standard T Tauri disk model in deep exposures (1 hr). SPICA/SAFARI can detect the typical ice features in our standard T Tauri disk model in short exposures (10 min). Conclusions:The sensitivity of SPICA/SAFARI will allow the detailed study of the 45 and 63 ?m water ice feature in unbiased surveys of T Tauri stars in nearby star forming regions and an estimate of the mass of their ice reservoir. The water ice emission features carry an imprint of the thermal history of the ice and thus can distinguish between various formation and transport scenarios. Amorphous ice at 45 ?m that has a much broader and flatter peak could be detected in deep surveys if the underlying continuum can be well characterized and the baseline stability of SAFARI is better than a few percent.
Project description:Control of the thermal emission spectra of emitters will result in improved energy utilization efficiency in a broad range of fields, including lighting, energy harvesting, and sensing. In particular, it is challenging to realize a highly selective thermal emitter in the near-infrared-to-visible range, in which unwanted thermal emission spectral components at longer wavelengths are significantly suppressed, whereas strong emission in the near-infrared-to-visible range is retained. To achieve this, we propose an emitter based on interband transitions in a nanostructured intrinsic semiconductor. The electron thermal fluctuations are first limited to the higher-frequency side of the spectrum, above the semiconductor bandgap, and are then enhanced by the photonic resonance of the structure. Theoretical calculations indicate that optimized intrinsic Si rod-array emitters with a rod radius of 105 nm can convert 59% of the input power into emission of wavelengths shorter than 1100 nm at 1400 K. It is also theoretically indicated that emitters with a rod radius of 190 nm can convert 84% of the input power into emission of <1800-nm wavelength at 1400 K. Experimentally, we fabricated a Si rod-array emitter that exhibited a high peak emissivity of 0.77 at a wavelength of 790 nm and a very low background emissivity of <0.02 to 0.05 at 1100 to 7000 nm, under operation at 1273 K. Use of a nanostructured intrinsic semiconductor that can withstand high temperatures is promising for the development of highly efficient thermal emitters operating in the near-infrared-to-visible range.
Project description:It is believed today that nucleocapsid protein (N) of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV is one of the most promising antigen candidates for vaccine design. In this study, three fragments [N1 (residues: 1-422); N2 (residues: 1-109); N3 (residues: 110-422)] of N protein of SARS-CoV were expressed in Escherichia coli and analyzed by pooled sera of convalescence phase of SARS patients. Three gene fragments [N1 (1-1269 nt), N2 (1-327 nt) and N3 (328-1269 nt)-expressing the same proteins of N1, N2 and N3, respectively] of SARS-N were cloned into pVAX-1 and used to immunize BALB/c mice by electroporation. Humoral (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) and cellular (by cell proliferation and CD4(+):CD8(+) assay) immunity was detected by using recombinant N1 and N3 specific antigen. Results showed that N1 and N3 fragments of N protein expressed by E. coli were able to react with sera of SARS patients but N2 could not. Specific humoral and cellular immunity in mice could be induced significantly by inoculating SARS-CoV N1 and N3 DNA vaccine. In addition, the immune response levels in N3 were significantly higher for antibody responses (IgG and IgG1 but not IgG2a) and cell proliferation but not in CD4(+):CD8(+) assay compared to N1 vaccine. The identification of antigenic N protein fragments has implications to provide basic information for the design of DNA vaccine against SARS-CoV. The present results not only suggest that DNA immunization with pVax-N3 could be used as potential DNA vaccination approaches to induce antibody in BALB/c mice, but also illustrates that gene immunization with these SARS DNA vaccines can generate different immune responses.
Project description:Controlled release urea (CRU) has been widely adopted to increase nitrogen (N) use efficiency and maize production, but the impacts can range widely depending on water availability in the soil. In an experiment using Zhengdan 958 (a popular summer maize hybrid), three levels of water treatments (adequate water condition [W3], which maintained soil moisture at about 75% ± 5% of the soil's field capacity; mild water stress [W2], which maintained moisture content at 55% ± 5% of field capacity; and severe water stress [W1], which had a moisture content of 35% ± 5% of field capacity) and four levels of controlled release urea fertilizer (N0, N1, N2 and N3 were 0, 105, 210 and 315 kg N ha-1, respectively) were compared in a rainout shelter system with soil. The results revealed that CRU had significant effects on maize yields and N use efficiencies under different water conditions. The mean yields increased with increasing water levels and showed significant differences. Under W1, the accumulation of dry matter and N were limited, and N internal efficiency (NIE) and the apparent recovery efficiency of applied N (REN) decreased with N increases; yields of N1, N2, and N3 were similar. Under W2, the dry matter and N accumulation, as well as the yield, showed an increasing trend with an increase in N application, and the NIE and REN of N3 showed no difference from N2. Under W3, yields of N2 and N3 were similar and they were significantly higher than that of N1, but the agronomic N use efficiency (ANUE), REN, and the physiological NUE (PNUE) of N2 were 54.2, 34.9, and 14.4% higher, respectively, than those of N3. N application beyond the optimal N rate did not consistently increase maize yield, and caused a decrease in N use efficiencies. Highest overall dry matter, N accumulation, and yields were observed with N3 under W2, and those showed no differences with N2 and N3 under W3. Under this experimental condition, the CRU of 210 kg ha-1 was optimized when soil moisture content was 75% ± 5% of field capacity, but an N rate of 315 kg ha-1 was superior when soil moisture content during the entire growing season was maintained at 55% ± 5% of field capacity.