Coupling the Paterno-Buchi (PB) Reaction With Mass Spectrometry to Study Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis.
ABSTRACT: Lipid dysregulation has been implicated in multiple sclerosis due to its involvement during and after inflammation. In this study, we have profiled fatty acids (FAs) in the mouse model of multiple sclerosis with new capabilities of assigning carbon-carbon double bond (C=C) location(s) and quantifying C=C location isomers. These new capabilities are enabled by pairing the solution phase Paternò-Büchi (PB) reaction that modifies C=C bonds in FAs, with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), termed as PB-MS/MS. A series of unsaturated FAs and C=C location isomers have been identified, including FA17:1 (?10), FA18:1 (?9 and ?11), FA18:2 (?9 and ?12), and FA 20:4 (?5, ?8, ?11, ?14). Notable differences in saturated and unsaturated FAs between normal and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice spinal cords have been detected. Furthermore, the effects of hydralazine, a scavenger of acrolein, on profile changes of FAs in mice were studied. Increased ?11-to-?9 isomer ratios for FA 18:1 were noted in the diseased samples as compared to the control. The present work provides a facile and robust analytical method for the quantitation of unsaturated FAs as well as identification of FA C=C location isomers, which will facilitate discovering prospective lipid markers in multiple sclerosis.
Project description:Mass spectrometry analysis of cholesteryl esters (CEs) faces several challenges, with one of them being the determination of the carbon-carbon double bond (C=C) locations within unsaturated fatty acyl chains. Patern?-Büchi (PB) reaction, a photochemical reaction based on the addition of acetone to C=C, is capable of C=C location determination when coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In this study, the PB reaction conditions were tailored for CEs and subsequent nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI). A solvent system containing acetone/methanol/dichloromethane/water (40/30/20/10, volume ratios) and 100 ?M LiOH was determined to be optimal, resulting in reasonable PB reaction yield (~30%) and good ionization efficiency (forming lithium adduct of CEs). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the PB reaction products produced characteristic fragment ions of CE together with those modified by the PB reactions, such as lithiated fatty acyl ([FA + Li]+) and its PB product ([FA - PB + Li]+). MS3 CID of [FA - PB + Li]+ led to abundant C=C diagnostic ion formation, which was used for C=C location determination and isomer quantitation. A PB-MS3 CID approach was developed and applied for CE analysis from human plasma. A series of unsaturated CEs was identified with specific C=C locations within fatty acyl chains. Absolute quantitation for each CE species was achieved including coexisting C=C location isomers, such as ?9 and ?11 isomers of CE 18:1 and ?-6 and ?-3 isomers of CE 18:3. These results show that PB-MS/MS is useful in uncovering structural diversity of CEs due to unsaturation in fatty acyls, which is often undetected from current lipid analysis approach. Graphical Abstract ?.
Project description:Single cell MS (SCMS) techniques are under rapid development for molecular analysis of individual cells among heterogeneous populations. Lipids are basic cellular constituents playing essential functions in energy storage and the cellular signaling processes of cells. Unsaturated lipids are characterized with one or multiple carbon-carbon double (C?C) bonds, and they are critical for cell functions and human diseases. Characterizing unsaturated lipids in single cells allows for better understanding of metabolomic biomarkers and therapeutic targets of rare cells (e.g., cancer stem cells); however, these studies remain challenging. We developed a new technique using a micropipette needle, in which Paternò-Büchi (PB) reactions at C?C bond can be induced, to determine locations of C?C bonds in unsaturated lipids at the single-cell level. The micropipette needle is produced by combining a pulled glass capillary needle with a fused silica capillary. Cell lysis solvent and PB reagent (acetone or benzophenone) are delivered into the micropipette needle (tip size ? 15 um) through a fused silica capillary. The capillary needle plays multiple functions (i.e., single cell sampling probe, cell lysis container, microreactor, and nano-ESI emitter) in the experiments. Both regular (no reaction) and reactive (with PB reaction) SCMS analyses of the same cell can be achieved. C?C bond locations were determined from MS scan and MS/MS of PB products assisted by Python programs. This technique can potentially be used for other reactive SCMS studies to enhance molecular analysis for broad ranges of single cells.
Project description:Fatty acid (FA) profiling provides phenotypic information and is increasingly used in a broad range of biological and biomedical studies. Quantitation of unsaturated FAs with confident carbon-carbon double bond (C?C) location assignment is both sample and time consuming using traditional gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. In this study, we developed a rapid, sensitive, and quantitative method for profiling unsaturated FAs without using chromatographic separations. This method was based on a combination of in-solution photochemical tagging of a C?C in FAs and a subsequent gas-phase detagging via tandem (neutral loss scan) mass spectrometry. It enabled quantitation of unsaturated FAs from various biological samples (blood, plasma, and cell lines). More importantly, quantitative information on FA C?C location isomers, which was traditionally overlooked, could now be obtained and applied to studying FA changes between normal and cancerous human prostate cells.
Project description:We report a new method for fast and sensitive analyses of biologically relevant fatty acids (FAs) in red blood cells (RBC) by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A new chemical derivatization approach was developed forming picolylamides from FAs in a quantitative reaction. Fourteen derivatized FA standards, including saturated and unsaturated FAs from C14 to C22, were efficiently separated within 15 min. In addition, the use of a recently introduced benchtop orbitrap mass spectrometer under positive electrospray ionization (ESI) full scan mode showed a 2-10-fold improvement in sensitivity compared with a conventional tandem MS method, with a limit of detection in the low femtomole range for saturated and unsaturated FAs. The developed method was applied to determine FA concentrations in RBC with intra- and interday coefficients of variation below 10%.
Project description:Fatty acids (FA) play vital biological roles as energy sources, signaling molecules and key building blocks of complex lipids in cell membranes. Modifications to FA structure and composition are associated with the onset and progression of a number of chronic diseases. Consequently, the sensitive detection and unambiguous structure elucidation of FA is integral to the advancement of biomedical sciences. Recent advances in FA analysis have taken advantage of wet chemical derivatization to enhance detection and drive unique fragmentation in tandem mass spectrometry protocols. Here, we significantly further this approach through demonstrating gas-phase charge inversion of singly deprotonated FA ions, [M - H]-, using doubly charged tris-phenanthroline alkaline earth metal complexes, [Cat(Phen)3]2+ (Cat = Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, or Ba2+). Metal cationized FA, [M - H + Cat]+ are obtained after the gas-phase ion/ion reaction. Low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the [M - H + Cat]+ cations facilitates double bond localization for a variety of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs. Ultimately, detailed characterization presented unambiguous distinction among FA double bond positional isomers, such as n-3 and n-6 isomers. The method was successfully used to identify the FA profile of corn oil, including double bond localization for unsaturated FAs present.
Project description:One key to the success of Pseudomonas spp. is their ability to reside in hostile environments. Pseudomonas spp. possess a cis-trans isomerase (Cti) an enzyme that converts the cis-unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) of the membrane lipids to their trans-isomers to rigidify the membrane and thereby resist stresses. Whereas the posttranslational Cti regulation has been previously reported, transcriptional cti regulation remains to be studied in more details. Here, we have studied cti transcriptional regulation in the solvent-tolerant strain Pseudomonas putida F1. Two cti transcriptional start sites (cti-279 and cti-77) were identified with cti-279 transcript being dominant. Expression of cti was found to increase with temperature increase, addition of the organic solvent, octanol and in the stationary growth phase. We found that cti expression was repressed by the cyclic-AMP receptor protein (Crp) and repression required the cyclic-AMP ligand of Crp. Production of trans-unsaturated FAs was found to decrease after 24?h of growth. Although this decrease was accompanied by an increase in cyclopropane FA content, this was not at the expense of trans-unsaturated FAs demonstrating the absence of competition between Cti and Cfa in FA modification.
Project description:The field of lipidomics has been significantly advanced by mass spectrometric analysis. The distinction and quantitation of the unsaturated lipid isomers, however, remain a long-standing challenge. In this study, we have developed an analytical tool for both identification and quantitation of lipid C=C location isomers from complex mixtures using online Paternò-Büchi reaction coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The potential of this method has been demonstrated with an implementation into shotgun lipid analysis of animal tissues. Among 96 of the unsaturated fatty acids and glycerophospholipids identified from rat brain tissue, 50% of them were found as mixtures of C=C location isomers; for the first time, to our knowledge, the quantitative information of lipid C=C isomers from a broad range of classes was obtained. This method also enabled facile cross-tissue examinations, which revealed significant changes in C=C location isomer compositions of a series of fatty acids and glycerophospholipid (GP) species between the normal and cancerous tissues.
Project description:Identification and quantification of unsaturated fatty acid (FA) isomers in a biological system are significant in the study of lipid metabolism and catabolism, membrane biophysics, and pathogenesis of diseases but are challenging in lipidomics. We developed a novel approach for identification and quantitation of unsaturated FA isomers by exploiting two facts: (1) unsaturated FA anions yield fragment ion(s) from loss of CO(2) or H(2)O from the anions upon collision-induced dissociation; and (2) the fragment ions yielded from discrete FA isomers have distinct profiles of the fragment ion intensity vs. collision conditions. These distinct profiles likely result from the differential interactions of the negative charge of the fragment ion with the electron clouds of the double bonds due to their different distances in discrete FA isomers. The novel approach was also extended to analyze the double bond isomers of FA chains present in phospholipids by multistage tandem mass spectrometry. Collectively, we developed a new approach for identification and quantification of the double bond isomers of endogenous FA species or FA chains present in intact phospholipid species. We believe that this approach should further advance the lipidomic power for identification of the biochemical mechanisms underlying metabolic diseases.
Project description:Air- and sun-dried raisins from Thompson Seedless (TS) grapes were analyzed under GC/MS to evaluate fatty acids (FAs) and their derived volatile compounds, coming from unsaturated fatty acids oxidation. A total of 16 FAs were identified in TS raisins, including 10 saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and 6 unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs). The contents of C18:0, C15:0, and C16:0 among SFAs and C18:3, C18:2 and C18:1 in USFAs were significantly higher. Furthermore, USFAs such as C16:1 and C20:1 were only identified in air-dried raisins. The principal component analysis showed the increased content of FAs and FA-derived compounds were in air-dried and sun-dried raisins, respectively. Among FA-derived compounds, 2-pentyl furan, 3-octen-2-one, 1-hexanol and heptanoic acid were more potent. This study shows that air-drying is more favorable for the production of fatty acids (SFAs and USFAs), whereas sun-drying is more advantageous in terms of fatty acid-derived volatiles.
Project description:Fatty acid (FA) kinase produces acyl-phosphate for the synthesis of membrane phospholipids in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. FA kinase consists of a kinase protein (FakA) that phosphorylates an FA substrate bound to a second module, an FA-binding protein (FakB). Staphylococcus aureus expresses two distinct, but related, FakBs with different FA selectivities. Here, we report the structures of FakB1 bound to four saturated FAs at 1.6-1.93 Å resolution. We observed that the different FA structures are accommodated within a slightly curved hydrophobic cavity whose length is governed by the conformation of an isoleucine side chain at the end of the tunnel. The hydrophobic tunnel in FakB1 prevents the binding of cis-unsaturated FAs, which are instead accommodated by the kinked tunnel within the FakB2 protein. The differences in the FakB interiors are not propagated to the proteins' surfaces, preserving the protein-protein interactions with their three common partners, FakA, PlsX, and PlsY. Using cellular thermal shift analyses, we found that FakB1 binds FA in vivo, whereas a significant proportion of FakB2 does not. Incorporation of exogenous FA into phospholipid in ?fakB1 and ?fakB2 S. aureus knockout strains revealed that FakB1 does not efficiently activate unsaturated FAs. FakB2 preferred unsaturated FAs, but also allowed the incorporation of saturated FAs. These results are consistent with a model in which FakB1 primarily functions in the recycling of the saturated FAs produced by S. aureus metabolism, whereas FakB2 activates host-derived oleate, which S. aureus does not produce but is abundant at infection sites.