Association of Postfungal Keratitis Corneal Scar Features With Visual Acuity.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Corneal opacity is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide; however, the specific features of corneal scars, which decrease visual acuity, have not been well characterized. Objective:To investigate which features of a postfungal keratitis corneal scar contribute to decreased visual acuity after an episode of infectious keratitis and evaluate whether any corneal features may be used as outcomes for clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this ancillary, prospective cross-sectional study, a subset of study participants treated for fungal keratitis (n?=?71) as part of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I) underwent best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and best contact lens-corrected visual acuity examination, Scheimpflug imaging, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography at a referral hospital in India approximately 2 years after enrollment. Data were collected from December 3, 2012, to December 19, 2012, and analyses were performed from December 2, 2013, to October 2, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Linear regression models were used to evaluate the importance of various corneal features for BSCVA and to assess whether these features could be used to differentiate the 2 treatment arms of the MUTT I trial. Results:Seventy-one patients (42 men [59.1%]; median age, 48 [range, 39-60] years) were examined at a median (IQR) time of 1.8 (1.4-2.2) years after enrollment. The mean (SD) logMAR BSCVA was 0.17 (0.19) (Snellen equivalent, 20/32). In multivariable linear regression models, BSCVA was most associated with irregular astigmatism (1.0 line of worse BSCVA per 1-line difference between BSCVA and contact lens visual acuity; 95% CI, 0.6-1.4) and corneal scar density (1.5 lines of worse vision per 10-unit increase in the mean central corneal density; 95% CI, 0.8-2.3). The thinnest point of the cornea was the metric that best discriminated between the natamycin- and voriconazole-treated ulcers in MUTT I, with 29.3 ?m (95% CI, 7.1-51.6 ?m) less thinning in natamycin-treated eyes. Conclusions and Relevance:Both irregular astigmatism and corneal scar density may be important risk factors for BSCVA in a population with relatively mild, healed fungal corneal ulcers. The thinnest point of the corneal scar may be a cornea-specific outcome that could be used to evaluate treatments for corneal ulcers.
Project description:To conduct a therapeutic exploratory clinical trial comparing clinical outcomes of treatment with topical natamycin vs topical voriconazole for fungal keratitis.The multicenter, double-masked, clinical trial included 120 patients with fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in India who were randomized to receive either topical natamycin or topical voriconazole and either had repeated scraping of the epithelium or not.The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months. Other outcomes included scar size, perforations, and a subanalysis of BSCVA at 3 months in patients with an enrollment visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400.Compared with those who received natamycin, voriconazole-treated patients had an approximately 1-line improvement in BSCVA at 3 months after adjusting for scraping in a multivariate regression model but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .29). Scar size at 3 months was slightly greater with voriconazole after adjusting for scraping (P = .48). Corneal perforations in the voriconazole group (10 of 60 patients) were not significantly different than in the natamycin-treated group (9 of 60 patients) (P >.99). Scraping was associated with worse BSCVA at 3 months after adjusting for drug (P = .06). Patients with baseline BSCVA of 20/40 to 20/400 showed a trend toward a 2-line improvement in visual acuity with voriconazole (P = .07).Overall, there were no significant differences in visual acuity, scar size, and perforations between voriconazole- and natamycin-treated patients. There was a trend toward scraping being associated with worse outcomes. Application to Clinical Practice The benefit seen with voriconazole in the subgroup of patients with baseline visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400 needs to be validated in a confirmatory clinical trial. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00557362.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Fusarium keratitis is common and often results in poor outcomes. No new treatments since natamycin have become available.<h4>Objective</h4>To explore the role of adjuvant oral voriconazole on clinical outcomes in Fusarium keratitis.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>In this prespecified subgroup analysis of a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 240 patients from the Aravind Eye Care System in India, the Lumbini Eye Hospital and Bharatpur Eye Hospital in Nepal, and the University of California, San Francisco, who had culture-positive fungal ulcer and baseline visual acuity of 20/400 or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs placebo. Enrollment started May 24, 2010, and the last patient study visit was November 23, 2015. All patients received topical voriconazole, 1%, and after the results of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial (MUTT) II became available, topical natamycin, 5%, was added for all patients. Data analysis was performed from September 2 to October 28, 2016.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The primary outcome of the trial was the rate of corneal perforation or the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Secondary outcomes included rate of reepithelialization, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, and infiltrate or scar size at 3 months.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 240 study participants, 72 (30.4%) were culture positive for Fusarium species (41 [56.9%] male and 31 [43.1%] female; median [interquartile range] age, 50 [45-57] years). Of these, 33 (45.8%) were randomized to oral voriconazole and 39 (54.2%) to placebo. Fusarium ulcers randomized to oral voriconazole had a 0.43-fold decreased hazard of perforation or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty compared with placebo after controlling for baseline infiltrate depth (95% CI, 0.22-fold to 0.84-fold; P = .01). Multiple linear regression revealed a 1.89-mm decreased infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks (95% CI, -2.69 to -1.09 mm; P < .001) and a 0.83-mm decreased infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 months after correcting for baseline values (95% CI, -1.33 to -0.32 mm; P = .001) in eyes randomized to oral voriconazole vs placebo. Eyes treated with oral voriconazole also had a mean 0.29 decreased logMAR (improved) (Snellen equivalent 20/40) visual acuity at 3 months after controlling for baseline visual acuity, although this finding was not statistically significant (95% CI, -0.57 to 0.002; P = .052).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Although MUTT II could not find a benefit for all corneal ulcers, Fusarium keratitis may benefit from the addition of oral voriconazole to topical natamycin, and physicians should consider prescribing oral voriconazole in these cases.<h4>Trial registration</h4>clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To determine if there is a benefit to adjuvant corneal crosslinking (CXL) and to compare natamycin versus amphotericin B for filamentous fungal keratitis.<h4>Design</h4>Outcome-masked, 2×2 factorial design, randomized controlled clinical trial.<h4>Participants</h4>Consecutive patients presenting with moderate vision loss from a smear-positive fungal ulcer at Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India.<h4>Methods</h4>Study eyes were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment combinations using an adaptive randomization protocol. The treatment arms included (1) topical natamycin 5% alone, (2) topical natamycin 5% plus CXL, (3) topical amphotericin B 0.15% alone, and (4) topical amphotericin 0.15% plus CXL.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>The primary outcome of the trial was microbiological cure at 24 hours on repeat culture. Secondary outcomes included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 weeks and 3 months, percentage of study participants with epithelial healing at 3 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months, infiltrate or scar size at 3 weeks and 3 months, 3-day smear and culture, and adverse events.<h4>Results</h4>Those randomized to CXL regardless of medication (topical natamycin or amphotericin) had 1.32-fold increased odds of 24-hour culture positivity, although this was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-3.06; P = 0.51). We were also unable to find a difference in 24-hour culture positivity between those randomized to amphotericin and those randomized to natamycin when evaluating as a group regardless of whether or not they received CXL (coefficient 1.10; 95% CI, 0.47-2.54; P = 0.84). The BSCVA was approximately 0.22 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) (2.2 Snellen lines) worse on average at 3 weeks among those receiving CXL regardless of medication (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.40; P = 0.04) and 0.32 logMAR (3.2 Snellen lines) worse visual acuity at 3 months after controlling for baseline visual acuity (95% CI, 0.03-0.54; P = 0.02). There was no difference in infiltrate or scar size, percentage of epithelialized or adverse events when comparing CXL with no CXL or the 2 topical medications.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There appears to be no benefit of adjuvant CXL in the primary treatment of moderate filamentous fungal ulcers, and it may result in decreased visual acuity.
Project description:PURPOSE:We compare results from regression discontinuity (RD) analysis to primary results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) utilizing data from two contemporaneous RCTs for treatment of fungal corneal ulcers. METHODS:Patients were enrolled in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trials I and II (MUTT I & MUTT II) based on baseline visual acuity: patients with acuity ? 20/400 (logMAR 1.3) enrolled in MUTT I, and >20/400 in MUTT II. MUTT I investigated the effect of topical natamycin versus voriconazole on best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. MUTT II investigated the effect of topical voriconazole plus placebo versus topical voriconazole plus oral voriconazole. We compared the RD estimate (natamycin arm of MUTT I [N = 162] versus placebo arm of MUTT II [N = 54]) to the RCT estimate from MUTT I (topical natamycin [N = 162] versus topical voriconazole [N = 161]). RESULTS:In the RD, patients receiving natamycin had mean improvement of 4-lines of visual acuity at 3 months (logMAR -0.39, 95% CI: -0.61, -0.17) compared to topical voriconazole plus placebo, and 2-lines in the RCT (logMAR -0.18, 95% CI: -0.30, -0.05) compared to topical voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS:The RD and RCT estimates were similar, although the RD design overestimated effects compared to the RCT.
Project description:To determine whether topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy for bacterial keratitis improves long-term clinical outcomes.Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial.This multicenter trial compared 1.0% prednisolone sodium phosphate to placebo in the treatment of bacterial keratitis among 500 patients with culture-positive ulcers receiving 48 hours of moxifloxacin before randomization. The primary endpoint was 3 months from enrollment, and 399 patients were evaluated at 12 months. The outcomes examined were best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and scar size at 12 months. Based on previous results, regression models with adjustments for baseline status and/or causative organism were used for analysis.No significant differences in clinical outcomes by treatment group were seen with the prespecified regression models (BSCVA: -0.04 logMAR, 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.05, P = .39; scar size: 0.03 mm, 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.18, P = .69). A regression model including a Nocardia-treatment arm interaction found corticosteroid use associated with a mean 1-line improvement in BSCVA at 12 months among patients with non-Nocardia ulcers (-0.10 logMAR, 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.02, P = .02). No significant difference was observed in 12-month BSCVA for Nocardia ulcers (0.18 logMAR, 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.41, P = .16). Corticosteroids were associated with larger mean scar size at 12 months among Nocardia ulcers (0.47 mm, 95% CI, 0.06-0.88, P = .02) and no significant difference was identified by treatment for scar size for non-Nocardia ulcers (-0.06 mm, 95% CI, -0.21 to 0.10, P = .46).Adjunctive topical corticosteroid therapy may be associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in bacterial corneal ulcers not caused by Nocardia species.
Project description:To determine whether patients who had a positive repeated culture was predictive of worse clinical outcome than those who achieved microbiological cure at 6 days in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT-I).Secondary analysis from a multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial.setting: Multiple hospital sites of the Aravind Eye Care System, India.Patients with culture-positive filamentous fungal ulcers and visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400 reexamined 6 days after initiation of treatment.Corneal scraping and cultures were obtained from study participants at day 6 after enrollment.We assessed 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), 3-month infiltrate/scar size, corneal perforation, and re-epithelialization rates stratified by culture positivity at day 6.Of the 323 patients with smear-positive ulcers enrolled in MUTT-I, 299 (92.6%) were scraped and cultured 6 days after enrollment. Repeat culture positivity was 31% (92/299). Among patients who tested positive at enrollment, those with positive 6-day cultures had significantly worse 3-month BSCVA (0.39 logMAR; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24-0.44; P < .001), had larger 3-month scar size (0.39 mm; 95% CI: 0.06-0.73; P = .02), were more likely to perforate or require therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (odds ratio: 6.27; 95% CI: 2.73-14.40; P < .001), and were slower to re-epithelialize (hazard ratio: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.21-0.50; P < .001) than those with a negative 6-day culture result.Early microbiological cure on culture is a predictor of clinical response to treatment.
Project description:PURPOSE:To compare the clinical course and effect of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa with those of all other strains of bacterial keratitis. METHODS:Subanalyses were performed on data collected in the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT), a large randomized controlled trial in which patients were treated with moxifloxacin and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 adjunctive treatment arms: corticosteroid or placebo (4 times a day with subsequent reduction). Multivariate analysis was used to determine the effect of predictors, organism, and treatment on outcomes, 3-month best-spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and infiltrate/scar size. The incidence of adverse events over a 3-month follow-up period was compared using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS:SCUT enrolled 500 patients. One hundred ten patients had P. aeruginosa ulcers; 99 of 110 (90%) enrolled patients returned for follow-up at 3 months. Patients with P. aeruginosa ulcers had significantly worse visual acuities than patients with other bacterial ulcers (P = 0.001) but showed significantly more improvement in 3-month BSCVA than those with other bacterial ulcers, adjusting for baseline characteristics (-0.14 logMAR; 95% confidence interval, -0.23 to -0.04; P = 0.004). There was no significant difference in adverse events between P. aeruginosa and other bacterial ulcers. There were no significant differences in BSCVA (P = 0.69), infiltrate/scar size (P = 0.17), and incidence of adverse events between patients with P. aeruginosa ulcers treated with adjunctive corticosteroids and patients given placebo. CONCLUSIONS:Although P. aeruginosa corneal ulcers have a more severe presentation, they appear to respond better to treatment than other bacterial ulcers. The authors did not find a significant benefit with corticosteroid treatment, but they also did not find any increase in adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00324168.).
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To compare longitudinal outcomes of visual acuity after fungal corneal ulcers with those of bacterial ulcers.<h4>Design</h4>Prospective cohort study.<h4>Methods</h4>This study was conducted in a tertiary eye hospital in South India. The population consisted of 100 of 152 individuals whose fungal or bacterial keratitis had been diagnosed 4 years prior and had been enrolled in 1 of 2 concurrent randomized trials. Causative organisms of infectious keratitis were either bacterial or fungal. Presenting visual acuity consisted of best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and hard contact lens-corrected visual acuity (CLVA).<h4>Results</h4>Fifty study participants with prior fungal keratitis and 50 with prior bacterial keratitis were enrolled. Four years after treatment for keratitis, participants' presenting vision in the better eye was worse than 20/60 for 12 individuals (24.0%) in the fungal group and 10 individuals (20.0%) in the bacterial group. Median BSCVA in the affected eye at the 4-year visit in the fungal group was similar to that in the bacterial group (Snellen equivalent, 20/32 for each), although vision worse than 20/400 was more common in the fungal ulcer group after spectacle correction (odds ratio [OR] 4.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-15.8) and contact lens correction (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.37-24.1).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this South Indian population with a previous episode of fungal or bacterial keratitis, correctable bilateral visual impairment was common. Although long-term visual outcomes were, on average, similar between fungal and bacterial ulcers, fungal ulcers were more likely to produce severe visual impairment.
Project description:To determine whether there is a benefit in clinical outcomes with the use of topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers.Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial comparing prednisolone sodium phosphate, 1.0%, to placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and received topical moxifloxacin for at least 48 hours before randomization.The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included infiltrate/scar size, reepithelialization, and corneal perforation.Between September 1, 2006, and February 22, 2010, 1769 patients were screened for the trial and 500 patients were enrolled. No significant difference was observed in the 3-month BSCVA (-0.009 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]; 95% CI, -0.085 to 0.068; P = .82), infiltrate/scar size (P = .40), time to reepithelialization (P = .44), or corneal perforation (P > .99). A significant effect of corticosteroids was observed in subgroups of baseline BSCVA (P = .03) and ulcer location (P = .04). At 3 months, patients with vision of counting fingers or worse at baseline had 0.17 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (95% CI, -0.31 to -0.02; P = .03) compared with placebo, and patients with ulcers that were completely central at baseline had 0.20 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (-0.37 to -0.04; P = .02).We found no overall difference in 3-month BSCVA and no safety concerns with adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers.Adjunctive topical corticosteroid use does not improve 3-month vision in patients with bacterial corneal ulcers.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00324168.
Project description:Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and blindness, often affecting marginalized populations. Proper diagnosis of the causative organism is critical, and although culture remains the prevailing diagnostic tool, newer techniques such as in vivo confocal microscopy are helpful for diagnosing fungus and Acanthamoeba. Next-generation sequencing holds the potential for early and accurate diagnosis even for organisms that are difficult to culture by conventional methods. Topical antibiotics remain the best treatment for bacterial keratitis, and a recent review found all commonly prescribed topical antibiotics to be equally effective. However, outcomes remain poor secondary to corneal melting, scarring, and perforation. Adjuvant therapies aimed at reducing the immune response associated with keratitis include topical corticosteroids. The large, randomized, controlled Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial found that although steroids provided no significant improvement overall, they did seem beneficial for ulcers that were central, deep or large, non-Nocardia, or classically invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa; for patients with low baseline vision; and when started early after the initiation of antibiotics. Fungal ulcers often have worse clinical outcomes than bacterial ulcers, with no new treatments since the 1960s when topical natamycin was introduced. The randomized controlled Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial (MUTT) I showed a benefit of topical natamycin over topical voriconazole for fungal ulcers, particularly among those caused by Fusarium. MUTT II showed that oral voriconazole did not improve outcomes overall, although there may have been some effect among Fusarium ulcers. Given an increase in nonserious adverse events, the authors concluded that they could not recommend oral voriconazole. Viral keratitis differs from bacterial and fungal cases in that it is often recurrent and is common in developed countries. The Herpetic Eye Disease Study (HEDS) I showed a significant benefit of topical corticosteroids and oral acyclovir for stromal keratitis. HEDS II showed that oral acyclovir decreased the recurrence of any type of herpes simplex virus keratitis by approximately half. Future strategies to reduce the morbidity associated with infectious keratitis are likely to be multidimensional, with adjuvant therapies aimed at modifying the immune response to infection holding the greatest potential to improve clinical outcomes.