Diversity and bioactivities of fungal endophytes from Distylium chinense, a rare waterlogging tolerant plant endemic to the Three Gorges Reservoir.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The present study involves diversity and biological activities of the endophytic fungal community from Distylium chinense, a rare waterlogging tolerant plant endemic to the Three Gorges Reservoir. This study has been conducted hypothesizing that the microbial communities in the TGR area would contribute to the host plant tolerating a range of abiotic stress such as summer flooding, infertility, drought, salinity and soil erosion etc., and they may produce new metabolites, which may possess plentiful bioactive property, especially antioxidant activity. Therefore in the current study, the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities of 154 endophytes recovered from D. chinense have been investigated. Furthermore, the active metabolites of the most broad-spectrum bioactive strain have also been studied. RESULTS:A total of 154 fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems. They were categorized into 30 morphotypes based on cultural characteristics and were affiliated with 27 different taxa. Among these, the most abundant fungal orders included Diaporthales (34.4%) and Botryosphaeriales (30.5%), which were predominantly represented by the species Phomopsis sp. (24.7%) and Neofusicoccum parvum (23.4%). Fermentation extracts were evaluated, screening for antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Among the 154 isolates tested, 99 (64.3%) displayed significant antioxidant activity, 153 (99.4%) exhibited inclusive antimicrobial activity against at least one tested microorganism and 27 (17.5%) showed exclusive anticancer activity against one or more cancer cell lines. Specifically, the crude extract of Irpex lacteus DR10-1 exhibited note-worthy bioactivities. Further chemical investigation on DR10-1 strain resulted in the isolation and identification of two known bioactive metabolites, indole-3-carboxylic acid (1) and indole-3-carboxaldehyde (2), indicating their potential roles in plant growth promotion and human medicinal value. CONCLUSION:These results indicated that diverse endophytic fungal population inhabits D. chinense. One of the fungal isolate DR10-1 (Irpex lacteus) exhibited significant antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer potential. Further, its active secondary metabolites 1 and 2 also showed antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer potential.
Project description:Chlorhexidine (CHX) and octenidine (OCT), antimicrobial compounds used in oral care products (toothpastes and mouthwashes), were recently revealed to interfere with human sex hormone receptor pathways. Experiments employing model organisms-white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus-were carried out in order to investigate the biodegradability of these endocrine-disrupting compounds and the capability of the fungi and their extracellular enzyme apparatuses to biodegrade CHX and OCT. Up to 70% ± 6% of CHX was eliminated in comparison with a heat-killed control after 21 days of in vivo incubation. An additional in vitro experiment confirmed manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase are partially responsible for the removal of CHX. Up to 48% ± 7% of OCT was removed in the same in vivo experiment, but the strong sorption of OCT on fungal biomass prevented a clear evaluation of the involvement of the fungi or extracellular enzymes. On the other hand, metabolites indicating the enzymatic transformation of both CHX and OCT were detected and their chemical structures were proposed by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Complete biodegradation by the ligninolytic fungi was not achieved for any of the studied analytes, which emphasizes their recalcitrant character with low possibility to be removed from the environment.
Project description:Fungal strains identified by phylogenetic analysis of the ITS rDNA region as Trametes versicolor (CMU-TA01), Irpex lacteus (CMU-84/13), and Phlebiopsis sp. (CMU-47/13) are able to grow on and bleach kraft pulp (KP) in a simple solid-state fermentation (SSF) assay conducted in Petri dishes. Kappa number reductions obtained with Phlebiopsis sp. (48.3%), T. versicolor (43%), and I. lacteus (39.3%), evidence their capability for lignin breakdown. Scanning electron microscopy images of KP fibers from SSF assays demonstrated increased roughness and striation, evidencing significant cell wall modification. T. versicolor produces laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) in potato dextrose broth (PDB), PDB + CuSO4, and PDB + KP, whereas Phlebiopsis sp. and I. lacteus showed no Lac and low LiP activities in all media. Compared to PDB, the highest increase in Lac (7.25-fold) and MnP (2.37-fold) activities in PDB + CuSO4 occur in T. versicolor; for LiP, the greatest changes (6.95-fold) were observed in I. lacteus. Incubation in PDB + KP shows significant increases in Lac and MnP for T. versicolor, MnP and LiP for Phlebiopsis sp., and none for I. lacteus. SSF assays in Petri plates are a valuable tool to select fungi that are able to delignify KP. Here, delignification by Phlebiopsis sp. of this substrate is reported for the first time, and MnP activity was strongly associated with the delignification ability of the studied strains. The obtained results suggest that the studied fungal strains have biotechnological potential for use in the paper industry.
Project description:This study aimed at investigating the Lycium chinense Miller leaf extract mineral and phenolic compound profiles as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. We determined the leaf extract mineral composition, identified its major mineral components, and quantified secondary metabolites. We also measured the leaf extract antioxidant potential and found that it varies in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed a significant and higher positive correlation between DPPH and ABTS assays compared with the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Furthermore, our assay results positively correlated with several observed acids, indicating their strong association with the L. chinense antioxidant potential. Our cytotoxic assay revealed weak toxicity at higher tested concentrations. Our MIC assay showed that the 80% methanol extract effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC35150). The 625-ppm leaf extract completely suppressed the growth of Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach (ATCC13150), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579), and Helicobacter pylori (ATCC43504). These results allow us to understand the indigenous medicinal value of L. chinense. Our study suggests that the L. chinense leaf extract phenolic compounds possess a good antioxidant activity against free radicals and are effective antimicrobial agents. Finally, the presence and high level of diverse minerals suggest the potential of L. chinense for nutraceutical and functional food applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Identifying new high-performance enzymes or enzyme complexes to enhance biomass degradation is the key for the development of cost-effective processes for ethanol production. Irpex lacteus is an efficient microorganism for wheat straw pretreatment, yielding easily hydrolysable products with high sugar content. Thus, this fungus was selected to investigate the enzymatic system involved in lignocellulose decay, and its secretome was compared to those from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus which produced different degradation patterns when growing on wheat straw. Extracellular enzymes were analyzed through 2D-PAGE, nanoLC/MS-MS, and homology searches against public databases. RESULTS:In wheat straw, I. lacteus secreted proteases, dye-decolorizing and manganese-oxidizing peroxidases, and H2O2 producing-enzymes but also a battery of cellulases and xylanases, excluding those implicated in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation to their monosaccharides, making these sugars poorly available for fungal consumption. In contrast, a significant increase of ?-glucosidase production was observed when I. lacteus grew in liquid cultures. P. chrysosporium secreted more enzymes implicated in the total hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and P. ostreatus produced, in proportion, more oxidoreductases. CONCLUSION:The protein pattern secreted during I. lacteus growth in wheat straw plus the differences observed among the different secretomes, justify the fitness of I. lacteus for biopretreatment processes in 2G-ethanol production. Furthermore, all these data give insight into the biological degradation of lignocellulose and suggest new enzyme mixtures interesting for its efficient hydrolysis.
Project description:Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment.
Project description:Fungal, ligninolytic enzymes have attracted a great attention for their bioremediation capabilities. A deficient knowledge of regulation of enzyme production, however, hinders the use of ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation applications. In this work, a transcriptional analyses of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) production by two white rots was combined with determination of pI of the enzymes and the evaluation of 17?-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) degradation to study regulation mechanisms used by fungi during EE2 degradation. In the cultures of Trametes versicolor the addition of EE2 caused an increase in laccase activity with a maximum of 34.2?±?6.7?U g?¹ of dry mycelia that was observed after 2 days of cultivation. It corresponded to a 4.9 times higher transcription levels of a laccase-encoding gene (lacB) that were detected in the cultures at the same time. Simultaneously, pI values of the fungal laccases were altered in response to the EE2 treatment. Like T.?versicolor, Irpex lacteus was also able to remove 10?mg l?¹ EE2 within 3 days of cultivation. While an increase to I.?lacteus?MnP activity and MnP gene transcription levels was observed at the later phase of the cultivation. It suggests another metabolic role of MnP but EE2 degradation.
Project description:Six previously undescribed 5,6-seco-tremulane analogues, together with two known ones, were isolated from the culture broth of the medicinal fungus Irpex lacteus HFG1102. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated via extensive spectroscopic methods, including NMR and HRMS spectroscopic analyses.
Project description:This study reports the chemical investigation and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Fusarium solani isolated from Cassia alata Linn. growing in Bangladesh. This plant was collected from conservation forest in Bangladesh and belongs to the Caesalpiniaceae family. The endophytic fungus Fusarium solani was isolated from the tissue of root of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The bioactivity guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract leads to the isolation of seven secondary metabolites in pure form. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by the analysis of NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Bioassay investigation of the isolated secondary metabolites suggested aza-anthraquinones are more potent bioactive compounds as anticancer and antimicrobial agent.
Project description:Irpex lacteus, a wood-decaying basidiomycete, was isolated from a pulmonary abscess of an immunosuppressed child. This medical strain was compared morphologically and by sequencing of the ribosomal intergenic spacers with specimens from both culture collections and herbarium desiccated material. The patient was treated successfully with amphotericin B.
Project description:Irpex lacteus is one of the most potent white rot fungi for biological pretreatment of lignocellulose for second biofuel production. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism involved in lignocellulose deconstruction, genomic and transcriptomic analyses were carried out for I. lacteus CD2 grown in submerged fermentation using ball-milled corn stover as the carbon source.Irpex lacteus CD2 efficiently decomposed 74.9% lignin, 86.3% cellulose, and 83.5% hemicellulose in corn stover within 9 days. Manganese peroxidases were rapidly induced, followed by accumulation of cellulase and hemicellulase. Genomic analysis revealed that I. lacteus CD2 possessed a complete set of lignocellulose-degrading enzyme system composed mainly of class II peroxidases, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, auxiliary enzymes, and 182 glycoside hydrolases. Comparative transcriptomic analysis substantiated the notion of a selection mode of degradation. These analyses also suggested that free radicals, derived either from MnP-organic acid interplay or from Fenton reaction involving Fe2+ and H2O2, could play an important role in lignocellulose degradation.The selective strategy employed by I. lacteus CD2, in combination with low extracellular glycosidases cleaving plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, may account for high pretreatment efficiency of I. lacteus. Our study also hints the importance of free radicals for future designing of novel, robust lignocellulose-degrading enzyme cocktails.