Bacterial dynamin-like protein DynA mediates lipid and content mixing.
ABSTRACT: Many bacterial species contain dynamin-like proteins (DLPs). However, so far the functional mechanisms of bacterial DLPs are poorly understood. DynA in Bacillus subtilis is a 2-headed DLP, mediating nucleotide-independent membrane tethering in vitro and contributing to the innate immunity of bacteria against membrane stress and phage infection. Here, we employed content mixing and lipid mixing assays in reconstituted systems to study if DynA induces membrane full fusion, characterize its subunits in membrane fusion, and further test the possibility that GTP hydrolysis of DynA may act on the fusion-through-hemifusion pathway. Our results based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer indicated that DynA could induce aqueous content mixing even in the absence of GTP. Moreover, DynA-induced membrane fusion in vitro is a thermo-promoted slow process, and it has phospholipid and membrane curvature preferences. The D1 part of DynA is crucial for membrane binding and fusion, whereas D2 subunit plays a role in facilitating membrane fusion. Surprisingly, digestion of DynA mediated an instant rise of content exchange, supporting the assumption that disassembly of DynA is a driving force for fusion-through-hemifusion. DynA is a rare example of a membrane fusion catalyst that lacks a transmembrane domain and hence sets this system apart from well-characterized fusion systems such as the soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complexes.-Guo, L., Bramkamp, M. Bacterial dynamin-like protein DynA mediates lipid and content mixing.
Project description:The convergence of the antagonistic reactions of membrane fusion and fission at the hemifusion/hemifission intermediate has generated a captivating enigma of whether Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor Attachment Protein Receptor (SNAREs) and dynamin have unusual counter-functions in fission and fusion, respectively. SNARE-mediated fusion and dynamin-driven fission are fundamental membrane flux reactions known to occur during ubiquitous cellular communication events such as exocytosis, endocytosis and vesicle transport. Here we demonstrate the influence of the dynamin homolog Vps1 (Vacuolar protein sorting 1) on lipid mixing and content mixing properties of yeast vacuoles, and on the incorporation of SNAREs into fusogenic complexes. We propose a novel concept that Vps1, through its oligomerization and SNARE domain binding, promotes the hemifusion-content mixing transition in yeast vacuole fusion by increasing the number of trans-SNAREs.
Project description:Dynamin-like proteins (DLPs) are a family of membrane-active proteins with low sequence identity. The proteins operate in different organelles in eukaryotic cells, where they trigger vesicle formation, membrane fusion, or organelle division. As discussed here, representatives of this protein family have also been identified in chloroplasts and DLPs are very common in cyanobacteria. Since cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, an organelle of bacterial origin, have similar internal membrane systems, we suggest that DLPs are involved in membrane dynamics in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. Here, we discuss the features and activities of DLPs with a focus on their potential presence and activity in chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.
Project description:A single-vesicle, fluorescence-based, SNARE-driven fusion assay enables simultaneous measurement of lipid mixing and content release with 5 ms/frame, or even 1 ms/frame, time resolution. The v-SNARE vesicles, labeled with lipid and content markers of different color, dock and fuse with a planar t-SNARE bilayer supported on glass. A narrow (<5 ms duration), intense spike of calcein fluorescence due to content release and dequenching coincides with inner-leaflet lipid mixing within 10 ms. The spike provides more sensitive detection of productive hemifusion events than do lipid labels alone. Consequently, many fast events previously thought to be prompt, full fusion events are now reclassified as productive hemifusion. Both full fusion and hemifusion occur with a time constant of 5-10 ms. At 60% phosphatidylethanolamine lipid composition, productive and dead-end hemifusion account for 65% of all fusion events. However, quantitative analysis shows that calcein is released into the space above the bilayer (vesicle bursting), rather than the thin aqueous space between the bilayer and glass. Evidently, at the instant of inner-leaflet mixing, flattening of the vesicle increases the internal pressure beyond the bursting point. This may be related to in vivo observations suggesting that membrane lysis often competes with membrane fusion.
Project description:Dynamin-like proteins (DLPs) mediate various membrane fusion and fission processes within the cell, which often require the polymerization of DLPs. An IFN-inducible family of DLPs, the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), is involved in antimicrobial and antiviral responses within the cell. Human guanylate-binding protein 1 (hGBP1), the founding member of GBPs, is also engaged in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Here, we show how the GTPase cycle of farnesylated hGBP1 (hGBP1F) regulates its self-assembly and membrane interaction. Using vesicles of various sizes as a lipid bilayer model, we show GTP-dependent membrane binding of hGBP1F In addition, we demonstrate nucleotide-dependent tethering ability of hGBP1F Furthermore, we report nucleotide-dependent polymerization of hGBP1F, which competes with membrane binding of the protein. Our results show that hGBP1F acts as a nucleotide-controlled molecular switch by modulating the accessibility of its farnesyl moiety, which does not require any supportive proteins.
Project description:Virus-induced membrane fusion can be subdivided into three phases defined by studies of class I and class II fusion proteins. During Phase I, two membranes are brought into close apposition. Phase II marks the mixing of the outer membrane leaflets leading to formation of a hemifusion intermediate. A fusion pore stably forms and expands in Phase III, thereby completing the fusion process. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) requires four glycoproteins to complete membrane fusion, but none has been defined as class I or II. Therefore, we investigated whether HSV-1-induced membrane fusion occurred following the same general phases as those described for class I and II proteins. In this study we demonstrate that glycoprotein D (gD) and the glycoprotein H and glycoprotein L complex (gHL) mediated lipid mixing indicative of hemifusion. However, content mixing and full fusion required glycoprotein B (gB) to be present along with gD and gHL. Our results indicate that, like class I and II fusion proteins, fusion mediated by HSV-1 glycoproteins occurred through a hemifusion intermediate. In addition, both gB and gHL are probably directly involved in the fusion process. From this, we propose a sequential model for fusion via HSV-1 glycoproteins whereby gD is required for Phase I, gHL is required for Phase II, and gB is required for Phase III. We further propose that glycoprotein H and gB are likely to function sequentially to promote membrane fusion in other herpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 8.
Project description:Flaviviruses deliver their RNA genome into the host-cell cytoplasm by fusing their lipid envelope with a cellular membrane. Expression of the flavivirus pre-membrane and envelope glycoprotein genes in the absence of other viral genes results in the spontaneous assembly and secretion of virus-like particles (VLPs) with membrane fusion activity. Here, we examined the physico-chemical requirements for membrane fusion of VLPs from West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In a bulk fusion assay, optimal hemifusion (or lipid mixing) efficiencies were observed at 37 °C. Fusion efficiency increased with decreasing pH; half-maximal hemifusion was attained at pH 5.6. The anionic lipids bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, when present in the target membrane, significantly enhanced fusion efficiency, consistent with the emerging model that flaviviruses fuse with intermediate-to-late endosomal compartments, where these lipids are most abundant. In a single-particle fusion assay, VLPs catalysed membrane hemifusion, tracked as lipid mixing with the cellular membrane, on a timescale of 7-20 s after acidification. Lipid mixing kinetics suggest that hemifusion is a kinetically complex, multistep process.
Project description:Soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are hypothesized to trigger membrane fusion by complexing in trans through their membrane-distal N termini and zippering toward their membrane-embedded C termini, which in turn drives the two membranes together. In this study, we use a set of truncated SNAREs to trap kinetically stable, partially zipped trans-SNARE complexes on intact organelles in the absence of hemifusion and content mixing. We show that the C-terminal zippering of SNARE cytoplasmic domains controls the onset of lipid mixing but not the subsequent transition from hemifusion to full fusion. Moreover, we find that a partially zipped nonfusogenic trans-complex is rescued by Sec17, a universal SNARE cochaperone. Rescue occurs independently of the Sec17-binding partner Sec18, and it exhibits steep cooperativity, indicating that Sec17 engages multiple stalled trans-complexes to drive fusion. These experiments delineate distinct functions within the trans-complex, provide a straightforward method to trap and study prefusion complexes on native membranes, and reveal that Sec17 can rescue a stalled, partially zipped trans-complex.
Project description:The dynamin superfamily of proteins includes a large repertoire of evolutionarily conserved GTPases that interact with different subcellular organelle membranes in eukaryotes. Dynamins are thought to participate in a number of cellular processes involving membrane remodeling and scission. Dynamin-like proteins (DLPs) form a subfamily of this vast class and play important roles in cellular processes, such as mitochondrial fission, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. In the present study, a gene encoding a dynamin-like protein (EhDLP1) from the protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica was identified and the protein was partially characterized using a combination of in silico, biochemical, and imaging methods. The protein was capable of GTP binding and hydrolysis, lipid binding, and oligomerization. Immunofluorescence studies showed the protein to be associated with the nuclear membrane. A mutant of EhDLP1 lacking GTP binding and hydrolyzing activities did not associate with the nuclear membrane. The results suggest a nucleus-associated function for EhDLP1.
Project description:Membrane fusion is an essential step during entry of enveloped viruses into cells. Conventional fusion assays are generally limited to observation of ensembles of multiple fusion events, confounding more detailed analysis of the sequence of the molecular steps involved. We have developed an in vitro, two-color fluorescence assay to monitor kinetics of single virus particles fusing with a target bilayer on an essentially fluid support. Analysis of lipid- and content-mixing trajectories on a particle-by-particle basis provides evidence for multiple, long-lived kinetic intermediates leading to hemifusion, followed by a single, rate-limiting step to pore formation. We interpret the series of intermediates preceding hemifusion as a result of the requirement that multiple copies of the trimeric hemagglutinin fusion protein be activated to initiate the fusion process.
Project description:Voltage was investigated as a factor in the fusion of virions. Virions, pseudotyped with a class II, SFV E1 or VEEV E, or a class III protein, VSV G, were prepared with GFP within the core and a fluorescent lipid. This allowed both hemifusion and fusion to be monitored. Voltage clamping the target cell showed that fusion is promoted by a negative potential and hindered by a positive potential. Hemifusion occurred independent of polarity. Lipid dye movement, in the absence of content mixing, ceased before complete transfer for positive potentials, indicating that reversion of hemifused membranes into two distinct membranes is responsible for voltage dependence and inhibition of fusion. Content mixing quickly followed lipid dye transfer for a negative potential, providing a direct demonstration that hemifusion induced by class II and class III viral proteins is a functional intermediate of fusion. In the hemifused state, virions that fused exhibited slower lipid transfer than did nonfusing virions. All viruses with class II or III fusion proteins may utilize voltage to achieve infection.