Trends in Self-perceived Weight Status, Weight Loss Attempts, and Weight Loss Strategies Among Adults in the United States, 1999-2016.
ABSTRACT: Importance:The self-perception of weight and weight loss attempts might promote weight loss and maintenance. Objective:To examine trends in current measured body mass index (BMI) and weight, self-reported weight, self-perceived weight status, weight loss attempts, and weight loss strategies among adults in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants:This national cross-sectional study used data from continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data sets (1999-2000 to 2015-2016). Participants were US residents older than 20 years. Data were analyzed from January 2018 to December 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:Current measured BMI and weight, self-reported weight, self-perceived weight status, weight loss attempts, and applied weight loss strategies. Adjusted, self-reported, prior-year weight was calculated using correction equations that considered age, sex, race/ethnicity, and quartile of self-reported prior-year weight. Results:Data were collected from 48?026 participants (19?792 [41.2%] aged 40-64 years; 24?255 [50.5%] women; 21?725 [45.2%] white) through 9 surveys from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. Increasing trends were observed in current measured BMI (difference, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.92-1.47; P for trend?
Project description:To examine prospectively the relationships of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18 years, and weight change since age 18 years with risk of fetal loss.Our prospective cohort study included 25,719 pregnancies reported by 17,027 women in the Nurses' Health Study II between 1990 and 2009. In 1989, height, current weight, and weight at age 18 years were self-reported. Current weight was updated every 2 years thereafter. Pregnancies were self-reported, with case pregnancies lost spontaneously and comparison pregnancies ending in ectopic pregnancy, induced abortion, or live birth.Incident fetal loss was reported in 4,494 (17.5%) pregnancies. Compared with those of normal BMI, the multivariate relative risks of fetal loss were 1.07 (95% CI [confidence interval] 1.00-1.15) for overweight women, 1.10 (95% CI 0.98-1.23) for class I obese women, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.11-1.45) for class II and class III obese women (P trend ? .001). Body mass index at age 18 years was not associated with fetal loss (P trend=.59). Compared with women who maintained a stable weight (± 4 kg) between age 18 years and before pregnancy, women who lost weight had a 20% (95% CI 9-29%) lower risk of fetal loss. This association was stronger among women who were overweight at age 18 years.Being overweight or obese before pregnancy was associated with higher risk of fetal loss. In women overweight or obese at age 18 years, losing 4 kg or more was associated with a lower risk of fetal loss.: II.
Project description:Websites and phone apps are increasingly used to track weights during weight loss interventions, yet the longitudinal accuracy of these self-reported weights is uncertain.Our goal was to compare the longitudinal accuracy of self-reported weights entered online during the course of a randomized weight loss trial to measurements taken in the clinic. We aimed to determine if accuracy of self-reported weight is associated with weight loss and to determine the extent of misclassification in achieving 5% weight loss when using self-reported compared to clinic weights.This study examined the accuracy of self-reported weights recorded online among intervention participants in the Hopkins Practice-Based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) trial, a randomized trial examining the effectiveness of two lifestyle-based weight loss interventions compared to a control group among obese adult patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor. One treatment group was offered telephonic coaching and the other group was offered in-person individual coaching and group sessions. All intervention participants (n=277) received a digital scale and were asked to track their weight weekly on a study website. Research staff used a standard protocol to measure weight in the clinic. Differences (self-reported weight - clinic weight) indicate if self-report under (-) or over (+) estimated clinic weight using the self-reported weight that was closest in time to the clinic weight and was within a window ranging from the day of the clinic visit to 7 days before the 6-month (n=225) and 24-month (n=191) clinic visits. The absolute value of the differences (absolute difference) describes the overall accuracy.Underestimation of self-reported weights increased significantly from 6 months (mean -0.5 kg, SD 1.0 kg) to 24 months (mean -1.1 kg, SD 2.0 kg; P=.002). The average absolute difference also increased from 6 months (mean 0.7 kg, SD 0.8 kg) to 24 months (mean 1.3, SD 1.8 kg; P<.001). Participants who achieved the study weight loss goal at 24 months (based on clinic weights) had lower absolute differences (P=.01) compared to those who did not meet this goal. At 24 months, there was 9% misclassification of weight loss goal success when using self-reported weight compared to clinic weight as an outcome. At 24 months, those with self-reported weights (n=191) had three times the weight loss compared to those (n=73) without self-reported weights (P<.001).Underestimation of weight increased over time and was associated with less weight loss. In addition to intervention adherence, weight loss programs should emphasize accuracy in self-reporting.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00783315; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00783315 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6R4gDAK5K).
Project description:CONTEXT:Given the obesity epidemic, effective but resource-efficient weight loss treatments are needed. Stepped-treatment approaches customize interventions based on milestone completion and can be more effective while costing less to administer than conventional treatment approaches. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether a stepped-care weight loss intervention (STEP) compared with a standard behavioral weight loss intervention (SBWI) would result in greater weight loss. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A randomized clinical trial of 363 overweight and obese adults (body mass index: 25-<40; age: 18-55 years, 33% nonwhite, and 83% female) who were randomized to SBWI (n = 165) or STEP (n = 198) at 2 universities affiliated with academic medical centers in the United States (Step-Up Study). Participants were enrolled between May 2008 and February 2010 and data collection was completed by September 2011. INTERVENTIONS:All participants were placed on a low-calorie diet, prescribed increases in physical activity, and attended group counseling sessions ranging from weekly to monthly during an 18-month period. The SBWI group was assigned to a fixed program. Counseling frequency, type, and weight loss strategies could be modified every 3 months for the STEP group in response to observed weight loss as it related to weight loss goals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:Mean change in weight over 18 months. Additional outcomes included resting heart rate and blood pressure, waist circumference, body composition, fitness, physical activity, dietary intake, and cost of the program. RESULTS:Of the 363 participants randomized, 260 (71.6%) provided a measure of mean change in weight over 18 months. The 18-month intervention resulted in weight decreasing from 93.1 kg (95% CI, 91.0 to 95.2 kg) to 85.6 kg (95% CI, 83.4 to 87.7 kg) (P < .001) in the SBWI group and from 92.7 kg (95% CI, 90.8 to 94.6 kg) to 86.4 kg (95% CI, 84.5 to 88.4 kg) in the STEP group (P < .001). The percentage change in weight from baseline to 18 months was -8.1% (95% CI, -9.4% to -6.9%) in the SBWI group (P < .001) compared with -6.9% (95% CI, -8.0% to -5.8%) in the STEP group (P < .001). Although the between-group difference in 18-month weight loss was not statistically different (-1.3 kg [95% CI, -2.8 to 0.2 kg]; P = .09), there was a significant group × time interaction effect (P = .03). The cost per participant was $1357 (95% CI, $1272 to $1442) for the SBWI group vs $785 (95% CI, $739 to $830) for the STEP group (P < .001). Both groups had significant and comparable improvements in resting heart rate, blood pressure level, and fitness. CONCLUSIONS:Among overweight and obese adults, the use of SBWI resulted in a greater mean weight loss than STEP over 18 months. Compared with SBWI, STEP resulted in clinically meaningful weight loss that cost less to implement. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00714168.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Preventing weight gain rather than treating established obesity is an important economic and public health response to the rapidly increasing rates of obesity worldwide. Treatment of established obesity is complex and costly requiring multiple resources. Preventing weight gain potentially requires fewer resources to reach broad population groups, yet there is little evidence for successful interventions to prevent weight gain in the community. Women with children are an important target group because of high rates of weight gain and the potential to influence the health behaviors in family members. METHODS: The aim of this cluster randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the short term effect of a community-based self-management intervention to prevent weight gain. Two hundred and fifty mothers of young children (mean age 40 years +/- 4.5, BMI 27.9 kg/m2 +/- 5.6) were recruited from the community in Melbourne, Australia. The intervention group (n = 127) attended four interactive group sessions over 4 months, held in 12 local primary schools in 2006, and was compared to a group (n = 123) receiving a single, non-interactive, health education session. Data collection included self-reported weight (both groups), measured weight (intervention only), self-efficacy, dietary intake and physical activity. RESULTS: Mean measured weight decreased significantly in the intervention group (-0.78 kg 95% CI; -1.22 to -0.34, p < 0.001). Comparing groups using self-reported weight, both the intervention and comparison groups decreased weight, -0.75 kg (95% CI; -1.57 to 0.07, p = 0.07) and -0.72 kg (95% CI; -1.59 to 0.14 p = 0.10) respectively with no significant difference between groups (-0.03 kg, 95% CI; -1.32 to 1.26, p = 0.95). More women lost or maintained weight in the intervention group. The intervention group tended to have the greatest effect in those who were overweight at baseline and in those who weighed themselves regularly. Intervention women who rarely self-weighed gained weight (+0.07 kg) and regular self-weighers lost weight (-1.66 kg) a difference of -1.73 kg (95% CI; -3.35 to -0.11 p = 0.04). The intervention reported increased physical activity although the difference between groups did not reach significance. Both groups reported replacing high fat foods with low fat alternatives and self-efficacy deteriorated in the comparison group only. CONCLUSION: Both a single health education session and interactive behavioral intervention will result in a similar weight loss in the short term, although more participants in the interactive intervention lost or maintained weight. There were small non-significant changes to physical activity and changes to fat intake specifically replacing high fat foods with low fat alternatives such as fruit and vegetables. Self-monitoring appears to enhance weight loss when part of an intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12608000110381.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of obesity, an important cardiometabolic risk factor, is rising in women. Lifestyle improvements are the first step in treatment of obesity, but the success depends on factors like timing and motivation. Women are especially receptive to advice about lifestyle before and during pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesize that the pre-pregnancy period provides the perfect window of opportunity to improve cardiometabolic health and quality of life of obese infertile women, by means of a lifestyle intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS:Between 2009-2012, 577 infertile women between 18 and 39 years of age, with a Body Mass Index of ? 29 kg/m2, were randomized to a six month lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment, or to direct infertility treatment. The goal of the intervention was 5-10% weight loss or a BMI < 29 kg/m2. Cardiometabolic outcomes included weight, waist- and hip circumference, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, lipids and metabolic syndrome. All outcomes were measured by research nurses at randomization, 3 and 6 months. Self-reported quality of life was also measured at 12 months. Three participants withdrew their informed consent, and 63 participants discontinued the intervention program. Intention to treat analysis was conducted. Mixed effects regression models analyses were performed. Results are displayed as estimated mean differences between intervention and control group. Weight (-3.1 kg 95% CI: -4.0 to -2.2 kg; P < .001), waist circumference (-2.4 cm 95% CI: -3.6 to -1.1 cm; P < .001), hip circumference (-3.0 95% CI: -4.2 to -1.9 cm; P < .001), BMI (-1.2 kg/m2 95% CI: -1.5 to -0.8 kg/m2; P < .001), systolic blood pressure (-2.8 mmHg 95% CI: -5.0 to -0.7 mmHg; P = .01) and HOMA-IR (-0.5 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.1; P = .01) were lower in the intervention group compared to controls. Hs-CRP and lipids did not differ between groups. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in the intervention group was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.33 to 0.85; P < .01) compared to controls. Physical QoL scores were higher in the lifestyle intervention group (2.2 95% CI: 0.9 to 3.5; P = .001) while mental QoL scores did not differ. CONCLUSIONS:In obese infertile women, a lifestyle intervention prior to infertility treatment improves cardiometabolic health and self-reported physical quality of life (LIFEstyle study: Netherlands Trial Register: NTR1530).
Project description:To evaluate whether weight change since age 18 years, current body mass index (BMI), and BMI at age 18 years are associated with fecundity.Our study included 1,950 women in the Nurses' Health Study 3 (2010-2014), a prospective cohort study, currently attempting pregnancy. Height, current weight, and weight at age 18 years were self-reported on the baseline questionnaire. Every 3-6 months thereafter, women reported the current duration of their pregnancy attempt. Multivariable-accelerated failure time models were used to estimate the time ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).For every 5-kg increase in body weight from age 18 years, current duration of pregnancy attempt increased by 5% (95% CI 3-7%). Compared with women who maintained weight, the adjusted median current duration was 0.5 months shorter in those who lost weight, 0.3 months longer for those who gained 4-9.9 kg and 10-19.9 kg, and 1.4 months longer for those who gained 20 kg or more (P trend ?.001). The adjusted time ratio (95% CI) for a 5-kg/m increase in current BMI was 1.08 (1.04-1.12). After multivariable adjustment (including adjustment for current BMI), being underweight at age 18 years (BMI less than 18.5) was associated with a longer current duration of pregnancy attempt compared with normal-weight women (time ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.47); however, being overweight or obese at age 18 years was not associated with fecundity.Gaining weight in adulthood, being overweight or obese in adulthood, and being underweight at age 18 years were associated with a modest reduction in fecundity.II.
Project description:Importance:The appropriate approach for weight loss among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity remains unclear. Objective:To evaluate the difference in the treatment outcomes associated with behavioral weight loss interventions led by laypersons and professionals in comparison with unsupervised control arms among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity. Data Sources:For this systematic review and meta-analysis, the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were searched from January 1, 1996, to June 1, 2019. Study Selection:Included in this study were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of behavioral interventions lasting at least 12 weeks for children and adolescents (aged 5-18 years) with overweight and obesity. Exclusion criteria included non-RCT studies, interventions lasting less than 12 weeks, adult enrollment, participants with other medical diagnoses, pharmacological treatment use, and articles not written in English. Two of 6 reviewers independently screened all citations. Of 25 586 citations, after duplicate removal, 78 RCTs (5780 participants) met eligibility criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis:A bayesian framework and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to combine direct and indirect associations. Random-effects and fixed-effect network meta-analysis models were used with the preferred model chosen by comparing the deviance information criteria. This study was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. Main Outcomes and Measures:The immediate and sustained changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) standardized mean difference (SMD) were primary outcomes planned before data collection began, whereas waist circumference and percent body fat were secondary outcomes. The hypothesis being tested was formulated before the data collection. Results:Of 25?586 citations retrieved, we included 78 RCTs (5780 participants), with a follow-up of 12 to 104 weeks. Compared with the control condition, random-effects models revealed that professional-led weight loss interventions were associated with reductions in weight (mean difference [MD], -1.60 kg [95% CI, -2.30 to -0.99 kg]; 68 trials; P?<?.001) and BMI (SMD, -0.30 [95% CI, -0.39 to -0.20]; 59 trials; P?<?.001) that were not sustained long term (weight MD, -1.02 kg [95% CI, -2.20 to 0.34 kg]; 21 trials; P?=?.06; BMI SMD, -0.12 [95% CI, -0.46 to 0.21]; 20 trials; P?<?.001). There was no association between layperson-led interventions and weight loss in the short-term (MD, -1.40 kg [95% CI, -3.00 to 0.26 kg]; 5 trials; P?=?.05) or long-term (MD, -0.98 kg [95% CI, -3.60 to 1.80 kg]; 1 trial; P?=?.23) compared with standard care. No difference was found in head-to-head trials (professional vs layperson MD, -0.25 kg [95% CI -1.90 to 1.30 kg]; 5 trials; P?=?.38). Conclusions and Relevance:This systematic review and meta-analysis found that professional-led weight loss interventions were associated with short-term but not sustained weight reduction among children and adolescents with overweight or obesity, and the evidence for layperson-led approaches was insufficient to draw firm conclusions.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Online programs may help with weight loss but have not been widely implemented in routine primary care.<h4>Objective</h4>To compare the effectiveness of a combined intervention, including an online weight management program plus population health management, with the online program only and with usual care.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>Cluster randomized trial with enrollment from July 19, 2016, through August 10, 2017, at 15 primary care practices in the US. Eligible participants had a scheduled primary care visit and were aged 20 to 70 years, had a body mass index between 27 and less than 40, and had a diagnosis of hypertension or type 2 diabetes. Follow-up ended on May 8, 2019.<h4>Interventions</h4>Participants in the usual care group (n = 326) were mailed general information about weight management. Participants in the online program only group (n = 216) and the combined intervention group (n = 298) were registered for the online program. The participants in the combined intervention group also received weight-related population health management, which included additional support from nonclinical staff who monitored their progress in the online program and conducted periodic outreach.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The primary outcome was weight change at 12 months based on measured weights recorded in the electronic health record. Weight change at 18 months was a secondary outcome.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 840 participants who enrolled (mean age, 59.3 years [SD, 8.6 years]; 60% female; 76.8% White), 732 (87.1%) had a recorded weight at 12 months and the missing weights for the remaining participants were imputed. There was a significant difference in weight change at 12 months by group with a mean weight change of -1.2 kg (95% CI, -2.1 to -0.3 kg) in the usual care group, -1.9 kg (95% CI, -2.6 to -1.1 kg) in the online program only group, and -3.1 kg (95% CI, -3.7 to -2.5 kg) in the combined intervention group (P < .001). The difference in weight change between the combined intervention group and the usual care group was -1.9 kg (97.5% CI, -2.9 to -0.9 kg; P < .001) and the difference between the combined intervention group and the online program only group was -1.2 kg (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.3 kg; P = .01). At 18 months, the mean weight change was -1.9 kg (95% CI, -2.8 to -1.0 kg) in the usual care group, -1.1 kg (95% CI, -2.0 to -0.3 kg) in the online program only group, and -2.8 kg (95% CI, -3.5 to -2.0 kg) in the combined intervention group (P < .001).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Among primary care patients with overweight or obesity and hypertension or type 2 diabetes, combining population health management with an online program resulted in a small but statistically significant greater weight loss at 12 months compared with usual care or the online program only. Further research is needed to understand the generalizability, scalability, and durability of these findings.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02656693.
Project description:Guidelines ask health professionals to offer brief advice to encourage weight loss for people living with obesity. We tested whether referral to one of three online programmes could lead to successful weight loss. A total of 528 participants aged ≥18 years with a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m<sup>2</sup> were invited via a letter from their GP. Participants were randomised to one of three online weight loss programmes (NHS Weight Loss Plan, Rosemary Online or Slimming World Online) or to a control group receiving no intervention. Participants self-reported weight at baseline and 8 weeks. The primary outcome was weight change in each of the active intervention groups compared with control. We also compared the proportion of participants losing ≥5% or ≥10% of body weight. For Rosemary, Online mean weight loss was modestly greater than control (-1.5 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.3 to -0.6]) and more than three times as many participants in this group lost ≥5% (relative risk [RR] = 3.64, 95% CI: 1.63-8.1). For Slimming World, mean weight loss was not significantly different from control (-0.8 kg [95%CI -1.7 to 0.1]), twice as many participants lost ≥5% (RR = 2.70, 1.17-6.23). There was no significant difference in weight loss for participants using the NHS Weight Loss Plan (-0.4 kg, [95% CI -1.3 to 0.5]), or the proportion losing ≥5% (RR = 2.09, 0.87-5.01). Only one of three online weight loss programmes was superior to no intervention and the effect size modest among participants living with obesity.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) causes headaches, vision loss, and reduced quality of life. Sustained weight loss among patients with IIH is necessary to modify the disease and prevent relapse.<h4>Objective</h4>To compare the effectiveness of bariatric surgery with that of a community weight management (CWM) intervention for the treatment of patients with active IIH.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This 5-year randomized clinical trial (Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Weight Trial) enrolled women with active IIH and a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 35 or higher at 5 National Health Service hospitals in the UK between March 1, 2014, and May 25, 2017. Of 74 women assessed for eligibility, 6 did not meet study criteria and 2 declined to participate; 66 women were randomized. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2018, to May 14, 2020.<h4>Interventions</h4>Bariatric surgery (n = 33) or CWM intervention (Weight Watchers) (n = 33).<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The primary outcome was change in intracranial pressure measured by lumbar puncture opening pressure at 12 months, as assessed in an intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary outcomes included lumbar puncture opening pressure at 24 months as well as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, perimetric mean deviation, and quality of life (measured by the 36-item Short Form Health Survey) at 12 and 24 months. Because the difference in continuous outcomes between groups is presented, the null effect was at 0.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 66 female participants (mean [SD] age, 32.0 [7.8] years), 64 (97.0%) remained in the clinical trial at 12 months and 54 women (81.8%) were included in the primary outcome analysis. Intracranial pressure was significantly lower in the bariatric surgery arm at 12 months (adjusted mean [SE] difference, -6.0 [1.8] cm cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]; 95% CI, -9.5 to -2.4 cm CSF; P = .001) and at 24 months (adjusted mean [SE] difference, -8.2 [2.0] cm CSF; 95% CI, -12.2 to -4.2 cm CSF; P < .001) compared with the CWM arm. In the per protocol analysis, intracranial pressure was significantly lower in the bariatric surgery arm at 12 months (adjusted mean [SE] difference, -7.2 [1.8] cm CSF; 95% CI, -10.6 to -3.7 cm CSF; P < .001) and at 24 months (adjusted mean [SE] difference, -8.7 [2.0] cm CSF; 95% CI, -12.7 to -4.8 cm CSF; P < .001). Weight was significantly lower in the bariatric surgery arm at 12 months (adjusted mean [SE] difference, -21.4 [5.4] kg; 95% CI, -32.1 to -10.7 kg; P < .001) and at 24 months (adjusted mean [SE] difference, -26.6 [5.6] kg; 95% CI, -37.5 to -15.7 kg; P < .001). Quality of life was significantly improved at 12 months (adjusted mean [SE] difference, 7.3 [3.6]; 95% CI, 0.2-14.4; P = .04) and 24 months (adjusted mean [SE] difference, 10.4 [3.8]; 95% CI, 3.0-17.9; P = .006) in the bariatric surgery arm.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this randomized clinical trial, bariatric surgery was superior to a CWM intervention in lowering intracranial pressure. The continued improvement over the course of 2 years shows the impact of this intervention with regard to sustained disease remission.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02124486.