Attaining Intraocular Pressure of ?10 mm Hg: Comparison of Tube and Trabeculectomy Surgery in Pseudophakic Primary Glaucoma Eyes.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The aim of this study is to evaluate whether trabeculectomy with antimetabolites or glaucoma drainage device (GDD) surgery is more likely to achieve an intraocular pressure (IOP) ?10 mm Hg. DESIGN:Retrospective, nonrandomized, cohort study of pseudophakic, primary glaucoma patients. METHODS:53 pseudophakic patients underwent trabeculectomy and 65 received GDD at the University of Florida by one surgeon between 1993 and 2015. The main outcome measures were mean IOP and percentage of patients obtaining an IOP ?10 mm Hg for up to 5 years postoperatively. A subgroup undergoing a first time glaucoma surgery was also analyzed because there were more redo glaucoma procedures in the GDD group. RESULTS:Over 5 years, the mean annual IOP for the trabeculectomy eyes was between 6.9 and 7.8 mm Hg on an average of 0.2 medications, and that for GDD eyes was between 11.4 and 12.1 mm Hg on a mean of 1.6 to 1.9 medications (P?
Project description:To report 5-year treatment outcomes in the Tube Versus Trabeculectomy (TVT) Study.Multicenter randomized clinical trial.Seventeen clinical centers.Patients 18 to 85 years of age who had previous trabeculectomy and/or cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation and uncontrolled glaucoma with intraocular pressure (IOP) ?18 mm Hg and ?40 mm Hg on maximum tolerated medical therapy.Tube shunt (350-mm(2) Baerveldt glaucoma implant) or trabeculectomy with mitomycin C ([MMC]; 0.4 mg/mL for 4 minutes).IOP, visual acuity, use of supplemental medical therapy, and failure (IOP >21 mm Hg or not reduced by 20%, IOP ?5 mm Hg, reoperation for glaucoma, or loss of light perception vision).A total of 212 eyes of 212 patients were enrolled, including 107 in the tube group and 105 in the trabeculectomy group. At 5 years, IOP (mean ± SD) was 14.4 ± 6.9 mm Hg in the tube group and 12.6 ± 5.9 mm Hg in the trabeculectomy group (P = .12). The number of glaucoma medications (mean ± SD) was 1.4 ± 1.3 in the tube group and 1.2 ± 1.5 in the trabeculectomy group (P = .23). The cumulative probability of failure during 5 years of follow-up was 29.8% in the tube group and 46.9% in the trabeculectomy group (P = .002; hazard ratio = 2.15; 95% confidence interval = 1.30 to 3.56). The rate of reoperation for glaucoma was 9% in the tube group and 29% in the trabeculectomy group (P = .025).Tube shunt surgery had a higher success rate compared to trabeculectomy with MMC during 5 years of follow-up in the TVT Study. Both procedures were associated with similar IOP reduction and use of supplemental medical therapy at 5 years. Additional glaucoma surgery was needed more frequently after trabeculectomy with MMC than tube shunt placement.
Project description:To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) over time after standard trabeculectomy vs Ex-PRESS implantation in patients with bilateral primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Prospective, randomised study.This study included adult patients with bilateral POAG necessitating surgery. Each patient underwent trabeculectomy in one eye and Ex-PRESS implantation under a scleral flap in the other eye according to randomised contralateral allocations. Efficacy was assessed by IOP values and success rates (IOP threshold and/or need for topical glaucoma medication) during 30 months. Statistical analysis included Generalised Estimate Equation and Cox Survival models, and paired t-tests.Thirty eyes of 15 patients were studied for a mean of 23.6 months (SD, ± 6.9). At the last follow-up visit, mean pre-operative IOP decreased from 31.1 (± 14.2) to 16.2 (± 1.5) mm Hg after trabeculectomy, and from 28.1 (± 9.0) to 15.7 (± 1.8) mm Hg after Ex-PRESS implantation (P=0.001). The mean number of anti-glaucoma medicines prescribed at the last follow-up decreased from 3.7 pre-operatively (both groups) to 0.9 after trabeculectomy vs 0.3 after Ex-PRESS implantation (P=0.001). Complete success rates (5<IOP<18 mm Hg without medications) were higher with Ex-PRESS compared with trabeculectomy (P=0.0024). Postoperative complications were more frequent after trabeculectomy (33%) compared with Ex-PRESS (20%), with four trabeculectomy eyes (27%) needing postoperative interventions, compared with none with Ex-PRESS.Trabeculectomy and Ex-PRESS implantation provided similar IOP control, but the Ex-PRESS group had a lower rate of complications, fewer postoperative interventions, and needed less glaucoma medications.
Project description:Objective:To describe the safety and effectiveness of CyPass supraciliary microstent implantation alone in eyes with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) followed up for up to 3 years. Methods and analysis:This registry study included subjects with primary or secondary OAG who underwent CyPass Micro-Stent implantation alone at 12 sites in four European countries to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and/or use of IOP-lowering medications. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse events. Secondary efficacy outcomes included mean changes from baseline in IOP and IOP-lowering medications. Eyes were subgrouped into those with low (< 21 mm Hg) and high (> 21 mm Hg) baseline IOP. Results:This study included 225 eyes of 178 patients, with mean baseline IOP of 22.6 ± 6.7 mm Hg and a mean 2.2 ± 1.2 medications per eye. Common ocular adverse events included device obstruction (10.2%), IOP elevation > 10 mm Hg during follow-up (8.9%), retinal complications (4.4%) and loss of > 2 lines of best-corrected visual acuity (2.7%). Seventy-one eyes (31.6%) required secondary glaucoma surgery, with trabeculectomy (33 eyes) and second microstent implantation (13 eyes) being most common. At months 6-36, mean IOP reductions ranged from 4.4 to 5.1 mm Hg (15.8%-19.5%) and mean medication reductions from 0.2 to 1.2 (9.1%-54.5%). Mean IOP reduction was greater in eyes with higher than lower baseline IOP. Both subgroups showed reductions of 0.5-1.0 medication at 12-18 months. Conclusion:CyPass microstent implantation demonstrated a safety profile consistent with other minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries and effectively lowered IOP for up to 3 years in eyes with OAG.
Project description:To describe the incidence and outcomes of reoperations for glaucoma in the Tube Versus Trabeculectomy (TVT) Study.Cohort study of patients in a multicenter randomized clinical trial.The TVT Study enrolled 212 patients with medically uncontrolled glaucoma who had previous cataract and/or glaucoma surgery. Randomization assigned 107 patients to surgery with a tube shunt (350 mm(2) Baerveldt glaucoma implant) and 105 patients to trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (0.4 mg/mL for 4 minutes). Data were analyzed from patients who failed their assigned treatment and had additional glaucoma surgery. Outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP), use of glaucoma medications, visual acuity, surgical complications, and failure (IOP >21 mm Hg or not reduced by 20%, IOP ?5 mm Hg, additional glaucoma surgery, or loss of light perception vision).Additional glaucoma surgery was performed in 8 patients in the tube group and 18 patients in the trabeculectomy group in the TVT Study, and the 5-year cumulative reoperation rate was 9% in the tube group and 29% in the trabeculectomy group (P = .025). Follow-up (mean ± SD) after additional glaucoma surgery was 28.0 ± 16.0 months in the tube group and 30.5 ± 20.4 months in the trabeculectomy group (P = .76). At 2 years after a glaucoma reoperation, IOP (mean ± SD) was 15.0 ± 5.5 mm Hg in the tube group and 14.4 ± 6.6 mm Hg in the trabeculectomy group (P = .84). The number of glaucoma medications (mean ± SD) after 2 years of follow-up was 1.1 ± 1.3 in the tube group and 1.4 ± 1.4 in the trabeculectomy group (P = .71). The cumulative probability of failure at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after additional glaucoma surgery was 0%, 43%, 43%, and 43%, respectively, in the tube group, and 0%, 9%, 20%, and 47% in the trabeculectomy group (P = .28). Reoperations to manage complications were required in 1 patient in the tube group and 5 patients in the trabeculectomy group (P = .63).The rate of reoperation for glaucoma was higher following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C than tube shunt surgery in the TVT Study. Similar surgical outcomes were observed after additional glaucoma surgery, irrespective of initial randomized treatment in the study.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate tonometric outcomes of patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) who have undergone trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) with and without concurrent phacoemulsification and to identify risk factors for postoperative failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Retrospective cohort study of 44 eyes of 33 phakic patients who underwent trabeculectomy with MMC with or without combined phacoemulsification for PACG. The primary endpoint was qualified tonometric success at 12 months according to predefined criteria. LogMAR visual acuity, number of glaucoma medications, and postoperative complications were also evaluated. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for trabeculectomy failure. RESULTS:Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from 21.3±7.9 to 12.2±3.9 mm Hg at 12 months (P<0.001) in all patients. A significant reduction in mean number of glaucoma medications (P<0.001) was also seen. There was no change in logMAR visual acuity (P=0.39) after 12 months. There were no significant intergroup differences in mean IOP (P=0.42), number of glaucoma medications (P=0.85), or logMAR visual acuity (P=0.42) between the trabeculectomy versus combined surgery groups after 12 months. Increased age, greater baseline IOP, limbus-based conjunctival flaps, and MMC duration >1 minute were associated with decreased risk of surgical failure. Concurrent phacoemulsification at the time of trabeculectomy did not alter tonometric success or rate of complications. CONCLUSIONS:In phakic patients with PACG, trabeculectomy with MMC significantly reduces IOP and number of glaucoma medications at 12 months without change in visual acuity. However, success rates are modest when based on more demanding tonometric criteria.
Project description:PURPOSE: To report on the long-term outcomes and risk factors for failure with the EX-PRESS shunt implanted under a scleral flap. SETTINGS: Eye Department, University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy and the Oxford Eye Center, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. METHODS: The medical records of glaucoma patients who underwent consecutive EX-PRESS implantations under a scleral flap between 2000 and 2009 were reviewed. The operations were performed by two experienced surgeons using an identical surgical technique. The potential risk factors for failure that were analysed included age, sex, race, glaucoma type, previous antiglaucoma medications, previous glaucoma surgeries, diabetes, and smoking. Complete success was defined as postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) 5 mm Hg>IOP<18 mm Hg without antiglaucoma medications. Qualified success was defined as 5 mm Hg>IOP<18 mm Hg with or without antiglaucoma medications. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-eight eyes of 211 consecutive patients were included. The mean IOP was reduced from 27.63 ± 8.26 mm Hg preoperatively (n=248) to 13.95 ± 2.70 mm Hg at 5 years (n=95). The mean follow-up was 3.46 ± 1.76 years. Complete and qualified success rates decreased gradually from 83% and 85% at 1 year to 57% and 63% at 5 years follow-up, respectively. The risk factors for failure were diabetes, non-Caucasian race, and previous glaucoma surgery. Complete success rates of diabetic patients and non-Caucasian patients decreased from 63% and 75% at 1 year to 42% and 40% at 5 years follow-up, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: EX-PRESS success rates decrease over time but compare favourably with trabeculectomy literature data. The main identifiable risk factors for failure are diabetes, non-Caucasian race, and previous glaucoma surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To compare the effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) and travoprost on 24-hour IOP fluctuations in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS:Sixty eyes were included. Sixteen and 14 eyes of POAG patients were randomized to receive 360° SLT or 0.004% travoprost, respectively. Fourteen and 16 eyes of NTG patients were randomized to receive either SLT or travoprost, respectively. The 24-hour IOP data were collected before treatment and 6 to 8 weeks after treatment. IOP was measured at 2?hours intervals in the sitting position during daytime (9 AM to 7 PM) and in the supine position during nighttime (9 PM to 7 AM). Main outcome measure was the percentage of eyes that achieved posttreatment 24-hour IOP fluctuations <3?mm?Hg. Success in fluctuation reduction was defined as at least a 50% reduction in these fluctuations. RESULTS:Fifty-eight eyes were analyzed. Overall, eyes in the SLT and the travoprost groups achieved a significant reduction in IOP compared with the baseline IOP values (-3.7?mm Hg [P?=?0.002] vs -4.1?mm Hg [P?<?0.001], respectively). There was no significant difference in IOP reduction in both groups according to type of glaucoma. During the diurnal period, 100% of POAG eyes in the travoprost group achieved posttreatment IOP fluctuations <3?mm Hg, and 87% of eyes in the SLT group achieved the same level of fluctuations (P?<?0.001). Ninety-six percent of NTG eyes in the travoprost group, and 82% of eyes in the SLT group had IOP fluctuations <3?mm Hg (P?=?0.01). Success in fluctuation reduction was 75% and 92% for the SLT and travoprost groups, respectively (P?=?0.005). The effect of travoprost on IOP reduction in POAG and NTG patients was significant both during the daytime and the nighttime, while the SLT's effect was significant only during the nighttime. CONCLUSIONS:Both travoprost and SLT can significantly reduce the IOP in patients with POAG and NTG. Based on habitual positions, travoprost better controls IOP fluctuations than SLT, especially during the daytime.
Project description:To compare effectiveness of fornix- and limbal-based conjunctival flaps in trabeculectomy surgery.Systematic review.Setting: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, LILACS, ISRCTN registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO, and ICTRP were searched to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs).RCTs in which benefits and complications of fornix- vs limbal-based trabeculectomy for glaucoma were compared in adult glaucoma patients.We followed Cochrane methodology for data extraction.Proportion of failed trabeculectomies at 24 months, defined as the need for repeat surgery or uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) >22 mm Hg, despite topical/systemic medications.The review included 6 trials with a total of 361 participants, showing no difference in effectiveness between fornix-based vs limbal-based trabeculectomy surgery, although with a high level of uncertainty owing to low event rates. In the fornix-based and limbal-based surgery, mean IOP at 12 months was similar, with ranges of 12.5-15.5 mm Hg and 11.7-15.1 mm Hg, respectively. Mean difference was 0.44 mm Hg (95% CI -0.45 to 1.33) and 0.86 mm Hg (95% CI -0.52 to 2.24) at 12 and 24 months of follow-up, respectively. Mean number of postoperative glaucoma medications was similar between the 2 groups. Mean difference was 0.02 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.19) at 12 months. As far as postoperative complications, an increased risk of shallow anterior chamber was observed in the limbal-based group.Similar efficacy of trabeculectomy surgery with respect to bleb failure or IOP control was observed in both types of conjunctival flap incisions. A significant difference was detected in the risk of postoperative shallow anterior chamber, which was increased in the limbal-based group.
Project description:PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between early and late postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and determine if early postoperative IOP can predict the surgical outcome. METHODS: A total of 165 consecutive patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) undergoing primary mitomycin-C-augmented trabeculectomy underwent a comprehensive eye examination before surgery and were followed-up on days 1, 7, 14, and 30, and months 3, 6, 12, and 18. IOPs on days 1, 7, 14, and 30 were stratified into groups A (<10 mm Hg), B (≥10 and <15 mm Hg), C (≥15 and <20 mm Hg), and D (≥20 mm Hg). Differences between groups were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Multivariable regression was used to exam the predictive ability of early IOP for final outcome. RESULTS: The mean age was 62.5±7.9 years and 41.21% (n=68) were males. Stratified by IOP on days 1, 7, 14, and 30, respectively, mean IOPs at month 18 were different among groups A, B, C, and D (ANOVA, P=0.047, P=0.033, P=0.008, and P<0.001, respectively). Once the IOPs were settled with interventions on day 7 a higher IOP level was associated with decreasing success rate under different outcome definitions, final IOP <15 mm Hg (Fisher's exact P=0.001) and <20 mm Hg (P=0.039) without medication. Multiple regression showed early IOP predicted final IOP independently from baseline variables. A cutoff value of 13.5 mm Hg on day 7 achieved an accuracy of 80.0 and 57.1% in predicting IOP<15 mm Hg without medication and failure after surgery, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The IOP at 18 months following primary antifibrotic-augmented trabeculectomy in PACG patients is associated with and predicted by the postoperative IOPs at 1 month. Control of early IOP to 13.5 or less may provide better outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) and the risk factors associated with AGV implantation failure in a population of Chinese patients with refractory glaucoma.<h4>Method</h4>In total, 79 eyes with refractory glaucoma from 79 patients treated in our institution from November 2007 to November 2010 were enrolled in this retrospective study. The demographic data, preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressures (IOPs), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of anti-glaucoma medications used, completed and qualified surgery success rates and postoperative complications were recorded to evaluate the outcomes of AGV implantation. Factors that were associated with implant failure were determined using Cox proportional hazard regression model analysis and multiple linear regression analysis.<h4>Principle findings</h4>The average follow-up time was 12.7±5.8 months (mean±SD). We observed a significant reduction in the mean IOP from 39.9±12.6 mm Hg before surgery to 19.3±9.6 mm Hg at the final follow-up. The complete success rate was 59.5%, and the qualified success rate was 83.5%. The number of previous surgeries was negatively correlated with qualified success rate (P<0.05, OR=0.736, 95% CI 0.547-0.99). Patients with previous trabeculectomy were more likely to use multiple anti-glaucoma drugs to control IOP (P<0.01). The primary complication was determined to be a flat anterior chamber (AC).<h4>Conclusion</h4>AGV implantation was safe and effective for the management of refractory glaucoma. Patients with a greater number of previous surgeries were more likely to experience surgical failure, and patients with previous trabeculectomy were more likely to use multiple anti-glaucoma drugs to control postoperative IOP.