Chronic Ethanol Consumption Reduces Existing CD8 T Cell Memory and Is Associated with Lesions in Protection against Secondary Influenza A Virus Infections.
ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an increased incidence of disease severity during pulmonary infections. Our previous work in a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption has detailed that the primary influenza A virus (IAV)-specific CD8 T cell response in mice that consumed ethanol (EtOH) had a reduced proliferative capacity as well as the ability to kill IAV target cells. Interestingly, recent studies have highlighted that human alcoholics have an increased susceptibility to IAV infections, even though they likely possess pre-existing immunity to IAV. However, the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on pre-existing immune responses (i.e., memory) to IAV have not been explored. Our results presented in this study show that IAV-immune mice that then chronically consumed alcohol (X31?EtOH) exhibited increased morbidity and mortality following IAV re-exposure compared with IAV-immune mice that had consumed water (X31?H2O). This increased susceptibility in X31?EtOH mice was associated with reduced IAV-specific killing of target cells and a reduction in the number of IAV-specific CD8 T cells within the lungs. Furthermore, upon IAV challenge, recruitment of the remaining memory IAV-specific CD8 T cells into the lungs is reduced in X31?EtOH mice. This altered recruitment is associated with a reduced pulmonary expression of CXCL10 and CXCL11, which are chemokines that are important for T cell recruitment to the lungs. Overall, these results demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects the resting memory CD8 T cell response and reduces the ability of memory T cells to be recruited to the site of infection upon subsequent exposures, therein contributing to an enhanced susceptibility to IAV infections.
Project description:Influenza infection stimulates protective host immune responses but paradoxically enhances lung indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity, an enzyme that suppresses helper/effector T cells and activates Foxp3-lineage regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs). Influenza A/PR/8/34 (PR8) infection stimulated rapid elevation of IDO activity in lungs and lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes (msLNs). Mice lacking intact IDO1 genes (IDO1-KO mice) exhibited significantly lower morbidity after sub-lethal PR8 infection, and genetic or pharmacologic IDO ablation led to much faster recovery after virus clearance. More robust influenza-specific effector CD8 T cell responses manifested in lungs of PR8-infected IDO1-KO mice, though virus clearance rates were unaffected by IDO ablation. Similar outcomes manifested in mice infected with a less virulent influenza A strain (X31). IDO induction in X31-infected lungs was dependent on IFN type II (IFN?) signaling and was restricted to non-hematopoietic cells, while redundant IFN type 1 or type II signaling induced IDO exclusively in hematopoietic cells from msLNs. Memory T cells generated in X31-primed IDO1-KO mice protected mice from subsequent challenge with lethal doses of PR8 (100×LD50). However recall T cell responses were less robust in lung interstitial tissues, and classic dominance of TCR V?8.3 chain usage amongst memory CD8(+) T cells specific for influenza nucleoprotein (NP366) did not manifest in IDO1-KO mice. Thus, influenza induced IDO activity in lungs enhanced morbidity, slowed recovery, restrained effector T cell responses in lungs and shaped memory T cell repertoire generation, but did not attenuate virus clearance during primary influenza A infection.
Project description:The binge-drinking pattern of EtOH consumption, which is frequently observed in adolescents, is known to induce several neurobehavioral alterations, but protection strategies against these impairments remain scarcely explored. We aimed to study the protective role of treadmill physical exercise on the deficits caused after repeated cycles of binge-like EtOH exposure in the cognition, motivation, exploration, and emotion of C57BL/6J mice from adolescence to adulthood. Animals were divided into four groups: control group, exercised group, EtOH group, and exercised + EtOH group (20% in tap water). The exercise was performed for 20 min, 5 days/week at 20 cm/s. Then, animals were submitted to several behavioral tasks. Compared to binge-drinking mice, the exercised + EtOH group exhibited diminished anxiolytic-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, enhanced exploratory activity in the open field, reduced preference for alcohol odor when another rewarding stimulus was present (social stimulus) and lower latency to start self-cleaning behaviors in the sucrose splash test. In contrast, other measurements such as habituation learning and working memory were not improved by exercise. Besides, exercise was not able to reduce alcohol consumption across the weeks. In conclusion, physical activity during adolescence and early adulthood could buffer certain neurobehavioral alterations associated with binge-drinking, despite not reducing the quantity of consumed alcohol.
Project description:Despite extensive research, influenza A virus (IAV) remains a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditure. Emerging pandemics from highly pathogenic IAV strains, such as H5N1 and pandemic H1N1, highlight the need for universal, cross-protective vaccines. Current vaccine formulations generate strain-specific neutralizing antibodies primarily against the outer coat proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. In contrast to these highly mutable proteins, internal proteins of IAV are more conserved and are a favorable target for developing vaccines that induce strong T cell responses in addition to humoral immunity. Here, we found that intranasal administration with a single dose of CpG and inactivated x31 (H3N2) reduced viral titers and partially protected mice from a heterosubtypic challenge with a lethal dose of PR8 (H1N1). Early after immunization, vaccinated mice showed increased innate immune activation with high levels of MHCII and CD86 expression on dendritic cells in both draining lymph nodes and lungs. Three days after immunization, CD4 and CD8 cells in the lung upregulated CD69, suggesting that activated lymphocytes are present at the site of vaccine administration. The ensuing effector Th1 responses were capable of producing multiple cytokines and were present at least 30?days after immunization. Furthermore, functional memory responses were observed, as antigen-specific IFN-?(+) and GrB(+) cells were detected early after lethal infection. Together, this work provides evidence for using pattern recognition receptor agonists as a mucosal vaccine platform for inducing robust T cell responses capable of protecting against heterologous IAV challenges.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In recent years, much attention has been given to the lack of reproducibility in biomedical research, particularly in preclinical animal studies. This is a problem that also plagues the alcohol research field, particularly in consistent consumption in animal models of alcohol use disorders. One often overlooked factor that could affect reproducibility is the maintenance diet used in preclinical studies. METHODS:Herein, 2 well-established models of alcohol consumption, the "drinking in the dark" (DID) procedure and the continuous 2-bottle choice (C2BC) paradigm, were employed to determine the effects of diet on ethanol (EtOH) consumption. Male C57BL/6J mice were given 1 of 6 standard rodent chow diets obtained from Purina LabDiet(®) , Inc. (Prolab(®) RMH 3000) or Harlan(®) Laboratories, Inc. (Teklad Diets T.2916, T.2918, T.2920X, T.7912, or T.8940). A separate group of animals were used to test dietary effects on EtOH pharmacokinetics and behavioral measures following intraperitoneal (IP) injections of various doses of EtOH. RESULTS:Mice eating Harlan diets T.2916 (H2916) and T.2920X (H2920) consumed significantly less EtOH and exhibited lower blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) during DID; however, during C2BC, animals maintained on Harlan T.7912 (H7912) consumed more EtOH and had a higher EtOH preference than the other diet groups. EtOH consumption levels did not stem from changes in alcohol pharmacokinetics, as a separate group of animals administered EtOH IP showed no difference in BECs. However, animals on Harlan diet T.2920X (H2920) were more sensitive to alcohol-induced locomotor activity in an open-field task. No diet-dependent differences were seen in alcohol-induced sedation as measured with loss of righting reflex. CONCLUSIONS:Although these data do not identify a specific mechanism, together, they clearly show that the maintenance diet impacts EtOH consumption. It is incumbent upon the research community to consider the importance of describing nutritional information in methods, which may help decrease interlaboratory reproducibility issues.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>This study sought to compare mice bred to preferentially consume high amounts of alcohol (crossed-high alcohol preferring, cHAP) to c57BL/6 (C57) mice using a chronic-binge ethanol ingestion model to induce alcoholic liver disease (ALD).<h4>Methods</h4>Male C57 and cHAP mice were randomized to a Lieber-DeCarli control (LDC) diet, Lieber-DeCarli 5% (v/v) ethanol (LDE) diet or free-choice between 10% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water (EtOH-DW) and DW. After 4 weeks mice were gavaged with either 9 g/kg maltose-dextrin (LDC+MD) or 5 g/kg EtOH (LDE+Binge, EtOH-DW+Binge). Nine hours later tissue and serum were collected and analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>cHAP mice on EtOH-DW consumed significantly more ethanol than cHAP or C57 mice maintained on LDE. However, cHAP and C57 mice on the LDE+Binge regiment had greater hepatosteatosis and overall degree of liver injury compared to EtOH-DW+Binge. Changes in pro-inflammatory gene expression was more pronounced in cHAP mice than C57 mice. Analysis of liver enzymes revealed a robust induction of CYP2E1 in C57 and cHAP mice maintained on EtOH-DW+Binge or LDE+Binge. However, while C57 mice exhibited higher basal hepatic glutathione than cHAP mice, these mice appeared more susceptible to oxidative stress following LDE+Binge than cHAP counterparts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Despite cHAP mice consuming more total ethanol prior to gavage when maintained on EtOH-DW, LDE followed by gavage created a more severe model of ALD in both C57 and cHAP mice. These data suggest factors other than total amount of alcohol consumed affect degree of ALD development in the chronic-binge model in cHAP mice.<h4>Short summary</h4>cHAP mice voluntarily consume high amounts of ethanol and exhibited hepatic injury when subject to chronic-binge ethanol feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli diet. However, hepatic injury was reduced in cHAP mice in a chronic-binge model following voluntary high ethanol consumption in drinking water.
Project description:RATIONALE:Episodic bouts of social stress can precede the initiation, escalation, or relapse to disordered alcohol intake. Social stress may engender neuroadaptations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and in extrahypothalamic stress circuitry to promote the escalation of alcohol intake. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to (1) confirm a pattern of escalated drinking in socially defeated mice and to (2) test drugs that target distinct aspects of the HPA axis and extrahypothalamic neural substrates for their effectiveness in reducing murine, stress-escalated drinking. METHODS:Male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were socially defeated by resident Swiss-derived males for ten consecutive days receiving 30 bites/day. Ten days after the final defeat, cohorts of B6 mice received continuous or intermittent access to 20% EtOH (w/v) and water. After 4 weeks of drinking, mice were injected with weekly, systemic doses of the CRF-R1 antagonist, CP376395; the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone; the 11-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, metyrapone; or the 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. RESULTS:Prior to drug treatments, defeated mice reliably consumed more EtOH than non-defeated controls, and mice given alcohol intermittently consumed more EtOH than those with continuous access. CP376395 (17-30 mg/kg) reduced continuous, but not intermittent EtOH intake (g/kg) in socially defeated mice. Mifepristone (100 mg/kg), however, increased drinking by defeated mice with intermittent access to alcohol while reducing drinking during continuous access. When administered finasteride (100 mg/kg) or metyrapone (50 mg/kg), all mice reduced their EtOH intake while increasing their water consumption. CONCLUSIONS:Mice with a history of episodic social defeat stress were selectively sensitive to the effects of CRF-R1 antagonism, suggesting that CRF-R1 may be a potential target for treating alcohol use disorders in individuals who escalate their drinking after exposure to repeated bouts of psychosocial stress. Future studies will clarify how social defeat stress may alter the expression of extrahypothalamic CRF-R1 and glucocorticoid receptors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cannabinoids and their principle psychoactive target, the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), impact a number of alcohol-related properties, and although alcohol and cannabis are often co-used, particularly in adolescence, few animal models of this phenomenon exist. We modeled the co-use of alcohol and ?9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adolescent mice using ingestive methods popular during this developmental period in humans, namely binge-drinking and edible THC. With this model, we assessed levels of use, acute effects, and tolerance to each substance. METHODS:Adolescent male C57BL/6J mice had daily, limited access to 1 of 2 edible doughs (THC or control), to 1 of 2 fluids (ethanol (EtOH) or water), and in 1 of 2 orders (dough-fluid or fluid-dough). Home cage locomotor activity was recorded both during access and after access. On the day following the final access session, a subset of mice were assessed for functional and metabolic tolerance to alcohol using accelerating rotarod and blood EtOH concentrations, respectively. The remaining mice were assessed for tolerance to THC-induced hypothermia, and whole-brain CB1R expression was assessed in all mice. RESULTS:EtOH intake was on par with levels previously reported in adolescent mice. Edible THC was well-consumed, but consumption decreased at the highest dose provided. Locomotor activity increased following EtOH intake and decreased following edible THC consumption, and edible THC increased fluid intake in general. The use of alcohol produced neither functional nor metabolic tolerance to an alcohol challenge. However, the use of edible THC impaired subsequent drug-free rotarod performance and was associated with a reduction in THC's hypothermic effect. CONCLUSIONS:Adolescent mice self-administered both alcohol and edible THC to a degree sufficient to acutely impact locomotor activity. However, only edible THC consumption had lasting effects during short-term abstinence. Thus, this adolescent co-use model could be used to explore sex differences in self-administration and the impact substance co-use might have on other domains such as mood and cognition.
Project description:Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous ?-herpesvirus that establishes life-long latent infection in a high percentage of the population worldwide. CMV induces the strongest and most durable CD8+ T cell response known in human clinical medicine. Due to its unique properties, the virus represents a promising candidate vaccine vector for the induction of persistent cellular immunity. To take advantage of this, we constructed a recombinant murine CMV (MCMV) expressing an MHC-I restricted epitope from influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 within the immediate early 2 (ie2) gene. Only mice that were immunized intranasally (i.n.) were capable of controlling IAV infection, despite the greater potency of the intraperitoneally (i.p.) vaccination in inducing a systemic IAV-specific CD8+ T cell response. The protective capacity of the i.n. immunization was associated with its ability to induce IAV-specific tissue-resident memory CD8+ T (CD8TRM) cells in the lungs. Our data demonstrate that the protective effect exerted by the i.n. immunization was critically mediated by antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. CD8TRM cells promoted the induction of IFN? and chemokines that facilitate the recruitment of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to the lungs. Overall, our results showed that locally applied MCMV vectors could induce mucosal immunity at sites of entry, providing superior immune protection against respiratory infections.
Project description:Alcohol (i.e., ethanol) is consumed regularly by much of the adult population; yet, the health effects associated with its use are not well-characterized. Clinical interventions to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on metabolic outcomes, including adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors, are limited and have yielded conflicting data. In addition, no study has reported the effects of routine alcohol intake during weight loss in a controlled feeding trial. We present the first randomized controlled pilot trial to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on metabolic outcomes during weight loss in women with obesity. Both groups consumed 30% energy restricted diets and were randomized to either an ethanol-free control (CTL) group or a group (EtOH) that consumed 35 g ethanol daily for eight weeks. Our findings demonstrate that, despite similar weight loss, the decrease in mean arterial pressure was attenuated in the EtOH group, relative to the CTL group (p = 0.02). In addition, decreases in other outcomes, including visceral adipose tissue (p = 0.23), circulating lipids (triglycerides (p = 0.11) and cholesterol (p = 0.11)), and uric acid (p = 0.07) tended to be attenuated with alcohol consumption. These pilot data provide potential evidence that moderate alcohol consumption may mitigate the beneficial effects of weight loss and support the need for larger Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) to better investigate the metabolic effects of moderate alcohol intake in humans.
Project description:An immune response of appropriate magnitude should be robust enough to control pathogen spread but not simultaneously lead to immunopathology. Primary infection with influenza A virus (IAV) results in a localized pulmonary infection and inflammation and elicits an IAV-specific CD8 T cell immune response necessary for viral clearance. Clearance of IAV-infected cells, and recovery from infection, is mediated by perforin/granzyme B- and Fas/FasL-mediated mechanisms. We recently reported that TRAIL is another means by which IAV-specific CD8 T cells can kill IAV-infected cells. The current study examined the role of TRAIL in the pulmonary CD8 T cell response to a clinically significant IAV [A/PR/8/34 (PR8; H1N1)] infection (i.e., leads to observable, but limited, morbidity and mortality in wild-type [WT] mice). Compared with WT mice, IAV-infected Trail(-/-) mice experienced increased morbidity and mortality despite similar rates of viral clearance from the lungs. The increased morbidity and mortality in Trail(-/-) mice correlated with increased pulmonary pathology and inflammatory chemokine production. Analysis of lung-infiltrating lymphocytes revealed increased numbers of IAV-specific CD8 T cells in infected Trail(-/-) mice, which correlated with increased pulmonary cytotoxic activity and increased pulmonary expression of MIG and MIP-1?. In addition, there was decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation of IAV-specific CD8 T cells in the lungs of Trail(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. Together, these data suggest that TRAIL regulates the magnitude of the IAV-specific CD8 T cell response during a clinically significant IAV infection to decrease the chance for infection-induced immunopathology.