Low skeletal muscle capillarization limits muscle adaptation to resistance exercise training in older adults.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Adequate muscle perfusion supports the transport of nutrients, oxygen and hormones into muscle fibers. Aging is associated with a substantial decrease in skeletal muscle capillarization, fiber size and oxidative capacity, which may be improved with regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle capillarization and indices of muscle hypertrophy (i.e. lean mass; fiber cross sectional area (CSA)) in older adults before and after 12?weeks of progressive resistance exercise training (RET). DESIGN:Interventional study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 19 subjects (10 male and 9 female; 71.1?±?4.3?years; 27.6?±?3.2 BMI) were enrolled in the study and performed a whole body RET program for 12?weeks. Subjects where then retrospectively divided into a LOW or HIGH group, based on their pre-RET capillary-to-fiber perimeter exchange index (CFPE). Physical activity level, indices of capillarization (capillaries-to-fiber ratio, C:Fi; CFPE index and capillary-to-fiber interface, LC-PF index), muscle hypertrophy, muscle protein turnover and mitochondrial function were assessed before and after RET. RESULTS:Basal capillarization (C:Fi; CFPE and LP-CF index) correlates with daily physical activity level (C:Fi, r?=?0.57, p?=?0.019; CFPE index, r?=?0.55, p?=?0.024; LC-PF index, r?=?0.56, p?=?0.022) and CFPE and LC-PF indices were also positively associated with oxidative capacity (respectively r?=?0.45, p?=?0.06; r?=?0.67, p?=?0.004). Following RET, subjects in the HIGH group underwent hypertrophy with significant improvements in muscle protein synthesis and muscle fiber CSA (p?
Project description:Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown.Twenty-two healthy older men (71?±?1?years) performed 24?weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training. To assess the change in muscle fibre characteristics, percutaneous biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and following 12 and 24?weeks of the intervention programme. A comparison was made between participants who had a relatively low type II muscle fibre capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; LOW group) and high type II muscle fibre CFPE (HIGH group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, satellite cell, capillary content and distance between satellite cells to the nearest capillary were determined by immunohistochemistry.Overall, type II muscle fibre size (from 5150?±?234 to 6719?±?446?µm2 , P?<?0.05) and satellite cell content (from 0.058?±?0.006 to 0.090?±?0.010 satellite cells per muscle fibre, P?<?0.05) had increased significantly in response to 24?weeks of resistance exercise training. However, these improvements where mainly driven by differences in baseline type II muscle fibre capillarization, whereas muscle fibre size (from 5170?±?390 to 7133?±?314?µm2 , P?<?0.05) and satellite cell content (from 0.059?±?0.009 to 0.102?±?0.017 satellite cells per muscle fibre, P?<?0.05) increased significantly in the HIGH group, no significant changes were observed in LOW group following exercise training. No significant changes in type I and type II muscle fibre capillarization were observed in response to 12 and 24?weeks of resistance exercise training in both the LOW and HIGH group.Type II muscle fibre capillarization at baseline may be a critical factor for allowing muscle fibre hypertrophy to occur during prolonged resistance exercise training in older men.
Project description:Resistance training promotes microvasculature expansion; however, it remains unknown how different resistance training programs contribute to angiogenesis. Thus, we recruited experienced resistance-trained participants and determined the effect of 12 wk of either high-repetition/low-load or low-repetition/high-load resistance training performed to volitional fatigue on muscle microvasculature. Twenty men performed either a high-repetition [20-25 repetitions, 30-50% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM); n = 10] or a low-repetition (8-12 repetitions, 75-90% of 1RM; n = 10) resistance training program. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after resistance training, and immunohistochemistry was used to assess fiber type (I and II)-specific microvascular variables. High-repetition/low-load and low-repetition/high-load groups were not different in any variable before resistance training. Both protocols resulted in an increase in capillarization. Specifically, after resistance training, the capillary-to-fiber ratio, capillary contacts, and capillary-to-fiber perimeter exchange index were elevated, and sharing factor was reduced. These data demonstrate that resistance training performed to volitional failure, using either high repetition/low load or low repetition/high load, induced similar microvascular adaptations in recreationally resistance-trained young men.
Project description:Sarcopenia, age-associated involuntary loss of muscle and strength, can progress to clinically relevant functional decline. Resistance exercise attenuates muscle and strength loss but may not be feasible for some older adults. Aerobic exercise training (AET) improves cardiopulmonary health; however, effects on protein turnover, muscle mass, and strength are less clear. We aimed to determine whether AET improves basal myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and capillarization, promoting hypertrophy and strength. We hypothesized that AET improves strength with increased MPS and capillarization. Older adults were randomized to non-exercise (NON; n = 11, 71.4 ± 4.18 years) or exercise (EX; n = 12, 73.7 ± 4.05 years). EX completed 24 weeks of AET (walking 3×/week, 45 minutes, 70% heart rate reserve); NON remained sedentary. A stable isotope tracer was infused. MPS and capillarization were analyzed from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies. Strength was measured via isokinetic dynamometry. Lean mass was determined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Basal MPS increased in EX (+50.7%, P = 0.01) along with capillary density (+66.4%, P = 0.03), peak oxygen consumption (+15.8%, P = 0.01), quadriceps strength (+15.1%, P = 0.01), and muscle quality (peak torque divided by leg lean mass, +15.5%, P = 0.01). Lean mass did not change (P > 0.05). AET increases muscle protein turnover and capillarization in older adults, improving muscle quality.
Project description:The present study was conducted to assess the effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium AL41 (EF) and of the enteric pathogen Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 (SE) on the development of posthatch pectoralis major muscle (PM) of broiler chicks. The four experimental groups were control (CON), EF, SE, and EF+SE (EFSE). EF and SE were given per os from days 1 to 7 and at day 4 posthatch, respectively. Muscle samples from 6 chicks per group were taken at day 8 (D8) and day 11 (D11) to evaluate PM myofiber growth, capillarization, DNA, RNA, and protein content, as well as enzyme activities (isocitrate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase). PM growth rate was 7.45 ± 2.7 g/d in non-SE groups (CON, EF) and 5.10 ± 1.82 g/d in SE-infected groups (P < 0.02). Compared with group CON, application of bacteria (groups EF and SE) reduced the fiber cross-sectional area (246 and 262 vs. 347 ± 19 μm2) and the number of myonuclei per fiber (0.66 and 0.64 vs. 0.79 ± 0.03). At D11, hypertrophic myofiber growth normalized in the EF group, but negative effects persisted in SE and EFSE birds contributing to lower daily PM gain. In addition, SE infection strongly disturbed PM capillarization. Negative effects on capillary cross-sectional area and on the area (%) covered by capillaries persisted until D11 in the SE group, whereas pre-feeding of EF restored capillarization in the EFSE group to control levels. We conclude that supplementation of the probiotic bacteria EF AL41 had positive effects on PM capillarization and, thus, on delivery of O2, supply of nutrients, and removal of metabolites. Supplementation of probiotic bacteria might therefore reduce energetic stress and improve muscle health and meat quality during SE infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Targeting the early mechanisms in exercise-induced arterial hypertension (which precedes resting arterial hypertension in its natural history) may improve cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in COPD patients. Capillary rarefaction, an early event in COPD before vascular remodeling, is a potential mechanism of exercise-induced and resting arterial hypertension. Impaired training-induced capillarization was observed earlier in COPD patients; thus, this study compares the changes in blood pressure (BP) during exercise in COPD patients and matches control subjects (CSs) after a similar exercise training program, in relationship with muscle capillarization. METHODS:Resting and maximal exercise diastolic pressure (DP) and systolic pressure (SP) were recorded during a standardized cardiopulmonary exercise test, and a quadriceps muscle biopsy was performed before and after training. RESULTS:A total of 35 CSs and 49 COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second =54%±22% predicted) completed a 6-week rehabilitation program and improved their symptom-limited maximal oxygen uptake (VO2SL: 25.8±6.1 mL/kg per minute vs 27.9 mL/kg per minute and 17.0±4.7 mL/kg per minute vs 18.3 mL/kg per minute; both P<0.001). The improvement in muscle capillary-to-fiber (C/F) ratio was significantly greater in CSs vs COPD patients (+11%±9% vs +23%±21%; P<0.05). Although maximal exercise BP was reduced in CSs (DP: 89±10 mmHg vs 85±9 mmHg; P<0.001/SP: 204±25 mmHg vs 196±27 mmHg; P<0.05), it did not change in COPD patients (DP: 94±14 mmHg vs 97±16 mmHg; P=0.46/SP: 202±27 mmHg vs 208±24 mmHg; P=0.13). The change in muscle C/F ratio was negatively correlated with maximal exercise SP in CSs and COPD patients (r=-0.41; P=0.02). CONCLUSION:COPD patients showed impaired training-induced BP adaptation related to a change in muscle capillarization, suggesting the possibility of blunted angiogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mechanical stress, including blood pressure related factors, up-regulate expression of the pro-angiogenic extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that increased capillarization of skeletal muscle with the repeated augmentation in perfusion during endurance training is associated with blood vessel-related expression of tenascin-C and would be affected by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2104772, which characterizes the non-synonymous exchange of thymidine (T)-to-adenosine (A) in the amino acid codon 1677 of tenascin-C. METHODS:Sixty-one healthy, untrained, male white participants of Swiss descent performed thirty 30-min bouts of endurance exercise on consecutive weekdays using a cycling ergometer. Genotype and training interactions were called significant at Bonferroni-corrected p-value of 5% (repeated measures ANOVA). RESULTS:Endurance training increased capillary-to-fiber-ratio (+11%), capillary density (+7%), and mitochondrial volume density (+30%) in m. vastus lateralis. Tenascin-C protein expression in this muscle was confined to arterioles and venules (80% of cases) and increased after training in A-allele carriers. Prior to training, volume densities of subsarcolemmal and myofibrillar mitochondria in m. vastus lateralis muscle were 49% and 18%, respectively, higher in A/A homozygotes relative to T-nucleotide carriers (A/T and T/T). Training specifically increased capillary-to-fiber ratio in A-nucleotide carriers but not in T/T homozygotes. Genotype specific regulation of angiogenesis was reflected by the expression response of 8 angiogenesis-associated transcripts after exercise, and confirmed by training-induced alterations of the shear stress related factors, vimentin and VEGF A. CONCLUSION:Our findings provide evidence for a negative influence of T/T homozygosity in rs2104772 on capillary remodeling with endurance exercise.
Project description:Introduction:Gene polymorphisms are associated with athletic phenotypes relying on maximal or continued power production and affect the specialization of skeletal muscle composition with endurance or strength training of untrained subjects. We tested whether prominent polymorphisms in genes for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), tenascin-C (TNC), and actinin-3 (ACTN3) are associated with the differentiation of cellular hallmarks of muscle metabolism and contraction in high level athletes. Methods:Muscle biopsies were collected from m. vastus lateralis of three distinct phenotypes; endurance athletes (n = 29), power athletes (n = 17), and untrained non-athletes (n = 63). Metabolism-, and contraction-related cellular parameters (such as capillary-to-fiber ratio, capillary length density, volume densities of mitochondria and intramyocellular lipid, fiber mean cross sectional area (MCSA) and volume densities of myofibrils) and the volume densities of sarcoplasma were analyzed by quantitative electron microscopy of the biopsies. Gene polymorphisms of ACE (I/D (insertion/deletion), rs1799752), TNC (A/T, rs2104772), and ACTN3 (C/T, rs1815739) were determined using high-resolution melting polymerase chain reaction (HRM-PCR). Genotype distribution was assessed using Chi2 tests. Genotype and phenotype effects were analyzed by univariate or multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc test of Fisher. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results:The athletes demonstrated the specialization of metabolism- and contraction-related cellular parameters. Differences in cellular parameters could be identified for genotypes rs1799752 and rs2104772, and localized post hoc when taking the interaction with the phenotype into account. Between endurance and power athletes these concerned effects on capillary length density for rs1799752 and rs2104772, fiber type distribution and volume densities of myofibrils (rs1799752), and MSCA (rs2104772). Endurance athletes carrying the I-allele of rs1799752 demonstrated 50%-higher volume densities of mitochondria and sarcoplasma, when power athletes that carried only the D-allele showed the highest fiber MCSAs and a lower percentage of slow type muscle fibers. Discussion:ACE and tenascin-C gene polymorphisms are associated with differences in cellular aspects of muscle metabolism and contraction in specifically-trained high level athletes. Quantitative differences in muscle fiber type distribution and composition, and capillarization in knee extensor muscle explain, in part, identified associations of the insertion/deletion genotypes of ACE (rs1799752) with endurance- and power-type Sports.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare the predictive accuracy of the frailty index (FI) of deficit accumulation and the phenotypic frailty (PF) model in predicting risks of future falls, fractures and death in women aged ?55 years. METHODS:Based on the data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) 3-year Hamilton cohort (n = 3,985), we compared the predictive accuracy of the FI and PF in risks of falls, fractures and death using three strategies: (1) investigated the relationship with adverse health outcomes by increasing per one-fifth (i.e., 20%) of the FI and PF; (2) trichotomized the FI based on the overlap in the density distribution of the FI by the three groups (robust, pre-frail and frail) which were defined by the PF; (3) categorized the women according to a predicted probability function of falls during the third year of follow-up predicted by the FI. Logistic regression models were used for falls and death, while survival analyses were conducted for fractures. RESULTS:The FI and PF agreed with each other at a good level of consensus (correlation coefficients ? 0.56) in all the three strategies. Both the FI and PF approaches predicted adverse health outcomes significantly. The FI quantified the risks of future falls, fractures and death more precisely than the PF. Both the FI and PF discriminated risks of adverse outcomes in multivariable models with acceptable and comparable area under the curve (AUCs) for falls (AUCs ? 0.68) and death (AUCs ? 0.79), and c-indices for fractures (c-indices ? 0.69) respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The FI is comparable with the PF in predicting risks of adverse health outcomes. These findings may indicate the flexibility in the choice of frailty model for the elderly in the population-based settings.
Project description:Identification of countermeasures able to prevent disuse-induced muscle wasting is crucial to increase performance of crew members during space flight as well as ameliorate patient's clinical outcome after long immobilization periods. We report on the outcome of short but high-impact reactive jumps (JUMP) as countermeasure during 60 days of 6° head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest on myofiber size, type composition, capillarization, and oxidative capacity in tissue biopsies (pre/post/recovery) from the knee extensor vastus lateralis (VL) and deep calf soleus (SOL) muscle of 22 healthy male participants (Reactive jumps in a sledge, RSL-study 2015-2016, DLR:envihab, Cologne). Bed rest induced a slow-to-fast myofiber shift (type I ->II) with an increased prevalence of hybrid fibers in SOL after bed rest without jumps (control, CTRL, p = 0.016). In SOL, JUMP countermeasure in bed rest prevented both fast and slow myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) decrements (p = 0.005) in CTRL group. In VL, bed rest only induced capillary rarefaction, as reflected by the decrease in local capillary-to-fiber ratio (LCFR) for both type II (pre vs. post/R + 10, p = 0.028/0.028) and type I myofibers (pre vs. R + 10, p = 0.012), which was not seen in the JUMP group. VO2 max Fiber (pL × mm-1 × min-1) calculated from succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-stained cryosections (OD660 nm) showed no significant differences between groups. High-impact jump training in bed rest did not prevent disuse-induced myofiber atrophy in VL, mitigated phenotype transition (type I - >II) in SOL, and attenuated capillary rarefaction in the prime knee extensor VL however with little impact on oxidative capacity changes.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction may represent a pathogenic factor in Huntington disease (HD). Physical exercise leads to enhanced mitochondrial function in healthy participants. However, data on effects of physical exercise on HD skeletal muscle remains scarce. We aimed at investigating adaptations of the skeletal muscle mitochondria to endurance training in HD patients.Thirteen HD patients and 11 healthy controls completed 26 weeks of endurance training. Before and after the training phase muscle biopsies were obtained from M. vastus lateralis. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities, mitochondrial respiratory capacity, capillarization, and muscle fiber type distribution were determined from muscle samples.Citrate synthase activity increased during the training intervention in the whole cohort (P?=?0.006). There was no group x time interaction for citrate synthase activity during the training intervention (P?=?0.522). Complex III (P?=?0.008), Complex V (P?=?0.043), and succinate cytochrome c reductase (P?=?0.008) activities increased in HD patients and controls by endurance training. An increase in mass-specific mitochondrial respiratory capacity was present in HD patients during the endurance training intervention. Overall capillary-to-fiber ratio increased in HD patients by 8.4% and in healthy controls by 6.4% during the endurance training intervention.Skeletal muscle mitochondria of HD patients are equally responsive to an endurance-training stimulus as in healthy controls. Endurance training is a safe and feasible option to enhance indices of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of HD patients and may represent a potential therapeutic approach to delay the onset and/or progression of muscular dysfunction.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01879267 . Registered May 24, 2012.