Monocyte Based Correlates of Immune Activation and Viremia in HIV-Infected Long-Term Non-Progressors.
ABSTRACT: Background: Disease progression monitoring through CD4 counts alone can be inadequate in HIV infection as ongoing immune activation may result in Serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs). SNAEs involve monocyte activation driven chronic inflammation with significant sequelae observed even during HAART. Here, we attempted to delineate functional monocyte based signatures across stages of HIV disease progression. Methods: Participants spanning four cohorts were recruited-pre-ART (PA; <7 years of infection; n = 20), long-term non-progressors (LTNP; >7 years of infection, CD4 > 350 cells/?L, n = 20), individuals on therapy (ART; n = 18) and seronegative controls (SN; n = 15). Immunophenotyping of monocyte subsets and evaluation of expression of HIV-binding receptors-CD4 and CCR5, marker of immune activation- HLA-DR and M2 phenotype-mannose receptor (CD206) was followed by association of monocyte-specific parameters with conventional markers of disease progression such as absolute CD4 count, CD4/CD8 ratio, viral load, and T cell activation. Results: A significant expansion of intermediate monocytes (CD14++CD16+) with a concomitant decline in classical subset (CD14++CD16-) was observed in all infected cohorts compared to seronegative controls. In addition, an expansion of the non-classical subset (CD14+CD16++) was observed in long-term non-progressors. Dysregulation in monocyte subsets associated with CD4 count and CD4/CD8 ratio in PAs but not in LTNPs. We report for the first time that expression of CD206 is most prominent on intermediate monocytes which also have the highest expression of CD4, CCR5, and HLA-DR. Despite preserved CD4 counts, LTNPs had similar immune activation profiles to PAs, as evidenced by elevated HLA-DR expression across monocyte subsets. HLA-DR expression, similar to that in SNs, observed in the ART group indicated partial immune restoration within the monocyte compartment. Increased CD206 expression on monocytes together with frequency of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (HLA-DR+CD38+) showed significant and positive association with viral load in LTNPs, but not PAs. Conclusion: Our results describe for the first time the presence of monocyte dysregulation involving increased activation in LTNPs, who, in spite of preserved CD4 counts, may remain susceptible to prolonged effects of systemic inflammation and highlight CD206, as a unique non-T correlate of viremia, in viremic non-progression.
Project description:Monocytes have been recently subdivided into three subsets: classical (CD14++CD16-), intermediate (CD14++CD16+), and non-classical (CD14+CD16++) subsets, but phenotypic and functional abnormalities of the three monocyte subsets in HIV-1 infection have not been fully characterized, especially in acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). In the study, we explored the dynamic changes of monocyte subsets and their surface markers, and the association between monocyte subsets and the IFN-?, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17, and TNF-? producing CD4+ T cells in acute and chronic HIV-1-infected patients. We found that, in the acute HIV-1-infected individuals, the frequency of the intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocyte subsets, the CD163 density and HLA-DR density on intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes, and plasma soluble form of CD163 (sCD163) were significantly higher than that in healthy controls. Intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocyte subsets and their HLA-DR expression levels were inversely correlated with the CD4+ T cell counts, and the intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes were positively correlated with plasma sCD163. In contrast to the non-classical CD14+CD16++ and classical CD14++CD16- monocyte subsets, the frequency of the intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes was positively associated with the frequency of IFN-? and IL-4 producing CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected patients. Taken together, our observations provide new insight into the roles of the monocyte subsets in HIV pathogenesis, particularly during AHI, and our findings may be helpful for the treatment of HIV-related immune activation.
Project description:Peritoneal macrophages play a critical role in the control of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Although recent progress on murine peritoneal macrophages has revealed multiple aspects on their origin and mechanisms involved in their maintenance in this compartment, little is known on the characteristics of human peritoneal macrophages in homeostasis. Here, we have studied by flow cytometry several features of human peritoneal macrophages obtained from the peritoneal cavity of healthy women. Three peritoneal monocyte/macrophage subsets were established on the basis of CD14/CD16 expression (CD14++CD16-, CD14++CD16+ and CD14highCD16high), and analysis of CD11b, CD11c, CD40, CD62L, CD64, CD80, CD86, CD116, CD119, CD206, HLA-DR and Slan was carried out in each subpopulation. Intracellular expression of GATA6 and cytokines (pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-?, anti-inflammatory IL-10) as well as their phagocytic/oxidative activities were also analyzed, in an attempt to identify genuine resident peritoneal macrophages. Results showed that human peritoneal macrophages are heterogeneous regarding their phenotype, cell complexity and functional abilities. A direct relationship of CD14/CD16 expression, intracellular content of GATA6, and activation/maturation markers like CD206 and HLA-DR, support that the CD14highCD16high subset represents the mature phenotype of steady-state human resident peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, increased expression of CD14/CD16 is also related to the phagocytic activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Monocytes play a central role in HIV neuropathogenesis, but there are limited data on monocyte subsets and markers of monocyte activation in perinatally HIV-infected children. OBJECTIVE:To determine the relationship between monocyte subsets, the sCD163 monocyte activation marker, and neuropsychological performance among perinatally HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS:ART-naïve children from the PREDICT study were categorised into two groups: those on ART for ?24 weeks (ART group, n =201) and those untreated (no ART group, n =79). This analysis used data from the baseline and week 144 including sCD163 and frequencies of activated monocytes (CD14+/CD16+/HLA-DR+), perivascular monocytes (CD14+/CD16+/CD163+ and CD14low/CD16+/CD163+), and neuropsychological testing scores: Verbal and Performance Intelligence Quotient (VIQ and PIQ), Beery Visuomotor Integration (VMI) and Children's Color Trails 2 (CT2). RESULTS:Baseline demographic and HIV disease parameters were similar between groups. The median age was 6 years, CD4 was 20% (620 cells/mm3), and HIV RNA was 4.8 log10. By week 144, the ART vs the no ART group had significantly higher CD4 (938 vs 552 cells/mm3) and lower HIV RNA (1.6 vs 4.38 log10 copies/mL, P <0.05). sCD163 declined in the ART vs no ART group (median changes -2533 vs -159 ng/mL, P <0.0001). Frequencies of all monocyte subsets declined in the treated but not the untreated group (P <0.05). Higher CD14+/CD16+/HLA-DR+ percentage was associated with higher VIQ, Beery VMI and CT2 scores. Higher percentages of CD14+/CD16+/CD163+ and CD14low/CD16+/CD163+ were associated with higher CT2 and VIQ, respectively. CONCLUSION:ART significantly reduced sCD163 levels and frequencies of activated and perivascular monocytes. Higher frequencies of these cells correlated with better neuropsychological performance suggesting a protective role of monocyte-macrophage immune activation in perinatal HIV infection in terms of neuropsychological function.
Project description:Little is known about the time-dependent immune responses in severe COVID-19. Data of 15 consecutive patients were sequentially recorded from intensive care unit admission. Lymphocyte subsets and total monocyte and subsets counts were monitored as well as the expression of HLA-DR. For 5 patients, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell polyfunctionality was assessed against Spike and Nucleoprotein SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Non-specific inflammation markers were increased in all patients. Median monocyte HLA-DR expression was below the 8,000 AB/C threshold defining acquired immunodepression. A "V" trend curve for lymphopenia, monocyte numbers, and HLA-DR expression was observed with a nadir between days 11 and 14 after symptoms' onset. Intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes increased early with a reduction in classic CD14++CD16- monocytes. Polyfunctional SARS-Cov-2-specific CD4 T-cells were present and functional, whereas virus-specific CD8 T-cells were less frequent and not efficient. We report a temporal variation of both innate and adaptive immunity in severe COVID-19 patients, helpful in guiding therapeutic decisions (e.g. anti-inflammatory vs. immunostimulatory ones). We describe a defect in virus-specific CD8 T-cells, a potential biomarker of clinical severity. These combined data also provide helpful knowledge for vaccine design. Clinical Trial Registration:https://clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT04386395.
Project description:HIV elite controllers suppress HIV viremia without antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet previous studies demonstrated that elite controllers maintain an activated T-cell phenotype. Chronic immune activation has detrimental consequences and thus ART has been advocated for all elite controllers. However, elite controllers are not a clinically homogenous group. Since CD4% is among the best predictors of AIDS-related events, in the current study, we assessed whether this marker can be used to stratify elite controllers needing ART.Sixteen elite controllers were divided into two groups based on CD4% (EC > 40% and EC ?40%), and T-cell subsets were analyzed for markers of memory/differentiation (CD45RA, CCR7, CD28), activation (CD38/HLA-DR), immunosenescence (CD57), costimulation (CD73, CD28) and exhaustion (PD-1, CD160, Tim-3). Monocyte subsets (CD14, CD16) were also analyzed and sCD14 levels were quantified using ELISA.In the EC group, expression of activation, exhaustion, and immunosensescence markers on T cells were significantly reduced compared with the EC group and similar to the seronegative controls. The EC group expressed higher levels of costimulatory molecules CD28 and CD73 and had lower levels of monocyte activation (HLA-DR expression) with a reduced frequency of inflammatory monocyte (CD14 CD16) subset. Furthermore, the EC group maintained a stable CD4% during a median follow-up of 6 years.Elite controllers with preserved CD4T cells (EC) have normal T-cell and monocyte phenotypes and therefore may have limited benefit from ART. CD4% can be an important marker for evaluating future studies aimed at determining the need for ART in this group of individuals.
Project description:(1) The cells from the monocyte line play an important role as regulators of cancer development and progression. Monocytes present pro- and anti-tumor immunity and differentiation into macrophages. Macrophages are predominant in the lung cancer environment and could be evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). (2) The aim of the study was analysis of monocytes: classical, intermediate and non-classical with expression of: CD62L, CD11c, CD18, HLA-DR in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and their correlation with BALF macrophages from lungs with cancer (clBALF) and healthy lungs (hlBALF). (3) A total of 24 patients with NSCLC and 20 healthy donors were investigated. Monocyte subtyping and macrophage counts were performed by flow cytometry. (4) There are three types in peripheral blood (PB): classical monocytes (CD14++CD16-), intermediate (CD14+CD16+) and non-classical (CD14-/+CD16++). We noticed a higher proportion of classical and intermediate monocytes in lung cancer than in healthy donors (76.2 vs. 67.3, and 7.9 vs. 5.2 p < 0.05). We observed a higher proportion of macrophages in clBALF then in hlBALF. A higher CD62L expression on all monocyte subtypes in healthy donors than in study group was found. There were positive correlations between: classical CD11c+, intermediate CD11c+, intermediate HLA-DR+ monocytes in PB with macrophages in clBALF. We did not observe these correlations with macrophages from hlBALF. (5) A predominance of classical and intermediate monocytes in lung cancer and the correlation between intermediate monocytes with CD11c+ and HLA-DR+ and macrophages from the NSCLC milieu support a role of monocyte-line cells in cancer immunity. A high proportion of monocytes with low expression of CD62L indicates the participation of monocytes in attenuation of anticancer response.
Project description:Monocytes may contribute to tumor progression in part by mediating tumor-induced immunosuppression. Alterations to the monocyte populations and functions in untreated patients with late-stage melanoma are not fully understood. To characterize these alterations, we compared the frequency, phenotype, and functional capacity of peripheral blood monocytes and other myeloid cells in untreated, newly diagnosed stage IV melanoma patients (n = 18) with those in healthy volunteers. Stage IV untreated melanoma patients exhibited a sizeable decrease in the percentage of monocytes (P < 0.0001) that included a drop in the percentage of the CD14(+)CD16(-) classical monocyte pool (P = 0.006). Although there was not a significant difference in the CD14(+)HLA-DR(low/-) monocyte population between the patients with melanoma and the healthy volunteers, the HLA-DR levels were considerably lower in the patients' CD14(+)CD16(+) intermediate (P < 0.0001) and CD14(low)CD16(+) nonclassical monocyte populations (P = 0.001). Decreased surface expression of CD86 (P = 0.0006) and TNFRII (P = 0.0001) and increased expression of tissue factor and PD-L1 (P = 0.003) were identified on monocytes from patients with melanoma. Furthermore, these monocytes had decreased ability to upregulate CD80 expression and cytokine production following stimulation with agonist of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). Peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets were decreased in untreated stage IV melanoma patients. Our study demonstrates that untreated late-stage melanoma patients exhibit monocytopenia in addition to phenotypic and functional deficiencies that may negatively affect their immune function. These findings open new avenues into examining the role of monocyte populations in melanoma development.
Project description:Human primary monocytes are heterogeneous in terms of phenotype and function, but are sub-divided only based on CD16 and CD14 expression. CD16 expression distinguishes a subset of monocytes with highly pro-inflammatory properties from non-CD16 expressing "classical" monocytes. CD14 expression further subdivides the CD16+ monocytes into non-classical CD14low and intermediate CD14high subsets. This long-standing CD16-CD14 classification system, however, has limitations as CD14 is expressed in a continuum, leading to subjectivity in delineating the non-classical and intermediate subsets; in addition, CD16 expression is unstable, making identification of the subsets impossible after in vitro culture or during inflammatory conditions in vivo. Hence, we aimed to identify the three monocyte subsets using an alternative combination of markers. Additionally, we wanted to address whether the monocyte subset perturbations observed during infection is real or an artifact of differential CD16 and/or CD14 regulation. Using cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF), we studied the simultaneous expression of 34 monocyte markers on total monocytes, and derived a combination of five markers (CD33, CD86, CD64, HLA-DR, and CCR2), that could objectively delineate the three subsets. Using these markers, we could also distinguish CD16+ monocytes from CD16- monocytes after in vitro stimulation. Finally, we found that the observed expansion of intermediate (CD14high) monocytes in dengue virus-infected patients was due to up-regulated CD16 expression on classical monocytes. With our new combination of markers, we can now identify monocyte subsets without CD16 and CD14, and accurately re-examine monocyte subset perturbations in diseases.
Project description:The monocyte phagocyte system (MPS) includes numerous monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell (DC) populations that are heterogeneous, both phenotypically and functionally. In this study, we sought to characterize those diverse MPS phenotypes with mass cytometry (CyTOF). To identify a deep phenotype of monocytes, macrophages, and DCs, a panel was designed to measure 38 identity, activation, and polarization markers, including CD14, CD16, HLA-DR, CD163, CD206, CD33, CD36, CD32, CD64, CD13, CD11b, CD11c, CD86, and CD274. MPS diversity was characterized for 1) circulating monocytes from healthy donors, 2) monocyte-derived macrophages further polarized in vitro (i.e., M-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, or LPS long-term stimulations), 3) monocyte-derived DCs, and 4) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), generated in vitro from bone marrow and/or peripheral blood. Known monocyte subsets were detected in peripheral blood to validate the panel and analysis pipeline. Then, using various culture conditions and stimuli before CyTOF analysis, we constructed a multidimensional framework for the MPS compartment, which was registered against historical M1 or M2 macrophages, monocyte subsets, and DCs. Notably, MDSCs generated in vitro from bone marrow expressed more S100A9 than when generated from peripheral blood. Finally, to test the approach in vivo, peripheral blood from patients with melanoma (n = 5) was characterized and observed to be enriched for MDSCs with a phenotype of CD14+HLA-DRlowS100A9high (3% of PBMCs in healthy donors, 15.5% in patients with melanoma, P < 0.02). In summary, mass cytometry comprehensively characterized phenotypes of human monocyte, MDSC, macrophage, and DC subpopulations in both in vitro models and patients.
Project description:Background:We explored the relation between blood concentrations of monocyte/lymphocyte subsets and carotid artery plaque macrophage content, measured by positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-PK11195. Methods and results:In 9 patients with carotid plaques we performed 11C-PK11195-PET/computed tomography angiography imaging and measurement of absolute concentrations and frequencies of circulating monocytes and T-cell subsets. Plaque standardized uptake value (SUV) for 11C-PK11195 was negatively correlated with concentrations of total monocytes (r?=?-0.58, p?=?0.05) and CD14++CD16-HLA-DR+ classical subset (r?=?-0.82, p?=?0.005). These correlations hold true also in relation to plaque target to background ratio. No correlation was observed between plaque SUV and CD3+T lymphocytes, CD4+T lymphocytes nor with activated CD3+CD4+T cells expressing HLA-DR. Conclusions:We first demonstrated a reduction in the absolute concentration of monocytes and particularly in classical monocytes expressing HLA-DR in the presence of an increased uptake of 11C-PK11195 in carotid plaques. The present work, despite being a pilot study comprising only a small number of subjects provides new insights in the search for specific cellular biomarkers with potential diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with a known carotid plaque.